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The History of English (методичка).doc
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1. The Indian languages 5. The Romance languages 8. The Greek language

Sanskrit (obsl), Hindustani, Gipsy Latin (obsl.), French, Italian, Spanish,

Portuguese, Rumanian, Moldavian

2. The Iranic languages 6. The Celtic languages 9. The Armenian language

Iranian, Tajik, Ossetic Scotch, Irish, Welsh, Breton

3. The Slavonic languages 7. The Germanic languages 10. The Hittite (obsolete)

a) Western Slavonic: Polish, Czech, Slovakian

b) Southern Slavonic: Bulgarian, Serbian, Slovenian, Croatian

c) Eastern Slavonic: Russian, Byelorussian, Ukrainian 11. The Tocharian (obsolete)

4. The Baltic languages

Lithuanian, Latvian, Prussian (obsl.)

Old Germanic languages Modern Germanic languages

Gothic , Burgundian, Vandalic – East – obsolete

Old Norse, or Scandinavian,

Old Norwegian, Old Swedish, – North – Norwegian, Swedish, Danish,

Old Danish, Old Icelandic Icelandic, Faroese

Old Saxon, Old Dutch, – West – Dutch, Afrikaans, Yiddish,

O. High German, O. English English, German, Frisian

The First Consonant Shift (Grimm’s Law) – 2 bc

Grimm’s law states correspondences between definite Indo-European (non-Germanic) and Germanic consonants

папа

три

Lat. noctem

Lat. Labrum

два

иго

Sanskr.

bhratar

madhu

гость

Lat. hostis (enemy)

IE G

I

p – f

t – θ

k – h

II

b – p

d – t

g – k

III

bh – b

dh – d

gh – g

father

three

Germ. naht

lip

two

yoke

brother

OE medu

guest

Indo-European voiceless stops (p, t, k) correspond to Germanic voiceless fricatives (f, θ h)

Indo-European voiced stops (b, d, g) correspond to Germanic voiceless stops (p, t, k)

Indo-European voiced aspirated stops (bh, dh, gh) correspond to Germanic voiced stops without aspiration ( b, d, g)

Verner’s Law

The idea of Verner’s Law is voicing of consonants.

According to Verner’s Law all the early PG voiceless fricatives which arose under Grimm’s Law became voiced if the preceding vowel was unstressed.

p – f – v – b

t – þ – ð – d

k – h – g – g

szr

Lat. sep'tem

Lat. pa'ter

Gr. de'kas

(rotacism)

OE seofon

OE faðar

Goth. taihun

Goth.laisian

NE seven– Germ. sieben

O.Sw. fadar

Goth. tigus

OE lǣran – Germ. lehren

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