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Методичка Англ. яз. II вариант

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21

It is also important that the Sun gives us heat without which no life can exist on the Earth. It provides us with all the energy that we used everyday.

When we look at the Sun, it seems a fireball. But even from a brief acquaintance with some of the solar phenomena it is clear that the Sun is an ever-boiling ocean. The Sun is the giant natural hydrogen bomb, equivalent to millions of man-made ones where the thermonuclear reaction proceeds continuously.

It is interesting to note that every second the Sun sends into space as much energy as mankind consumed during the whole period of its existence from the first fire of the cave-man to the establishment of the atomic power station.

Solar energy has great value to mankind.

Man has tried to use solar energy since the earliest times. Methods of using the light and heat energy from the Sun are not new, but they are not very efficient as yet.

It is necessary to find effective methods of utilizing this immense supply of free energy, to make our star - the Sun - serve mankind.

Notes on the text: bright a - яркий

consume v - потреблять, расходовать due to prp - благодаря

during prp - в течение even adv - даже

exist v - существовать find (found) v - находить force n - сила

free a - свободный

heat n - тепло v - нагревать

(in)efficient a - (не)продуктивный lie (lay; lain) v - лежать

mankind n - человечество man-made a - искусственный matter n - материя

mean (meant) v - значить Moon n - Луна

power n - энергия

provide v - обеспечивать, снабжать reflect v -отражать

revolve v - вращаться seem v - казаться send (sent) v - посылать serve v - служить supply n - запас

strong a - сильный

since prp - с, с тех пор как solar a - солнечный

Sun n – солнце

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whole a - весь Universe n - Вселенная value n - значение

Ответьте на вопросы:

1.What is the Sun?

2.What is the temperature at the Sun's surface?

3.Which is the brightest star of the northern hemisphere?

4.Is the Sun bigger than Sirius?

5.How many planets revolve round the Sun?

6.How long does it take the Earth to revolve round the Sun?

7.What is the light of the Moon?

8.What does the Sun give us?

9.What reaction proceeds continuously on the Sun?

10.When did man begin to use solar energy?

Better Metals are Vital to Technological Progress

Since the earliest days the preparation of metals for mechanical use was vital to the advance of civilization.

Gold, silver and copper were the first to be used by a primitive man, as they were found free in nature. Today we know more than sixty-five metals available in large enough quantities to be used in industry.

Metals are mostly solids at ordinary temperatures and possess comparatively high melting points with the exception of mercury. They are for the most part good conductors of heat and electricity, and silver is the best in this respect. They can be drawn into fine wires and hammered into thin sheets.

As to their chemical properties the first point to be mentioned is that they vary widely in degree of chemical activity: some are enormously active and others are inert. The Earth contains a large number of metals useful to man. Of all metals to be utilized in industry iron remains by far the most important. Modern industry needs considerable quantities of this metal either in the form of iron or steel.

To get the desirable characteristics in metals or to improve them the art to mix metals and other substances began to develop. The first alloys that were formed in this way were sometimes stronger, tougher, harder and more elastic than the metals of which they were composed. To estimate nowadays how many alloys there exist in the modern world is difficult because their numbers increase daily.

To serve special uses modern metals and alloys must be lighter yet stronger, more corrosion resistant, more suitable for automated fabrication yet less expensive than those available before.

Scientists are developing new processes and improving old ones in order to produce metal and alloys that will meet the present-day requirements. One of the most interesting purposes is, for instance, to make metals stronger, in other words, to strengthen them by reinforcing them with fibres.

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Today transportation, communication, farming, construction and manufacturing all depend on the availability of suitable metals and alloys.

Notes on the text: as to - что касается

available a - имеющийся by far - несомненно

considerable a - значительный copper n - медь

desirable a - нужный difficult a - трудный

draw (drew; drawn) v - тащить тянуть either … or - либо …, либо enormously adv - чрезвычайно enough a - достаточный

estimate v - оценивать exception n - исключение expensive a - дорогостоящий fibre n - фибра, волокно for instance - например

for the most part - большей частью fine a - тонкий

gold n - золото iron n – железо

in this respect - в этом отношении melt v - таять

meet requirements - удовлетворять требованиям mention v - упоминать

need v - нуждаться quantity n - количество remain v - оставаться resistant a - устойчивый sheet n - лист

silver n - серебро

strengthen v - усиливать, укреплять suitable a - пригородный

thin a - тонкий

tough a - прочный, жесткий vary v - изменять ( ся ) wire n - проволока

yet - однако, еще, уже

Ответьте на вопросы:

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1.Since what time was the preparation of metals vital to the advance of civilization?

2.What metals did a primitive man use?

3.Why did he use gold, silver and copper?

4.How many metals do we know today?

5.Have metals low or high melting points?

6.Are they good conductors of heat and electricity?

7.Which metal is the best conductor?

8.Does the Earth contain a large number of metals?

9.What is the most important metal?

10.How are alloys formed?

11.What properties do they possess?

12.How are metals strengthened now?

13.What depends on the availability of suitable metals and alloys?

Machine-Tools - a Measure of Man's Progress

The variety and combinations of machine-tools today are unlimited. Some of them are very small and can be mounted on a workbench but others are so large that we have to construct special buildings to house them.

There are some basic operations at any workshop. They are turning, drilling, threading, etc. The main machine-tool of such a workshop is the multipurpose lathe. What is a lathe? It is a power-driven machine with special tools which can cut or from metal parts. The metal that cuts another metal must be very hard and so tools should be made of very hard steel alloys. The tool itself is very small in comparison with the mechanism that is to direct it.

Technological progress improves accuracy of machine-tools. Today's equipment can produce parts with very high accuracy. One can find a number of machine-tools that can measure and inspect their production themselves - machine-tools that are to handle the parts mechanically and automatically. Such machines can hold the parts which are to be measured and are able to indicate precise measurements themselves. A great many of such "clever" machines can be found today in our industry.

Since machine-tools become faster and more complex, automatic measurements and inspection ought to be of greater importance. Automation is one of the main factors of engineering progress.

Flexible production lines form the basic for automated workshops. The main principle of such a flexible line is the fact that it can be switched over from one product to another, which has a similar structure but a different outline, almost instantaneously. It is equally efficient in conditions of both mass and small-batch production and will serve to increase the productivity.

Notes on the text: accuracy n - точность alloy n - сплав condition n - условие cut (cut) v - резать

25

direct v - управлять drill v - сверлить

equipment n - оборудование fast a - быстрый

flexible a - гибкий handle v - управлять hard a - твердый hold (held) v - держать house v - вмещать improve v - улучшать

increase v - увеличивать lathe n - токарный станок machine-tool n - станок main a - главный

mount v - помещать, устанавливать multipurpose a - многоцелевой number of - ряд, несколько

outline n - очертание, конфигурация part n - деталь

power-driven machine - станок с механическим приводом precise a - точный

similar a - подобный

small-batch production - производство маленьких партий продукции steel n - сталь

switch v - переключать

thread v - делать нарезку резьбы tool n - резец

turn v - точить workshop n - цех work bench - верстак

Ответьте на вопросы:

1.What types of machine-tools are there nowadays?

2.What are the basic operations at a workshop?

3.What is a lathe?

4.Why must tools be made of very hard steels and alloys?

5.Is the tool itself big or small?

6.What improves the accuracy of machine-tools?

7.What is one of the main factors of engineering progress?

8.What forms the basis for automated workshops?

9.What is the main principle of a flexible line?

Peaceful Atoms

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Achievements in studying atom structure have opened up new, practically unlimited possibilities to humanity for further mastering nature's forces. The discovery of atomic energy provides as profound effect for the benefit of civilization as the discovery of fire and electricity.

After having recovered from the shock of unimaginable horror of the explosion of the atomic bomb over Hiroshima people asked scientists how soon they would be able to apply the immense power of fissioned nucleus to peaceful purposes. Many problems had to be solved: the main one was that of "braking" the released neutrons efficiently so that the chain reaction could be controlled.

The "classical" solution of this question is conducting the heat generated by the fission process out of the reactor, making it boil water and forcing the resulting steam to drive turbines which, in their turn, drive electric generators. It is a way which works well although it is still rather expensive.

It is to be noted that the first power station fed by atomic fuels which was also the world's first atomic power station started working in Obninsk, near Moscow, in 1954. Its capacity was 5.000 kilowatts. Thirty years later in the Soviet Union there were already 13 atomic power stations with the total capacity of over 21 million kilowatts.

At the same time with large atomic stations smaller mobile electricity producing units have been created based on the discovery of radioactive sources - isotopes. Mobile nuclear installation may be carried by rail and then by transporters to the out-of -the-way regions even in areas having no roads. Such a station according to estimates can operate without being recharged for two years.

Today scientists are looking for new more efficient nuclear process of producing energy. But it was only lately that the physicists understood that the process of producing tremendous energy by stars, including our Sun, was the very process they were looking for. Now we know that this thermonuclear process is called fusion and it takes place at fantastically high temperatures. It can be done only by imitating on the Earth the process that makes the Sun shine.

There are many difficult problems to overcome before thermonuclear power station based on this process can become a reality, but the problem of fuel supply is the least of them: the oceans of the Earth are practically an inexhaustible source of deuterium which plays the decisive part in the fusion process and its extraction from sea water is neither complicated nor expensive.

In short, peaceful uses of atomic energy are vast - but we must stop using it on weapons of mass annihilation.

Notes on the text:

according (to) advсогласно although cj - хотя

brake v - тормозить, обуздать decisive a - решающий explosion n - взрыв inexhaustible a - неистощимый in short - короче говоря

in their turn - в свою очередь

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feed (fed) v - питать fusion n - синтез lately adv – недавно

out-of-the-way regions - отдаленные регионы

provides as profound effect for the benefit of civilization - оказывает такое же глубокое влияние на развитие цивилизации

recover v - приходить в себя release v - освобождать shine (shone) v - светить (the) very a - тот самый humanity n - человечество purpose n - цель

Ответьте на вопросы:

1.What possibilities have the achievements in the study of atom structure opened up?

2.What question did people ask scientists after the explosion of the first atomic bomb?

3.What was the main problem in applying the immense power of fissioned nucleus to peaceful purposes?

4.When and where did the first atomic power station start working?

5.What was its capacity?

6.Why are mobile nuclear installations convenient?

7.How long can they operate without being recharged?

8.What thermonuclear process takes place at fantastically high temperatures?

9.What element plays the decisive part in fusion process?

10.What can this element be extracted from?

2 курс

Sources of Power

The industrial progress of mankind is based on power: power for industrial plants, machines, heating and lighting systems, transport, communication. In fact, one can hardly find a sphere where power is not required.

At present most of the power required is obtained mainly from two sources. One is from the burning of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, natural gas and oil. The second way of producing electricity is by means of generators that get their power from steam or water turbines. Electricity so produced then flows through transmission lines to houses, industrial plants, enterprises, etc.

It should be noted, however, that the generation of electricity by these conventional processes is highly uneconomic. Actually, only about 40 per cent of heat in the fuel is converted into electricity. Besides, the world resources of fossil fuels are not ever-lasting. On the other hand, the power produced by hydroelectric plants, even if increased many times, will be able to provide for only a small fraction of the power required in the near future. Therefore much effort and thought is being given to other means of generating electricity.

28

One is the energy of hot waters. Not long ago we began utilizing water for heating and hot water supply, and in some cases, for the generation of electricity.

Another promising field for the production of electric power is the use of ocean tides. Our engineers are engaged in designing tidal power stations of various capacities. The first station utilizing this principle began operating in the Soviet Union on the Barents Sea in 1968.

The energy of the Sun which is being used in various ways represents a practically unlimited source. Using atomic fuel for the production of electricity is highly promising. It is the well-known fact, that one pound of uranium contains as much energy as three million pounds of coal, so cheap power can be provided wherever it is required. However, the efficiency reached in generating power from atomic fuel is not high, namely 40 per cent.

No wonder, therefore, that scientists all over the world are doing their best to find more efficient ways of generating electricity directly from the fuel. They already succeeded in developing some processes which are much more efficient, as high as 80 per cent, and in creating a number of devices capable of giving a higher efficiency. Scientists are hard at work trying to solve these and many other problems.

Notes on the text:

besides prp - кроме, кроме того case n - случай

capable a - способный capacity n - мощность convert v - превращать cheap a - дешевый

conventional a - стандартный, обычный do one's best - делать всё возможное efficiency n - производительность, к.п.д. effort n - усилие

engaged a - занятый enterprise n - предприятие flow v - течь

fuel n - топливо

hard at work - упорно работают (трудятся) however adv - однако

i.e. (лат. id est) = that is - то есть

means n - средство by means of – посредством namely adv - а именно

oil n - нефть

on the other hand - с другой стороны on the one hand - с одной стороны per cent n - процент

reach v - достигать represent v - представлять require v - требовать

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source n - источник succeed (in) v - удаваться

tide n - морской прилив и отлив try v - стараться

Ответьте на вопросы:

1.What is the industrial progress of mankind based on?

2.Which is the first widely applied method of producing electricity at present?

3.Which is the second way of generating power?

4.What (how high) is the efficiency of these two methods?

5.What do we use the energy of hot waters for?

6.When and where did the first power station using ocean tides begin operating in the USSR?

7.What can you say about the energy of the Sun?

8.What fuel is the most promising for the production of electricity?

9.Is the efficiency of generating power from atomic fuel high or not?

10.What problem do scientists pay great attention to?

11.How high may the efficiency of devices converting electricity directly from the fuel be?

Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov - Atomic Scientist and Passionate Fighter for Peace (1903-1960)

With joy and pride we see that the genius of the Soviet people is mastering the atom's secrets. Among our famous atomic scientists the first place belongs by right to Academician Igor Kurchatov. Everybody knows that it was he who laid the foundation of the atomic might of the land of Soviets.

Since 1925 I. V. Kurchatov began to work at the Physical-Engineering Institute in Leningrad. It was here that he achieved great results in the research of dielectrics which had been little known at that time.

As far as the early thirties atomic research was being successfully conducted in the Soviet Union. Soviet nuclear physics was in need of powerful source of fast particles capable of inducing a nuclear reaction. A group of young research workers, with I. Kurchatov at the head, began investigating the physics of the nucleus of the atom. Their investigations led to a striking discovery of fission of uranium nucleus.

I. Kurchatov understood that the neutron was the key to splitting the atom and he put all his efforts into neutron research. In 1940 I. Kurchatov came to the conclusion that slow neutron chain reaction was quite possible. But World War II interrupted his work, and all research programs had to be suspended. During the war I. Kurchatov gave all his energy and knowledge to the strengthening of military might of our Motherland.

In 1949 the Soviet Government announced that the secret of the atom bomb no longer existed and the USA had lost its atomic monopoly. It was decided that Soviet scientists would continue their work in the field of atom application for peace.

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On June 27, 1954, the first atomic power in the world was put into operation near Moscow. This power generating installation based on the uranium-graphite reactor was Kurchatov's favorite creation. Later he was carried away by another great idea - to master controlled thermonuclear reactions and he surely declared that the second half of the 20th century would be the era of thermonuclear energy.

I. V. Kurchatov died in 1960 but his experience and his knowledge have become immortalized in the world's first atomic power plant, atom-driven ice-breakers, in Dubna Institute and the broad development of thermonuclear research in our country.

Notes on the text:

as far as the early thirties - еще в начале тридцатых годов by right - по праву

belong v - принадлежать chain n - цепь

conclusion n - заключение experience n - опыт fission n - расщепление ice-breaker n - ледокол induce v - вызывать install v - устанавливать installation n - установка key n - ключ

lay (laid) v – класть

lead (led) v - вести, приводить lose (lost) v - терять

master v - овладевать might n - могущество nuclear a - ядерный particle n - частица right n - право

slow a - медленный split v - расщеплять war n - война

Ответьте на вопросы:

1.What was I. V. Kurchatov?

2.When was he born?

3.What place does I. V. Kurchatov occupy among the famous atomic scientists?

4.What city did I. V. Kurchatov begin his scientific activity in?

5.What discovery did the experiments of Kurchatov's group lead to?

6.What was the result of this work?

7.What conclusion did Kurchatov come to in 1940?

8.Why was his neutron research program interrupted?

9.What did he do during the war?

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