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iCCroM 10 Conservation

studies

Conserving the authentic

essays in honour of Jukka Jokilehto

ICCROM 10

Conservation

Studies

Conserving the authentic

essays in honour of Jukka Jokilehto

Edited by

Nicholas Stanley-Price and Joseph King

Conserving the authentic: essays in honour of Jukka Jokilehto Edited by Nicholas Stanley-Price and Joseph King ICCROM Conservation Studies 10

ISBN 978-92-9077-220-0 © 2009 ICCROM International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property

Via di San Michele, 13 00153 Rome, Italy www.iccrom.org

Designed by Maxtudio, Rome

Printed by Ugo Quintily S.p.A.

Front cover: from watercolours of Florence and Fiesole by Jukka Jokilehto (1964)

Back cover: from a watercolour of San Francesco a Ripa, Rome by Bernard Feilden

Contents

 

Preface

v

 

NIChOlAS StANlEy-PRICE AND JOSEPh KINg

 

 

 

 

 

Foreword

vi

 

MOUNIR BOUChENAKI

 

 

 

 

 

List of contributors

vii

 

 

 

 

part 1 - jukka the man: an appreciation

 

1

 

 

Jukka – an appreciation

1

 

 

PAUl PhIlIPPOt

 

 

 

 

 

Early days of the Architectural Conservation Course

 

2of the Rome Centre (iCCROM)

3

 

MEhR AzAR SOhEIl

 

 

 

 

 

From architectural conservation to urban conservation

 

3and the World Heritage Convention: an appreciation

11

 

JOSEPh KINg

 

4

 

 

Jukka Jokilehto: an appreciation

15

 

 

†BERNARD FEIlDEN

 

5

 

 

Jukka in China: philosophy, personality and contributions

19

 

 

gUO zhAN

 

 

 

 

 

part 2 - conservation of buildings

 

6

 

 

Alcune riflessioni, da parte italiana, sul restauro architettonico

27

 

 

gIOVANNI CARBONARA

 

 

 

 

 

il rilievo e il restauro e i loro distinti ruoli potenzialmente

 

7storiografici

37

 

PAOlO FANCEllI

 

 

 

 

 

Conservation, restauration, restauro: brevi spigolature sulla

 

8terminologia architettonica

47

 

CAlOgERO BEllANCA

 

9

 

 

Naming the parts

55

 

D. BEll

Contents iii

10

 

Genius loci – the spirit of monuments and sites

63

 

 

 

 

MIChAEl PEtzEt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

developments in the practice of heritage management in

 

11sub-Saharan Africa

69

 

 

WEBBER NDORO AND ShADRECK KIRIKURE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the multiplier effect ofiCCROM’s capacity-building: conservation

 

12training for professionals inbanská Stiavnica, Slovakia

77

 

 

ANDREA URlAND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic reconstruction: prospects for heritage preservation or

 

13metamorphoses of theory?

83

 

 

NAtAlIA DUShKINA

 

14

 

 

 

 

Possession

95

 

 

 

 

lOUghlIN KEAly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the cathedral of León: an example of restoration in Spain

 

15during the 19th century

107

 

 

JAVIER RIVERA BlANCO

 

16

 

 

 

 

Conservation of conservation methods

117

 

 

 

 

MAhDI hODJAt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

part 3 - authenticity and world heritage

 

17

 

 

 

 

the evolution of the concept of Outstanding Universal Value

127

 

 

 

 

ChRIStINA CAMERON

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Approaching 40 years old: World Heritage now and its

 

18possible future

137

 

 

tAMáS FEJéRDy

 

19

 

 

 

 

Authentic? Nara revisited…

143

 

 

 

 

JOAN DOMICElJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authenticity and heritage concepts: tangible and intangible -

 

20discussions in Japan

153

 

 

NOBUKO INABA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judging the authenticity of the city

163

21SílVIO zANChEtI, FlAVIANA lIRA AND ROSANE PICCOlO

 

 

 

part 4 - publications by jukka jokilehto

 

22

 

 

 

Publications by Jukka Jokilehto, 1974 – 2009

171

 

(COMPIlED By AzAR SOhEIl AND NIChOlAS StANlEy-PRICE)

iv Conserving the authentiC: essays in honour of Jukka Jokilehto

Preface

This collection of essays has been assembled to honour Jukka Jokilehto. They celebrate the many contributions that he has made to conservation theory and practice for nearly forty years, a substantial achievement to which he continues to add. The essays are written by a number of his friends and colleagues who were invited to contribute to this volume.

All of them have benefited from Jukka’s wisdom and experience, as employers, as former students, as colleagues on training courses, as partners on missions and as participants in meetings at the highest international levels.

It is because Jukka’s knowledge is so broad and his experience so wide that no volume of essays could fully reflect them. Moreover, as in all walks of life, it is not only the expertise and professional knowledge that mark the man but also the personal qualities that lead to his being esteemed and admired by his peers. We have therefore organised the volume so that the first section consists of tributes to Jukka the man (a section that also reflects indirectly the development of international conservation over the past thirty years). The other two sections focus on the field in which he first made his name (the conservation of buildings) and on those themes that have increasingly occupied him in recent years (authenticity and World Heritage). Part 4 (Jukka’s published writings) has in some ways been the most challenging to assemble, such has been his prolific output which fortunately shows no signs of diminishing.

The idea of compiling a volume of essays in honour of Jukka arose in informal discussions in March 2007. These involved Professor Kanefusa Masuda of Ritsumeikan University in Japan, Dr. Azar Soheil Jokilehto, Professor Calogero Bellanca and Dr. Yumi Akieda (translator into Japanese of Jukka’s History of Architectural Conservation). They all deserve our thanks for promoting this initiative which has now been realised.

We owe a great debt, above all, to Azar Soheil Jokilehto, who – in addition to contributing a valuable essay on Jukka’s early career at ICCROM – has helped ceaselessly in bibliographical research and in the hunt for images. It is appropriate that this volume finds a place in ICCROM’s Conservation Studies series; for seeing it through the publication process we are indebted to Mónica García Robles and to many other ICCROM colleagues, in particular María Mata Caravaca, ICCROM archivist, for help in locating images and Sonia Widmer for communicating with authors. As editors we also thank the referees who reviewed some of the papers and those who allowed us to use their images.

May these essays give as much pleasure and inspiration to Jukka as he has given to so many others.

Nicholas Stanley-Price and Joseph King

September 2009

Preface v

vi CULTURAL HERITAGE AND THE LAW

Foreword

Jukka Jokilehto was a staff member of ICCROM from 1972 until his retirement in 1998. He started his career at ICCROM as a course assistant to the International Architectural Conservation Course and during the subsequent years served as a Course Director, Chief of the Sector of Architectural Conservation, and Assistant to the Director General. From 1988

onwards, he was a part of the senior management group at ICCROM, and as such was a member of the team responsible for developing policies, strategies, and programmes for the organisation.

Jukka’s contribution to ICCROM, however, cannot be summed up by his official job titles or administrative responsibilities. Rather, his legacy can be found in the thousands of people trained through the Architectural Conservation Course and the many other courses that ICCROM has offered over the past 38 years. It can also be found in the research projects and technical missions that he undertook in his time at ICCROM, collaborating with Member States on six continents. Perhaps most importantly, his legacy rests in the contribution that he has made to the development of conservation philosophy, theory, and concepts. His book, A History of Architectural Conservation, remains the standard text on this topic and has been translated into many languages. His work on authenticity, significance, and Outstanding Universal Value, as well as his development of important concepts related to urban and landscape conservation, has been much appreciated by the professional conservation community.

During his time at ICCROM, Jukka served under five Directors General: Paul Philippot, Bernard Feilden, Cervat Erder, Andrzej Tomaszewski, and Marc Laenen. While I was not fortunate enough to have been at ICCROM during his tenure, I did have the pleasure of working closely with Jukka over many years at UNESCO as Director of Cultural Heritage, Director of the World Heritage Centre, and Assistant Director General for Culture. I have had the pleasure of participating in a number of missions with him and benefitting from his vast knowledge of training strategies. I have also admired his professionalism and his scientific rigour during his involvement as ICOMOS evaluator of World Heritage Sites.

When I became Director General of ICCROM in 2006, I was happy to find that Jukka still played an active role as a consultant to ICCROM on individual activities. I offered him a symbolic “one euro” contract as Special Advisor to the Director General in order to recognise more formally his contributions to the organisation, and to ensure that his wise counsel would remain available to ICCROM staff into the future.

It is for this reason that I add my own voice to that of the other authors in honouring the important work that Jukka has carried out since he arrived at ICCROM in 1971. Much has changed in the conservation field in the subsequent 38 years, and Jukka has played an important role in shaping those changes, in documenting them, and in disseminating them through ICCROM’s courses and through his ample output of papers and books. It therefore gives me great pleasure in being able to contribute this foreword to the essays in honour of Jukka Jokilehto.

Mounir Bouchenaki

Director-General, ICCROM

Preface vii

List of contributors

D. Bell is a consultant architect and an Honorary Fellow of the University of Edinburgh, UK

Calogero Bellanca is associate professor in restoration of monuments at the Sapienza University of Rome

Christina Cameron holds the Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage in the School of Architecture at the Université de Montréal, Canada and is a former Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee

Giovanni Carbonara is Professor of architectural restoration and Director of the School of Specialisation in Restoration of Monuments in the Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy

Joan Domicelj AM is a former Vice President of ICOMOS and Council member of ICCROM, and currently chairs the Australian World Heritage Advisory Committee to state and national governments and the property-specific Greater Blue Mountains Advisory Committee

Natalia Dushkina is a Professor at the Moscow Architectural Institute, and an ICOMOS expert for World Heritage sites

Paolo Fancelli is Professor in the Dipartimento di Storia dell’Architettura, Restauro e Conservazione dei Beni architettonici, at the Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy

Bernard Feilden was Director of ICCROM 1977-1981 and a leading conservation architect in the UK

Tamás Fejérdy is an architect and conservator in Hungary, former chairperson of the World Heritage Committee, and an honorary member of ICOMOS International

Mahdi Hodjat holds a PhD. in conservation, and an MA in architecture, and was the founder and former head of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, and also President of ICOMOS Iran

Nobuko Inaba is Professor in the World Heritage Studies Program of the Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences at the University of Tsukuba, Japan

Loughlin Kealy was Professor of Architecture at University College Dublin, Ireland, from 1996 to 2007, and continues to teach there part-time

Joseph King is Unit Director of the Sites Unit at ICCROM, Rome

Shadreck Kirikure is Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

Flaviana Lira is a doctoral student in the Graduate Program in Urban Development of the Federal University of Pernambuco (MDU/UFPE), Recife, Brazil

Webber Ndoro is Director of the Africa World Heritage Fund, based in Johannesburg, South Africa

Michael Petzet directed the Bavarian State Conservation Office in Germany from 1974 to 1999, and was President of ICOMOS International from 1999 to 2008

Paul Philippot is Director Emeritus of ICCROM, of which he was Assistant Director (1959-1971) and Director (1971-1977)

Rosane Piccolo is at the Center for Advanced Studies in Integrated Conservation (CECI) at the Federal University of Pernambuco (MDU/UFPE), Recife, Brazil

Javier Rivera Blanco holds the Chair in History of Restoration at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Alcalá de Henares in Madrid, Spain

Mehr Azar Soheil is a conservation architect, researcher and former ICCROM ARC course participant Nicholas Stanley-Price was Director-General of ICCROM from 2000 to 2005

Andrea Urland is Associate Professor of Architecture at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Sílvio Zancheti is a member of the Center for Advanced Studies in Integrated Conservation (CECI) and professor of the Graduate Program in Urban Development of the Federal University of Pernambuco (MDU/UFPE), Recife, Brazil

Guo Zhan is Vice-President of ICOMOS International and a senior commissioner of the Department of Cultural Heritage Protection, State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH), People’s Republic of China

viii Conserving the authentic: essays in honour of Jukka Jokilehto

Jukka the man: an appreciation

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