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ICCROM 11

Conservation

Studies

ICCROM and the Conservation

of Cultural Heritage

A history of the Organization’s first 50 years, 1959-2009

ICCROM 11

Conservation

Studies

ICCROM and the Conservation

of Cultural Heritage

A history of the Organization’s first 50 years, 1959-2009

Jukka Jokilehto

ICCROM and the Conservation of Cultural Heritage. A history of the Organization’s first 50 years, 1959-2009 by Jukka Jokilehto.

ICCROM Conservation Studies 11, ICCROM, Rome.

ISBN 978-92-9077-229-3

© 2011 ICCROM

International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property via di San Michele, 13

00153 Rome, Italy

www.iccrom.org

Designed by Maxtudio, Rome

Printed thanks to the generosity of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, People’s Republic of China and National Heritage Center of Tsinghua University, Beijing.

Contents

Foreword by the Director-General

vii

Foreword by the chairperson of ICCROM Council

ix

Acknowledgements

xi

List of illustrations

xii

Abbreviations used

xviii

 

 

The context for creation of an International

 

1Conservation Centre

1

 

 

The historical context

2

 

 

Early international conservation initiatives

3

 

 

The League of Nations

3

 

 

International Museums Office (IMO)

3

 

 

International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM)

4

 

 

The institutional context after the Second World War

5

 

 

UNESCO

5

 

 

International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC)

6

 

 

International Council of Museums (ICOM)

6

 

 

International Committee for Monuments at UNESCO

7

 

 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

8

2

 

 

The foundation of ICCROM

9

 

 

The context of UNESCO’s early work

9

 

 

The two proposals by ICOM in 1948

10

 

 

Proposal by the Advisory Committee for Monuments (ACM)

12

 

 

Establishment of the Rome Centre

14

 

 

The period of the Provisional Council (1958-1960)

16

 

 

Appointment of the Provisional Council

16

 

 

Appointment of staff: the directorship of Harold Plenderleith

17

 

 

Initial activities of the Rome Centre

18

3

 

 

The Rome Centre (1960-1970)

22

 

 

International context

22

 

 

Administration of the Rome Centre

23

 

 

Member States and the budget

23

 

 

The first regular Council (1960)

24

 

 

Personnel

26

 

 

Premises

26

 

Planning of activities

27

 

Proposed long-term programme (1966)

28

 

Training of specialists in conservation

29

 

Development of the Centre’s documentation

29

 

Organization of specialist missions

30

 

Policy for activities (1969)

30

 

Principal initiatives in the 1960s

31

 

Technical co-operation

31

 

Nubian monuments

32

 

Floods in Venice and Florence (4 November 1966)

32

 

Documentation

34

 

Publications

34

 

The Library

35

 

Conferences

36

 

The Venice Meeting in 1964

36

 

Training

36

 

Scholarships and visitors

36

 

Regular training courses in Rome

37

 

Research

39

 

Reflection on the period 1960-1970

40

4

 

 

International Centre for Conservation (1971-1977)

42

 

International context

42

 

International Centre for Conservation (1971-1977):

 

 

the directorship of Paul Philippot

43

 

Administration

43

 

Personnel

43

 

Member States and the Council

44

 

Premises

45

 

Development of policies

46

 

Policies of the Centre, December 1971

46

 

Scheme for future developments (1975-1985/90)

47

 

Activities

48

 

Library and documentation

48

 

Research

49

 

Science and techniques of conservation

49

 

Conservation theory

50

 

Publications

52

 

Training: regular annual courses in Rome

53

 

Architectural conservation

54

 

Mural paintings

56

 

Fundamental principles of conservation

56

 

Security, climate control and lighting in museums

59

 

Stone conservation in Venice

59

 

Training typology

59

iv

Regional activities and technical co-operation

60

Technical assistance

61

Reflection on the period 1971-1977

62

5

 

 

ICCROM comes of age (1977-1988)

63

 

International context

63

 

The name ‘ICCROM’: the directorship of Bernard Feilden (1977-1981)

63

 

The new name and administrative reform

64

 

Resources

66

 

ICCROM Award

67

 

Theory in practice

67

 

Documentation

69

 

Training and Research

69

 

International collaboration

75

 

Reflection on the period 1977-1981

78

 

A network of people (1981-1988): the directorship of Cevat Erder

79

 

Administration and policies

80

 

Training and documentation

82

 

International and regional collaboration

87

 

PREMA Programme for Sub-Saharan Africa

88

 

Other training outside ICCROM

88

 

Wood conservation course

90

 

Reflection on the period 1981-1987

90

6

 

 

New global challenges (1988-2005)

91

 

Period of conflicts and catastrophes

91

 

Quo vadis ICCROM? (1988-1992): the directorship of Andrzej Tomaszewski

92

 

Reviewing ICCROM policies

93

 

Budget, premises and Statutes

95

 

Associate Membership

96

 

Administration and computerization

97

 

Development of programme activities

97

 

Reflection on the period

100

 

“The crossroads of people, ideas and actions at the service of

 

 

cultural heritage conservation worldwide” (1992-2000):

 

 

the directorship of Marc Laenen

100

 

Administration

101

 

Member States

101

 

Finances

101

 

Premises

102

 

Data management

102

 

“What is ICCROM today?”: a management review

103

 

Programme strategies

104

 

International collaboration

107

v

Working towards regional initiatives

109

PREMA

110

PREMO

111

ARC and ITUC

111

NAMEC

112

GAIA and TERRA

112

Science and technology

113

Reflection on the period 1988-2000

116

Refining the quality (2000-2005): the directorship of Nicholas Stanley-Price

116

Challenges of the period

117

Administration and strategic developments

120

Long-term financial strategy

120

In-house or regional activities?

121

Specific policies

123

ICCROM’s Strategic Directions

125

ICCROM Forum

127

Collections and museums

128

Evaluation of course programmes

130

Technical services

135

Reflection on the period 2000-2005

136

7

 

 

Working towards the future

137

 

International context

137

 

Verification of strategies and programmes: the directorship of Mounir Bouchenaki

138

 

Programme development

142

 

A word to conclude

148

 

Notes

150

 

Annexes

159

 

Annex 1

 

 

ICCROM Member States

159

 

Annex 2

 

 

ICCROM Council Members (1960-2010)

161

 

Annex 3

 

 

The Founding Statutes of 1956

163

 

Annex 4

 

 

“The Rome Centre” - Ten Years After, by H. Daifuku (1969)

166

 

Annex 5

 

 

List of books published by ICCROM

170

vi

Foreword by the Director-General

I arrived at ICCROM in March 2006, at a moment in which I felt it was appropriate to begin celebrating its 50th anniversary. For it was in 1956 that UNESCO held its General Conference in New Delhi, India, where it was decided to establish an intergovernmental organization, the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. Fifty years later, with the support of the ICCROM Council, we decided to turn this commemoration into a four-year celebration of milestones, ending in 2009 with the 50th anniversary of the ‘Rome Centre’ (as ICCROM was then called) becoming operational.

My predecessors, the late Andrzej Tomaszewski, Marc Laenen and Nicholas Stanley-Price had begun the process of documenting the history of ICCROM, an activity that Jukka Jokilehto and other colleagues were actively involved with through the years. Following their lead, in 2008, I encouraged the endeavours of the ‘ICCROM History Working Group’ – composed of Rosalia Varoli Piazza, Valerie Magar, Jukka Jokilehto, Gaël de Guichen, Calogero Bellanca and myself – to continue making contacts with former staff, course participants and partners, to gather information and stories that could culminate in a publication, created in the same spirit as the volume produced for the 60th anniversary of UNESCO. The gathering of this information, together with Jukka’s own research and memory, and the interviews that he conducted with several important figures in ICCROM’s development, have given this publication the richness that will mark it as an important contribution to the history of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage.

There have been several important aspects to the development of ICCROM and its global significance in the field: the advent of the concept of architectural heritage; the creation of a link between science and conservation through, for instance, the establishment of the laboratory; the pioneering of preventive conservation for museums and archives; and the creation of a vast international network of professionals and institutions practicing, studying, and teaching conservation and restoration. Over the past five decades, the ICCROM family has expanded to include teachers and experts – many of them ICCROM course alumni – who are leaders in their professions. They collaborate regularly on our projects and courses, and contribute to the ever-growing fabric of knowledge and experience in the conservation of both immovable and movable heritage. ICCROM can also be proud of being the force behind the creation of cultural heritage centres in developing countries, such as the Ecole du Patrimoine Africain (EPA) in Benin and the Centre for Heritage Development in Africa (CHDA) in Kenya.

This history of ICCROM puts into context some of the important doctrinal advances in the theory of conservation, such as the Venice Charter of 1964, the principles of Cesare Brandi, and the Nara Document on Authenticity (1994). Since 1972 ICCROM has been an Advisory Body to the World Heritage Convention, a contribution widely acknowledged as having shaped conservation practice worldwide and across professional fields. It has actively participated in groundbreaking discussions on philosophies and methodologies of the protection of cultural heritage, alongside other organizations such as UNESCO, ICOM, and ICOMOS. Jukka successfully demonstrates how ICCROM did not work within a restricted community, but brought new ideas and training schemes to the international platform, enhancing its role as a centre of excellence for training and capacity building, the achievements of which are visible all over the world. This is therefore not just an administrative history, but also an insight into ICCROM’s role at the forefront of a global movement.

foreword vii

This publication is the latest book in a series of relevant cultural heritage publications produced by ICCROM, which includes a wide range of topics from the conservation of textiles to armed conflict recovery and a series of essays dedicated to the career of Jukka: Conserving the Authentic: Essays in Honour of Jukka Jokilehto. It is also the latest of a number of publications on the history of ICCROM, which began in 1969 with a book entitled The First Decade 1959-1969. For the 20th anniversary another publication was produced under the directorship of Bernard Feilden, ICCROM Comes of Age 1959-1979. To celebrate 40 years of safeguarding cultural heritage, ICCROM in collaboration with the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities published a book in 2000 in two bilingual editions: English/Italian and French/ Italian. More recently, UNESCO’s Museum International dedicated its September 2009 issue to ICCROM, ‘Celebrating Excellence’, and ICCROM also produced a special edition of its annual Newsletter in English, French, Spanish, and Arabic commemorating 50 years of activities and achievements.

Through his hard work and dedication, Jukka has helped us to continue with these efforts, and for this we are incredibly grateful. We also extend our thanks to those who provided input to the manuscript, including Council Members, former staff, former Directors-General, members of the ICCROM Scientific Committee, and the anonymous peer reviewers. We also owe particular thanks to Nicholas Stanley-Price, who undertook the editing of this publication, and to Council Member Professor Zhou Lu from Tsinghua University, Beijing, for his generous offer to print this volume in his native China and offer it to the international community.

Mounir Bouchenaki

Director-General

viii ICCROM and the Conservation of Cultural Heritage. A history of the Organization’s first 50 years, 1959-2009

Foreword by the chairperson of ICCROM Council

50 years provides a good moment to take stock of ICCROM

This publication provides a full account of the organization, its work and achievements and its broader international context. The historical background and the early conservation initiatives are clearly set out before examination of the actual foundation of ICCROM and the establishment of the Rome Centre. The full history of ICCROM is then documented.

This is a substantial volume representing considerable archival research. There is extraordinary detail and the publication makes fascinating reading. Its author, Jukka Jokilehto, must be commended for his attention to detail and making the material so accessible under the many headings. The division into distinct periods is complemented by a reflection at the end of each. The annexes and footnotes at the back provide additional background material. It will become an essential reference for all those involved in the preservation of cultural heritage worldwide.

It is a reference work not just for ICCROM but for the international field of conservation, documenting the evolution of the organization and its context and its response over time to the needs of its Member States. This is an ongoing story which now continues into the next 50 years. The strategic directions have been recently reviewed along with the adoption of a set of formal policies and we look forward to moving to new premises during the next biennium. We look to the future based on a wellfounded past.

Though the project to write the history of ICCROM began some years ago, I would like to thank the current Director-General, Mounir Bouchenaki, for shepherding it to publication. I would also like to thank my colleague on Council, Prof. Lu Zhou, for arranging the printing of this publication in China and the Chinese authorities for generously underwriting the cost. Finally, on behalf of Council, I would like to thank Jukka Jokilehto for his substantial voluntary labours and his commitment to the project. He has produced a worthy document which stands as a testament to the remarkable work of ICCROM and its dedicated staff over the last 50 years.

Grellan D. Rourke

Chairperson, ICCROM Council

foreword ix

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