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Y)lK 577.1(075.8)

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AneiiHuKoBa T.JI., Aeaeeea JI.B., AHapuaHoea JJ.E., EeJ1yutKUHa H.H, BoJ1Koea HII., Bopo6beBa C.A., I'oJ1eH11eHKO B.A., I'y6apeea A.E., Kop.!lRKOBa O.B., Jluxa11eea H.B., IlaBJlOBa HA., Py614oea I'.B., Cwiaeea C.A., CwiyRHOBa C.H., Tumoea T.A

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ISBN 5-9231-0390-7

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Yqe6ttMK npe,utta1ttaqett .IlJIH czy.uettTOB Me.umrMHCKMX BY30B, acn11pattTOB.

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AB,11,eesa JlIO.UMttna BHKToposHa, KaH)l. 6110JI. HayK,

.uou.. Ka<J:>e,11,pb1 6HonornqecKorr XHMlfH MMA HM. 11.M. CeqeHosa (pa3.UeJihI 6, 11).

AJmpuaHoBa JlIO.UMlfJia EsrettbeBHa, KaH)l. 6HoJI. HayK, crnpumi1 rrperro.uasaTeJih Ka<J:>e.uphI 6ttonornqecKoi1 xttMlflf MMA ttM. 11.M. Ceqettosa (pa3.uenh1 12, 15).

lieJQ'IUKHHaHaTaJIMI HttKonaesHa, .uou.. Ka<J:>e.uph1 fo.roXHMHlf MMA HM. l1.M. Ceqettosa, yqeHbIH ceKpernph Hl1l1. MoneKYmrpmm Me.UHU.ttHa MMA lfM. Ceqettosa (pa3.uen 2).

BOJIKOBa HaTaJIMI neTPOBHa, KaH)l. MeL(. HaYK, L(Oll,. Ka<J:>e.uphI 6HonornqecKoi1 XHMHH MMA HM. 11.M. Ceqettosa (pa3.uen 1).

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KoPJUIKOBa Onbra BeHHaMHHOBHa, KaHL(. 6HoJI. HaYK, crnpwttrr rrpeno.uasaTeJih Ka<l:>e.uphI 6ttoJiornqecKoi1 XHMHH MMA ttM. 11.M. CeqeHosa (pa3.uen 9).

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Ka<l:>e.uphI 6ttonornqecKoi1 XlfMlfH MMA HM. 11.M. Ceqettosa (pa3.uen 9).

IlaBJio&a HHHa AneKcaHL(poBHa, KaH)l. 6110JI. HaYK, .uou..

KaWe.UPhI 6HonornqecKott XlfMHH MMA lfM. 11.M. CeqeHOBa (pa3L(eJihl 3, 6).

Py6u,oBa ranttHa Bac11JiheBHa, KaH)l. 6ttOJI. HaYK, L(Oll,. Ka<l:>e.uphI 6ttonornqecKoi1 x11MttH MMA HM. 11.M. CeqeHoBa (pa3.ueJibI 3, 6).

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CHJIYHHOBa CseTJiaHa HttKonaesHa, KaH.u. 6HoJI. HayK, .uou. Ka<l:>e.uphr 6HonornqecKorr XHMl111 MMA HM. 11.M. CeqeHOBa (pa3.UeJihI 12, 13, 15).

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oJiaro,napJO KOJIJieKTttB aBTopoB H oco6etttto rpynny B cocraBe T.Jl. A.JiettHHKOBotl:, Jl.B. ABlleeBott, H.fl. BoJIKOBotl:, B.A. foJieH'-leHKO,A.E. fy6apeBoi1 H C.A. CHJiaeootl: Ja nOMOlllb B pe,naKUHOHHOH pa6oTe, a TalOKe coTJJYllHl1KaM HJ)laTeJibCKOro llOMa «f30TAP-MELI,».

3aa. Ka¢. 611ox11M11H MMA HM. 11.M. Ce- '-lettoaa,lffi.-Kopp. PAR, rrpo¢.

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¢o> - CHHOHl1M

9\ - ayrOCOMHOe llOMl1H3HTHOe HaCJie,UOBaHJile p - ayrOCOMHOe peueCCHBHOe HaCJie,UOBaH11e

N - CBHJattttoe c X-xpoMOCOMotl: ttacJie,noBaHtte

B-KJieTKH (B rrpo11JHOCHT KaK 63) - B-JI11M<j:Jou11ThI Cl, C2, C3 (rrpoHJHOCHT KaK cu) 11 T.,n. - KOMnotteHThI

CHCTeMbl KOMTIJieMeHTa 1, 2, 3 H T.)l.

Ca2+ - KaT11ott(b1) KaJihUHH, 110H(b1) KaJihUm1; 110HttJ11poBaHHh1tt (CB06ollHhltt) K3Jlhll11H

CD (oT cluster of differentiation [npottJHOCHT KaK cu au], KJiacTep ,n11<j:J<j:JepeHUHPOBKH), CM. MapKep

CJ- - aHHOH(bl) XJIOpa

Fab CM. «<l>parMeHT»

FAD - <j:JJiaBttHa,nett11HllHHyKJieOTHll

FMN - <j:JJiaBttHMOHOHyKJieOTHll

H+ - 110H(h1) BO,nopo,na, npoTOHhl

[H+j - KOHUeHT)JaUHJI HOHOB BO,Uopo,na Hb - reMorno6ttH

HbCO - Kaj:!60Kc11reMomo6ttH

Hb02 - reMorno6ttH oKcttrettttpoBaHHhitt

HLA (npottJHOCHT KaK 3U'I 3J/b 3ii, OT human leukocyte antigens), CM. «AHTttreH», CM. «MHC»

Jg - HMMYHOfJI06yJIHH, HMMyHOrno6yJil1Hhl

IRE - iron-responsive element, )!(eJieJ0-4YBCTBttTeJih- HhIH 3JieMeHT

K+ - K3THOH(bl) K3Jll1H

[K+] - KOHUeHTpaUHH HOHOB KaJIHH LT - leucotrienes, JiettKOTptteHhI MetHb - MeTreMornofarn

MHC (rrpo11JHOCHT KaK 3M 3U'I cu, OT major histocompatibility complex, rnaBHbIH KOMTIJieKC lliCTOCOBMeCTHMOCTH)

M, - Ka)!(yuiai:ici:i MOJieKYJIHpHaH Macca

Na+ - KaTttoH(hI) ttaTpIDI

[Na+j - KOHUeHTpauttH 110HOB HaTpHH

NAO - HHKOTHHaMH,Ua,nettttH,U11HyKJieOTHll

NADP - HHKOTttHaMH,Ua,nett11H,nttH)'KJleoTH,U<j:Joc<j:JaT NO - OKCHll aJora (NO), Bh1pa6aTb1BaeMhIH B 3HllOTe-

JIHH <j:JaKTop peJiaKcau1111 (BaJO,UHJiaTaUHH) HT<!> - ttyKJieOJHllTpH<j:Joc<j:JaThI

P.co2 - rraputtan:httoe ttarrpi:i:)!(etttte ,nByoKHctt yrJiepo- ,na B apTepttaJibHOH KpOBH

pC02 - rrapu11anhttoe ,naBJiett11e llBYOKHCH yrnepo,na PG - prostaglandins, npocrarnaH,UttHhI

Pi (H 3P04) - <j:Joccj:JaT HeopraHtt'-leCKHH p02 - naputtaJlhHoe ,naBJieHtte KHCJiopo,na

PPi (H4Pp1) - rrttpo<j:Joc<j:JaT tteopraHH'-leCKttti: SAr - S-a,nettoJHJiroMou11cTe11tt

SAM - S-a,nettoJ11JIMeT110HttH

T3 - TPHHO,UTl1POHl1H

T 4 - TeTpatio,nT11pott11H, TttpOKCl1H

T-KJieTK.11 - T-JIHM<j:JouttThI

TNF - tumor necrosis factor, <j:JaKTop HeKpoJa onyxoJiett

TX - TpoM6oKcattbI

VIP (OT Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide) - BaJoaKTHBHhlH 11HTeCTHH3JlbHbltt (K11llle4Hb!H) noJittnenTHll (He,norrycTttMo ttan11catt11e - Bl1fl)

Ar - attTttreH, attnffeHhI

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apTepHaJJbHoe ,llaBJieHwe

Allf - aHTH,UHypeTwqeCKHM ropMOH (Ba3orrpeCCHH)

A,llef> -

a,lleH03HH.llH<Poc<t>opttaH KHCJIOTa, a,lleH03HH,llH-

<t>oc<t>aThI

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anoJIIl

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attrwoTeH3Htt-npeBpaiua10ruwit <t>epMeHT

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acnapTaTaMHHOTpattc<Pepa3a

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attTHTeJio, attTHTeJia

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a,lleH03HHTpw<tJoc<t>opttaH KHCJIOTa

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a,lleH03HHTpw<tJoc<Parn3a

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a,lleHHJiaTUHKJia3a

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r AMK -

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rnyTaTHOHTpattc<tJepa3a

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11HTep<t>epoH, HHTep<tJepOHbI

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KHJIO,llaJibTOH

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KoA -

Ko<t>epMeHT (Ko3H3HM) A

KoQ -

Ko<PepMeHT (K03H3HM) Q

KWP - KHCJIOTHo-ureJioqttoe paBttosecwe

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KJiacc11<PwKaUHH <DepMeHTOB (<http: //wwW.

expasy.ch/sprot/enzyme.html> ). K<l> rrpwse;:i:ettbI rro Enzyme Nomenclature (NC-lUBMB, KoMHTeT rro HoMeHKJiaTYPe Me)[(,Ify'Hapo;:i:ttomCo103a no EwoxHMHH H MoJieKyJIHpttoi1 EwoJiorn11)

Jff - JIIOTeHHH3HPYIOIUHH ropMOH, JIIOTpOIIHH JI,l(r - JiaKTaT.llem;:i:poreHaJa

Jin - Jil1fIOflpOTeHHbl

JIIlBTI - JIHnonpoTeHHbl BbICOKOM illIOTHOCTl1 JIIl-JiwrraJa - JIHnonpoTeHHJ111na3a

JIIlHil - JIHnonpoTeHHbl HH3KOM illIOTHOCTH JlITOHTI - JIHIIOnpoTeHHbI oqeHb HH3KOM ITJIOTHOCTl1 Jinnn - JIHnonpoTeHHbl npoMe)!()'ToqHoMITJIOTHOCTH JIXAT - JieuHTHHXOJiecTepoJiauHJITpaHc<t>epa3a

MAf - MOHoaueHJirnwuepotthr

MAO - MottoaMHHOOKcH,Ua3a OTIK - o6urwit nyTb KaTa6oJIH3Ma

MHPHTI - MaJibie H;:i:epttbre pw60HYKJieorrpoTeHHhI TITr - rrapaTwpeoH.Utthli1 ropMoH

CE - cy6be;:i:wttwua

ITKA - npoTeHHKHHa3a A ITKC - rrpOTeHHKHHa3a C

IlOJI - rrepeKHCHOe OKHCJieHHe JIHilH)lOB IlOMK - rrpoorrHOMeJiaHOKOpTHH

TI<D - rrHpH,UOKCaJih<Poc<PaT

ITUP - noJIHMepaJHaH uenttaH peaKUHH TIM - noJI11Mop<tJttoH,llepttb1e 11eitKOUHThI PHK - pw6oHYKJieHHOBM KHCJllOTa MPHK - MaTpwqHaH PHK

pPHK - pw6ocoMHM PHK TPHK - TpattcrroprnaH PHK PHP - pw60HYKJieOTH.Upen:YKTa3a

P3C - peTHKyJI03HllOTeJIHaJibHaH cwcTeMa CCC - cepn:eqHo-cocyn:wcrnH cwcTeMa CTr - coMaTOTporrtth1i1 ropMoH

TAr - TpHauHJirnwuepoJJb1

T,l(<D - THaMHH.llH<Poc<t>aT lTf - THpeOTpOITHbIH ropMOH YLl,<D - YPH.UHH.llH<Poc<PaT YM<l> - YPH.UHHMOHo<Poc<PaT Yr<D - YPMHHTpw<t>oc<PaT

Y<DO - yJJhTpa<PwoJieTOBoe 06Jiy'lett11e <l>A<l>C - 3-<Poc<Poa,lleH03HH-5-<Poc<PocyJJh<PaT <l>P,l(<D - <Poc<t>opw603wmw<Poc<PaT

<I>Cr - <PoMHKyJJOCTHMYJIHPYlOUIHH ropMOH, <PoMHTPOilHH

XIT - xopwottWieCKHi1 roHa,llOTporrHH XM - XHJIOMHKPOHbl

ll,ll<D - UHTH)J;HHllH<Poc<PaT UM<D - UHTH.UHHMono<Poc<t>aT

UHC - ueHTPaJJbHaH nepBHaH CHCTeMa Ull3 - uenh rrepettoca 3JieKTpOHOB

UTK - IIHKJI TpHKap6oHOBbIX KHCJIOT, IIHKJI Kpe6ca UT<D - UHTHlJ:HHTpw<t>oc<t>aT

3P - 3H,llOITJia3MaTHqecKHti peTHKyJIYM

CTPOEHlllE, CBOLilCTBA

Ill <l>YHKUllllll 6EJ1KOB

B )l(HBhIX KJieTKax rrpo11cxoJJ.HT CHHTe3 MHO)l(eCTBa opratt11qecK11x

MOJieKYJI, cpe)J,H KOTOpbIX rnaBH)'IOpOJih HrpaIOT IlOJIHMeptthle MaKpOMOJieJ<YJihl - 6eJIKH, HyKJieHHOBbie KHCJIOThl, rron11caxapH)J,hl.

Oco6asr ponh B )l(J13HeJJ,eHTeJihHOCTH )l(HBhix opraHH3MOB rrp11tta)J,Jle- )l(HT 6enKaM. OT poJJ,HTenetl: JJ,ernM rrepe)lafacH retteT11qecKaH 11tt¢opMau11sr o crreu11¢11qecKotl: CTPYKType 11 ¢YHKU:HHx Bcex 6eJIKOB )lattttoro oprattH3Ma. C11ttTe311poBattttb1e 6eJIKH BhIIlOJIHHIOT Mttoroo6pa3tthre ¢YHKu1111: ycKopHIOT XMM11qecK11e peaKU:HH, BblilOJIHHIOT TpaHcnopTttyIO, CTPYKTYPHYIO, 3aw,11THYIO ¢YHKU11H, yqacrnyIOT B rrepeJJ,aqe c11rHaJIOB OT 0)J,Hl1X KJieTOK JJ.PYD1M H TaKHM o6pa30M peaJIH3)'IOTHaCJie)l- CTBeHH)'IOHtt¢opMaU:HIO. Il03TOMY 6eJIKH Ha3blBaIOT TaK)l(e rrpoTeMHaMH (oT rpeq. proteas - rrepBhitt).

Ha llOJTIO 6enKOB BttyTpM KJieTKH np11xo)J,11TcH 6onee nonoB11Hb1 11x cyxoro Bemecrna. B oprattM3Me qeJioBeKa ttacY.11Tb1BaIOT OKOJIO 50 000

MHJJ.HBH)JyaJihHhIX 6eJIKOB. BMOBaH n MHllHBH)lYaJThHaH crreu11¢11qttocTh tta6opa 6eJIKOB B )laHHOM opraHH3Me onpe)leJIHeT oco6ettttocT11 ero CTpoettHH 11 ¢yttKu110H11poBaH11H. Ha6op 6eJIKOB B JJ.11¢¢epettu:11pyiomnxcH KJieTKax O)lttoro oprattM3Ma orrpe)lensreT Mop¢onorw1ecKHe 11 ¢YHKUHOHaJTbHbie oco6eHHOCTH Ka)l()lOfO THrra KJieTOK.

KaK H mo6oi1 IlOJIMMep, 6eJIOK COCTOHT H3 MOHOMepHbIX e)ll1H11U:, HJil1 «CTPOMTeJihHbIX 6JIOKOB». B 6enKax oprattH3Ma qenoBeKa TaKHM11 MOHOMepaMH CJI~aT 20 113 HeCKOJTbKHX COTeH H3BeCTHhIX B rrpnpo)le aMHHOKHCJIOT. AMMHOKHCJIOThl, HaXO)lHW,HeCH B 6eJIKax, CBH3aHhl ,llpyr c ,llpyroM rreITTH)lHbIMH CB51351Ml1. JlHHettHaH TIOCJTe)lOBaTeJibHOCTb aMl1HOKHCJIOT B 6eJTKe YHl1KaJihHa )J,JIH Ka)l()loro HH)ll1BH)lYaJTbHOfO 6eJIKa; Mtt¢opMaQ11H 0 Hett COJJ,ep)l(HTCH B yqaCTKe MOJieKyJThI )],HK, Ha3hIBaeMOH rettoM.

IlommerrT11)ltth1e u:err11 3a cY.eT BHYTPHMoneKynHptthIX B3a11Mo)lei1crn11i1 o6pa3yIOT rrpocTPattcrnetttthre CTPYKTYPhI - Kott¢opMau1111 6eJIKOB. Ha orrpe)leJiettttoM yqacTKe 6eJIKOBoi1 MOJieKYJihI M3 pa,llHKaJIOB aMHHOKHCJIOT ¢opMnpyeTCH aKTHBHhlll ueHTp, KOTOPhill MO)l(eT crreun¢nqtto (KOMilJleMeHTapHO) CB513bIBaTbCH C MOJTeKyJTaMH-Jil1faH)J,aMH. B3a11Mo)leticrn11e 6eJIKOB c JIHraHJJ.aMM ne)l(HT B octtoBe HX ¢YHKU:HOttnpoBaHHH. l13MeHeHHH IlOCJTe)J,OBaTeJibHOCTH aMMHOKHCJTOT B 6eJIKax MOfYT rrpHBOJJ.HTh K M3Mettett1110 rrpocTpattcTBettttoti CTPYKTYPhI 11 ¢YHKU11ti )J,aHHbIX 6eJIKOB 11 pa3BHTHIO 3a6oJieBaHHH.

I. CTPOEHVIE VI CBOlllCTBA

AMVIHOKVICflOT,BXO.QSUUVIX

B COCTAB 6EflKOB. nEnTVlllHblE

CBSl3VI, COEllVIHSllOUlVIE

AMVIHOKVICflOTbl B UEnVI

BeJIKtt - rroJittMepHbte MOJieKyJihI, B KOTOPhIX MOHOMepaMH CJIJ')KaT aMttHOKHCJIOThI. B cocrnBe 6eJIKOB B opraHl13Me Y.eJIOBeKa BCTpeY.aIOT TOJibKO

20 a-aMHHOKllCJIOT. 0)lHH H Te )Ke aMHHOKHCJIOTbl rrpttCYTCTBYIOT B paJJIWIHhIX rro CTPYKTYPe H cPYHKUIDIM 6eJIKax. 11H)ll1BH)lyaJibHOCTb 6eJIKOBblX MOJie KyJI orrpe)leJIHeTCH rropH)lKOM qepe)lOBaHHH aMttHOKttCJIOT B 6eJIKe. AMHHOKHCJIOThI MO)!(HO pacCMaTpHBaTh KaK 6yKBbI aJI¢aBl1Ta, rrpH ITOMOlilH KOTOpbTX, KaK B CJIOBe, JarrttChIBaeTCH HHcPOpMallHH. CJioBo tteceT HH¢opMaQ1110, Harrp11Mep o rrpe)lMeTe HJIH )leHCTBHH, a ITOCJie)lOBaTeJibHOCTb aMHHOKHCJIOT B 6eJIKe HeceT HHcj)opMau:mo 0 rroCTPOeHMH rrpocTpaHcTBeHHOH CTpYKTYPbf l1 cPYHKlll1l1 )laHHOfO 6eJIKa.

A. CTPOEHHE H CBOHCTBA AMHHOKHCJIOT

I. 06111,ue cmpyKmypnbte ocooe1111ocmu a.MunoKuCAom, exoiJaw,ux 6 cocmae OeAK06

06maH CTPYKTYPHaH oco6eHHOCTb aMHHOKl1CJIOT - HaJIHY.He aMMHO- H Kap60KCl1JibHOH rpyrrrr, coe)lHHeHHhIX c O)lHl1M tt TeM )Ke a-yrnepo)lHbIM arnMOM. R - pa,uttKaJI aMMHOKHCJIOT - B rrpocTetirneM CJiy'laerrpe)lCTaBJieH aTOMOM BO)lOpO)la (rnHU:HH), HO MO)l(eT IIMeTb H 6oJiee CJIO)l(HOe CTpOeHHe.

a

+

-

I

-

NH3

CH - COO

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

R

 

B BO!lHhIX pacrnopax rrptt HeilTpaJibHOM JHaqeHHtt pH a-aMMHOKMCJIOTbI cyw:ecTBYIOT B BH)le 611rroJIHpHbIX HOHOB.

B OTJI11q11e OT 19 ocTaJibHbIX a-aMHHOKMCJIOT, ITpOJil1H - HMHHOKMCJIOTa, pa,lll1KaJI KOTOpOH CBH3aH KaK c a-yrnepO)lHblM aTOMOM, TaK l1 c aMl1Horpynrroti, B peJyJihTaTe qero MOJieKYJia rrp1106perneT I1ttKJI11Y.eCKYIO CTPYKTYPY·

a

HN-CH-COOH

I I

H2C, ,.CH2 CH2

npOJH1H

19 l13 20 aMttHOKMCJIOT CO)lep)!(aT B a-ITOJIO)l(e- HHH aCHMMeTpHY.HbIH aTOM yrnepo)la, c KOTOpbIM CBH3aHbI 4 paJHhre JaMema10mtte rpyrrrrbI. B peJYJihTaTe 3Tl1 aMl1HOKl1CJIOTbl B rrptt:po)le MOryT Ha-

XO)lHTbCH B !lByx paJHhIX tt30MepHbIX ¢opMax - L 11 D. 11CKJIIOY.eHHe COCTaBJIHeT rJI11U:l1H, KOTOpblH He HMeeT acHMMeTpHY.HOro a-yrnepO)lHOfO aTOMa, TaK KaK era PMHKaJI rrpe)lCTaBJieH TOJihKO aTOMOM BO)lopo)la. B cocrnBe 6eJIKOB rrpHCYTCTBYIOT TOJihKO L-1130Mepb1 aM11HoK11cnoT.

COOH

COOH

COOH

I

I

I

H2N-C-H

H-C-NH2

H2N-C-H

I

I

I

CH3

CH3

H

L-AnaHlllH

D-AnaHlllH

rnllll..llllH (He lllM99T

 

 

11130MepHblX cpopM)

qHCThie L- HJIH D-cTepeomoMepb1 Moryr 3a )lJIHTeJibHbIB cpoK CaMorrpoH3BOJibHO 11 He¢epMeHTaTHBHO npeBpamaTuCH B 3KB11MOJIHptty10 cMeCh L- H D- 1130MepoB. 3To1' rrpoQecc HaJbIBaIOT paueMttJamreti. Pau:eMH3alIIDI. KmK,11,oti L-aMHHOKHCJIOThT rrpH )lattHoti TeMITepaTYPe Hlli!T c orrpe)leJieHHOH cKopoCTbIO. 3ro o6cTOHTeJibCTBO MO)l(HO HCJIOJII30BaTb )lJlH yCTaHOBJieHHH B03pacra JIIO)leH H )l(HBOTHblX. TaK, B rnep)lOH 3MaJil1 3y6oB HMeercH 6enoK )le:HTMH, B KOTOpoM L- acnapnn nepexo)ll1T B D-H3oMep rrp11 TeMrrepaTYPe rena qeJIOBeKa co CKOpOCTbIO 0,01 % B ro.u. B nep110.u ¢opMl1p0BaHHH 3y60B B )leHTHHe CO)lep)!(J1TCH TOJibKO L-H30Mep, rro3TOMY rro co.uep:>I<aHHIO D-acrraprara MO)J(HO paccqJ1TaTh BOJpacT o6c:Jie)lyeMoro_

Bee 20 aMHHOKMCJIOT B opraHH3Me qenoBeKa pa3JI11qa10TcH rro CTPOett1110, pa3MepaM 11 ¢11311Ko-x11- M11Y.eCKMM CBOHCTBaM pa,llttKaJTOB, rrp11coe)l11tteHHbIX K a-yrnepO,UHOMy aTOMY.

2. KAaccu<}JuKaU,UR a.MUllOKuCAom

no XUMU'leCKOMY cmpoe11u10 paiJUKll.il06

CTo XHMH'leCKOMy CTpOeHHIO aMHHOKHCJIOTbT MO)!(HO pa3)leJil1Tb Ha aJI11¢an1qecK11e, apoMan1- Y.ecKMe 11 reTepoQHKJIHqecKHe (rn6JI. 1-1).

B cocrnBe aJI11cj)aTtt'lecK11xpa,urrKaJIOB MOfYT ttaxo.urrThCH cj)yHKUHOHaJibHhie rpyrrnhI, np11)la10w:11e HM crreQHcPHY.eCKHe CBOHCT1Ba: Kap6oKCHJibHaH (-COOH), aMrrHo (-NH2), TttOJTbttaH (-SH), aMH)l- HaH (-CO-NH2), rH)lpOKCHJibHaH (-OH) l1 ryaHH-

)lHHOBaH (-NH-C=NH) rpyrrITbl.

I

NH 2

Ha3BaHIDI aMl1HOKHCJIOT MO)l(HO rrocTpOHTb no 3aMeCTl1TeJibHOH HOMeHK.IIaTYpe, HO o6hil.fHO HCIlOJib3YIOT TPHBHaJibHbie Ha3BaHHH (Ta6JI. 1-2).

10

Ta611M48 1-1. KnaccM<IJMK8~MA OCHOBHl>IX 8MMHOKMCllOT 6e11KOB no MX XMMM'leCKOMYCTpoeHMIO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TpueuaJibHbie uaJeauuH

 

CoKpaII1i'HHbieuaJeauuH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CTpoeuuepaAHKaJIOB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aMHHOKHCJIOT

 

pyccKue

I

JiaTHHCKHe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. AMHHOKHCJIOTbI c aJiu<t>aTuqecKHMH pa,l1,uKaJiaMH

 

 

 

1. fJIHIJ.HH

 

frrtt

 

Gly

G

 

 

-H

 

2. ArraHHH

 

Arra

 

Ala

A

 

 

-CH3

 

3. BarrttH

 

Barr

 

Val

V

 

-CH<CH3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH3

 

4. JleHIJ.HH

 

Jleli

 

Leu

L

 

-CH,CH <CH3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH3

 

5. Ifaorreliu.HH

 

Hrre

 

Ile

I

 

-CH-Cf-1:1-CH3

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH3

II. AMuuoKuCJIOTbI, co)J,ep3rnII1ne e aJimt>aTuqeCKOM paAHKaJie )1,0DOJIHHTeJibHYIO <l>YHKUHOHaJILHyIO rpynny

 

 

fH,11;pOKCHJibHYIO rpyrmy

 

 

 

 

6. CepHH

 

Cep

I

Ser

S

 

-CHrOH

7. TpeoHHH

 

Tpe

 

 

Thr

T

 

-CHOH-CH3

 

 

Kap6oKCHJihHYIO rpyrrrry

 

 

 

 

8. AcrraparnHosrui

 

Aerr

 

 

Asp

D

 

-CHi-COOH

 

 

 

 

KHCJIOTa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. frryTaMHHOBml KHCJIOTa

 

frry

 

 

Glu

E

 

-CH2-CHrCOOH

 

 

 

AMHAHYIO rpyrrrry

 

 

 

 

10. AcrraparnH

 

AcH

 

 

Asn

N

 

-CH2-CO-NH2

11 . f JIYTaMHH

 

fJIH

I

Gln

Q

 

-CHi-CH2-CO-NH2

 

 

 

AMttHorpyrrrry

 

 

 

 

 

12. J1H3HH

 

JIH3

I

Lys

K

 

 

 

 

 

fyaHH)J,HHOBYIO rpyrrrry

 

 

 

 

13. AprttHHH

 

Apr

I

Arg

R

 

-(CH2k NH-C-NH2

 

 

II

 

 

 

Cepy

 

c

 

NH

14. lJ;HCTeHH

 

LI;ttc

I

Cys

 

-CHrSH

15. MeTHOHHH

 

MeT

Met

M

 

-CHrCHrS-CH3

III. AMHHOKHCJIOTbI, co,l1,ep1KaII1ue apoMaTuqecKun pa,l1,HKaJI

16. cDeHHJiaJiaHHH

 

cDeH

 

 

Phe

F

 

-CH2-0

17. Tttp03HH

 

Tn:p

 

 

Tyr

Y

 

-CH2-00H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. AMHHOKHCJIOThl c reTepouuKJiuqecKHMH pa)J,HKaJiaMu

 

 

18. TpttmoQiaH

 

Tptt

 

 

Trp

W

 

-CHn;----;t'"""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ll..~

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

19. fHCTH)J,HH

 

fttc

 

 

His

H

 

-CHi-1 I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HN"-""N

 

 

 

V. liMHHOKHCJIOTa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20. Tiporrn:H

 

Tipo

 

 

Pro

P

 

V-COOH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H ,QaHa nonHaR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

¢opMyna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

Ta6m11.1a 1-2. npMMepbl H83B8HMM aMMHOKMCnoT no 38MecTMTenbHOM HOMeHKna-rype .., COOTBeTCTBYIOll.lllle TplllBManbHble H83BaHMH

HaJeauue aMHHOKHCJIOTbI no

cI>opMyJia aMHHOKHCJIOTbl

TpnBHaJibttoe HaJBauue

3aMeCTHTeJibHOH HOMeHKJiaType

 

 

 

2-aMHH0-3-r11)J,pOKCHI1pouaHOBa}l KHCJIOTa

H2 N-CH-COOH

 

Ccp11tt

 

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

2-aMl1H0-4-MCTHJITl10MaCm!Ha}l KHCJIOTa

 

H2 N-CH-COOH

 

McTHOHHH

 

 

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH3

 

 

 

LI,.1rn 3am1cw aMttHOKttc.110THhrx ocTaTKOB B MO-

HbIM MOJieKYJiaM, B pe3yJihTaTe 'leronoBepXHOCTb

JieKyJiax nenTl1,L.l,OB 11 6eJIKOB l1Cfl0Jlh3YIOT Tpex6yK-

conpl1KOCHOBeHl15l

11X c BOnoH yMeHbWaeTCH.

BeHHbie COKpamemrn l1X TPl1Bl1a.JibHbIX Ha3BaH11ti,

 

 

 

a B HeKOTOpbIX c.11yqa51x 11 O,flH06yKBeHHble Cl1MBO-

AMunoKHCJIOThI c

n0Ji11pub1Mu ue1apIDKeHHbIMH

 

 

 

Jlbl (CM. Ta6JI. 1-1).

 

 

pa,Ll,HKaJiaMH

 

 

 

Tp11Bl1a.JlbHhie Ha3BaHl1H 'lacTo npowcxonHT OT

Pan11Ka.11b1 3T11x aM11HoK11c.110T .11y11we, 'leMmn-

 

 

 

 

 

Ha3Bamrn: 11CTO'!Hl1Ka, 113 KOTOporo OHM BnepBbie

po<:Po6tth1e pan11Ka.11h1, pacrnopHJOTCH B Bo,rie, TaK

 

 

 

 

 

6bJJ111 BbI,lle.JleHbl,

11.1111 OT CBOHCTB ,riaHHOti aMl1HO-

KaK B 11X COCTaB BXOA5IT IIOJIHPHbie cPYHKU110Ha.Jlh-

 

 

 

 

 

Kl1CJ10Tbl. TaK, cepHH BnepBhie 6hrn

BhIAeJieH 113

Hbie rpynnhI, o6pa3yIOIU11e BO,llOpOAHhle CBH311 c

 

 

(OT JiaT. serieum

-

 

qm6po11Ha rne.11Ka

we.11KOB11c-

Bo,rioti. K HMM OTHOCHT cep11H, TpeoHttH 11 Tttpo-

Tb1ti)' a rJI11U11H

IIOJ1Y1111Jl CBOe Ha3BaHl1e 113-3a

311H, 11Me10m11e r11,L.1,pOKC11JibH1>1e rpynn1>1, acnapa-

CJia,llKOro BKYCa (OT rpe11. glykos -

 

 

CJia,llK11H).

mH 11 rnyrnM11H, conep)!(amm~ aMl1JlHhie rpynnhI,

 

3. KAaccu</JuKaU.UR aMUHOKUCAom

 

 

11 U11CTel1H c ero Tl10JibHOH rpynnoti.

 

 

 

U11cTe11H 11 TMP0311H co,riep:KaT coorneTcrneHHO

 

no pacm«opUMocmu ux paiJu1Cll.ll06 « «ode

 

THOJibHYIO 11 rnnpOKCl1JlbHYIO rpynnhI, crroco6Hble

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bee 20 aM11HoK11CJIOT B 6e.11Kax opratt113Ma qe-

K ,ri11ccou11au1111 c o6pa30Bam1eM H+, HO rrpw pH

JIOBeKa MO)[(HO crpynn11poBaTb TIO CIIOC06HOCTl1 11X

OK0.110 7,0, nOMep)l<HBaeMOro B KJleTKax, 3T11 rpyn-

pan11Ka.JlOB pacTBOpHTbCH B Bo,rie. Pan11Ka.11b1 MO)!(-

Ilbl npaKTH11ecK11

He n11cco1.1,1111py10T.

HO BblCTPOl1Tb B HerrpepbJBHblll PM, Haq11Ha10ru11ti-

AMHHOKHCJIOTbl c

UOJI11pHbIMH OTpu11aTeJibHO

CH nOJlHOCTblO m,ripo<:Po6HbIMl1 11 3aKaWIHBaJOIUHH-

3apIDKeHHblMH

pa,Ll,HKaJiaMH

C5I C11JlbHO f11,L.1,pOcP11JibHhIM11.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pacrnop11MOCTb pa,ri11Ka.110B aMHHOK11c.110T on-

K 3TOti rpynne OTHOC5IT acnapar11HOBYJO 11 rny-

pe,rie.11J1eTCH ITOJlHPHOCThJO cPYHKUHOHaJibHbIX

TaMl1HOBYJO aMl1HOK11CJIOTbl, 11MeIOIU11e B pan11Ka.11e

rpynn, BXO)UIIUHX B COCTaB MOJieKyJihl (IIOJI5IpHbie

AOITOJIHHTeJibttylO Kap60KCHJThHYJO rpynny, nptt pH

rpynnhI np11rnr11BaJOT BOAY, HenomipHbie ee OT-

oKoJTo 7,0 n11ccou1111pyIOlllYJ10 c o6pa3oBatttteM

TaJIKHBaIOT).

 

 

 

coo- 11 H+. C.11enoBaTeJibHO., pan11Ka.11b1 naHHbIX

 

 

 

 

 

aM11HOKRCJIOT -

attttOHhI. HoHtt3ttpoBaHHhie <:Pop-

 

AMuuoKHCJIOTbI

c ueno.m:1pubIMH pa,ri,uKa.ri:aMu

MbI rnyTaMHHOBOH 11 acnaparnHOBOH KMCJIOT Ha3bI-

 

 

 

 

 

 

K HeIIOJI5IpHblM (m,ripo<:Po6HblM) OTHOCHT pa-

BaIOT COOTBeTCTBeHHO rnyraMaTOM H acnapTaTOM.

A11Ka.Jlbl, 11Me10m11e a.1111<:PaT11L£ecK11e yrneBo,riopon-

AMunoKHCJIOTbI c

noJispHbIMH noJI0:11urreJILHo

Hbie uen11 (pa,n,11Ka.11b1 a.11att11Ha, Ba.Jll1Ha, .11etiu11tta,

3apIDKeHHbIMH

pa,Ll,HKaJiaMH

1130.11etiu11tta, npo.1111Ha 11 MeT11ott11Ha) 11 apoMaT11-

 

 

 

11ecK11e KOJihUa (pan11Ka.11b1<:Pett11J1a.11att11Ha11 Tp11n-

)l,OIIOJIHHTeJibHYJO IIOJI0)!(11TeJibHO 3apH)!(eHHYIO

To<:Patta). Pan11Ka.11b1 TaK11x aM11HoK11c.110T B Bone

rpynny B pan11Ka.11e 11MeIOT Jill1311H 11 aprnHl1H. y

cTpeMJ1TC5l npyr K ,ripyry 11n11 K npyr11M rnnpo<:Po6-

.11113HHa BTopa51 aM11Horpynna,. cnoco6HaH rrp11co-

12

e,1urnHTb H+, pacnoJiaraeTCH B £-noJIO)Kemu1 am1- <PaT11'-leCKOtiuen11, a y aprnmrna noJIO)!(l1TeJibHbIH 3apSI,ll npno6perneT ryattJI,IJ,ttHOBa51 rpynna. KpoMe Toro, nICTH)lHH CO)lep)KJIT CJia6o HOHH3HpOBaHHYIO HMJI,IJ,a30JibHYIO rpynny' n03TOMY rrpH cPH3HOJIOrWieCKHX KOJie6attH51X 3Hal.feHHH pH (OT 6,9 )10 7,4) fHCTJI,IJ,HH 3ap51)Kett JIH60 HetiTpaJibHO, JIH6o IIOJIO- )KJITeJibHO. CTp11 YBeJI11qettHH KOJIH'-lecrna npoTottoB B cpeLJ,e HMHLJ,a30JibHa51 rpynna fHCTH)lHHa crroco6tta rrpttcoeLJ,HH51Tb rrpoTOH, rrpno6pern51 rroJIO)l(HTeJibHbitt 3apHL\, a rrptt YBeJIHl.feHHH KOH11,ettTpa11,im nI.llPOKCHJibHblX rpynrr - OTLJ,aBaTb rrpoTOH, Tep51SI IIOJIO)KJITeJibHbIH 3ap51LI, paLl,HKaJia. CTOJIO)KHTeJibHO 3ap51)KeHHbJe paL!,HKaJibl - KaTHOHbl (CM. cxeMy HH)!(e).

Hatt60Jiblllei1 pacTBOPHMOCTbIO B BOLJ,e 06Jia11a10T IIOJIHPHbJe 3ap51%eHHbie paLJ,HKaJibl aMHHOKl1CJIOT.

4. HJ.Menenue cyM.Mapnow 1apa<Ja QMUHOICUCJlOm 6 3Q6UCUMOcmu om pH cpeObt

CTpn ttethpaJibHbIX 3tta'-!eHH51X pH Bee KMCJIOTHbie (crroco6ttbte OTLJ,aBaTb H+) 11 oce octtOBHhre (cnoco6ttbie rrpttcoeLJ,HH51Tb H+) cPYHKIIHOHaJibHbie rpyrrIIbI HaXOMTC51 B ).UfCCOUHHpOBaHHOM COCT051HHH.

CT03TOMY B ttetiTpaJibHOH cpe11e aMHHOKHCJIOTbl, COLl,ep)Kalll,He HeLJ,HCCOUHHPYIOIIIHH paL!,HKaJI, HMeIOT CYMMapttbiti ttyJieBoti 3ap5IL1,. AM11ttoKHCJIOThI, COLl,ep)l(alll,He KHCJIOTHble cPYHKil,HOHaJibHbie rpynnbI, HMeIOT CYMMapHbIH OTPHil,aTeJibHbltt 3aPHL\, a aMHHOKHCJIOTbl, COLJ,ep%aW,He OCHOBHble cPYHKUHOHaJibHbie rpynIIbl, - IIOJIO)KJITeJibHbIH 3a-

PH.ll (rn6JI. 1-3).

113MeHeHHe pH B KMCJIYIO CTOPOHY (T.e. IIOBbllllemte B cpeLJ,e KottuettTpautt11 H+) npttBO.llHT K noLJ,aBJieHHIO LJ,ttccouttaUHH KHCJIOTHbIX rpynn. B

AMlllHOK1i1cnorb1 c aHli!OHHblMlil

paA111KanaM111

+H N-CH -COO"

3 I

CH2

I

COO"

Acnaprar lnyraMaT

CHJibHO Kl1CJIOH cpeLJ,e Bee aMHHOKHCJIOTbl nptto6peTaIOT IlOJIO)KJ1TeJibHblH Japsui.

HanpoTHB, yBeJIH'-letttte KOHUeHTpaum1 OH rpynn Bbl3bIBaeT OTIIIeTIJieHHe H+ OT OCHOBHblX cPYHKUHOHaJibHbIX rpyrrrr, '-ITOrrpHBOLJ,HT K yMeHbllleHHIO noJIO)!(l1TeJibHOro 3apsiLJ,a. B CHJlbHO w,e- JIOqttoti cpeLJ,e Bee aMHHOKMCJIOTbl HMeIOT cyMMapHbIH OTp11uaTeJibHbIH 3apHLI,.

5. Mo<Juqmu,upo6aHHbte aMUHOICUCAOmbt, npucymcm6y10w,ue 6 Oe.tllCax

HerrocpeLJ,cTBeHHO B CHHTe3e 6eJIKOB opraHH3Ma qeJIOBeKa npHHHMaIOT yqacTHe TOJibKO 20 nepe'-IHC- JieHHbIX aMHHOKMCJIOT. O.uttaKo B tteKoTopbIX 6enKax HMeIOTCH HeCTaHLJ,apTHbie M0)1HcPHUHPOBaHHbie aMHHOKHCJIOTbl - npoH3BOLl,Hbie OLJ,HOH H3 3THX 20 aMHHOKMCJIOT. HarrpHMep, B MOJJeKyJie KOJIJJaretta (<Ptt6pHJurnpttoro 6eJIKa Me)[(l(J[eTO'-IHOfOMaTPHKCa) npHCYTCTBYIOT fJ1LJ,POKCHilPOl13BOLl,Hbie JIH3HHa H npOJIHHa - 5-fJI,Il,pOKCHJil1311H H 4-fJI,Il,pOKCHilpOJIHH.

Mo.u11<P11Ka11,1111 aMHHOKHCJIOTHhrx ocrnTKOB ocy- w,ecTBJIHIOTCH ~e B COCTaBe 6eJIKOB, T.e. TOJibKO

H2N -CH- COOH

H2N-CH-COOH

I

I

CH2

CH2

I

CH2

I

CH

I

CH-OH

·ooc / "coo·

I

 

CH2

 

I

 

NH2

y-Kap60KcHmyra-

 

r1'1.QPOKCl'1ni1131'1H

Ml'1HOB8SlKl'1CJ10T8

MOAMct>M4MPOB3HHble KMCJ10Tbl, H3iilAeHHble B COCTaBe 6enKOB

IlOCJie OKOH'-laHHH HX CHHTe3a. BBe)leHHe )lOilOJl-

HJITeJibHblX cPYHKUHOHaJibHbIX rpyrrn B CTPYKTYPY

aMHHOKl1CJIOT nptt.uafa 6eJIKaM CBOHCTBa, Heo6xo-

AM111HOK111cnorb1 c Kar1110HHb1M111

paA111KanaM111

+H3N - CH - COO"

I

(CH2h

I

NH

I

C=NH2•

I

NH2

AprHHHH

CxeMa. CTPYKTYPa nonsipHblX aapsi>KeHHblX aMMHOKMCJIOT e AMCC04MMpoeaHHOiil ct>opMe

13

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