Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
english grammar 1.doc
Скачиваний:
29
Добавлен:
24.02.2016
Размер:
740.35 Кб
Скачать

Прошедшее неопределенное время

THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE

Прошедшее неопределенное время обозначает:

а)однократное действие в прошлом;

б) цепь последовательных действий в прошлом;

в) повторяющееся действие в прошлом.

Для него характерны следующие обстоятельства времени: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week (month, year, etc.), two days (three months, etc.) ago, the other day (на днях), in 1990 и другие.

Прошедшее неопределенное время образуется при помощи 2-й формы смыслового глагола.

V II

По способу образования форм все глаголы английского языка делятся на правильные и неправильные.

Вторая (и третья) форма правильныхглаголов образуется при помощи окончанияedилиd, прибавляемого к основе инфинитива.

Например: to ask – asked

to play – played

to answer - answered

to invitedinvited

Окончание edчитается следующим образом:

[ıd] – после букв “t”, “d”: wanted[ıd], landed [ıd]

[d] - после гласных и звонких согласных (кроме “d”):opened [d]

[t] -после глухих согласных (кроме “t”):stopped [t]

Вторая (и третья) форма неправильныхглаголов образуется особо (см. таблицу неправильных глаголов). Неправильные глаголы нужно запоминать сразу во всех трех основных формах.

Предложение в прошедшем неопределенном времени имеет тот же порядок слов, что и любое английское утвердительное предложение.

I место-

подлежащее

II место

сказуемое

IIIместо

дополнение

IY место

обстоятельство

The students

passed

the exams

in summer

Peter

passed

the exams

well

Вопросительная и отрицательная формы в прошедшем неопределенном времени образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола did. Смысловой глагол при этом употребляется вIформе.

Пример вопросительногопредложения:

0 место

вопрос.

слово

I место

вспомог.

глагол

II место

подлежа-

щее

III место

смысл.гл.

в Iформе

IY место-

дополне-

ние

Y место

обст-во

(When)

Did

they

pass

the exams

in summer?

(How)

Did

Peter

pass

the exams

well?

!Вопрос к подлежащемузадается без вспомогательного глагола.

Например: We went to the theatre yesterday.

Who went to the theatre yesterday?

Пример отрицательногопредложения:

I место

подлежащее

II место

вспом. гл.+ отрицание

III место

смысл.гл.

в Iформе

IY место

дополнение

место

обстоят-во

The students

did not

(didn’t)

pass

the exams

in summer

The students

did not

(didn’t)

pass

the exams

well

На русский язык предложения в PastIndefiniteпереводятсяпрошедшим временем совершенным и несовершенным видом.

У П Р А Ж Н Е Н И Я

Упр.13. Определите правильные и неправильные глаголы. Назовите их вторую и третью форму.

to be, to work, to study, to learn, to rest, to read, to write, to go, to come, to make, to do, to sit, to stand, to play, to speak, to say, to walk, to meet, to know.

Упр.14. Прочитайте предложения и скажите, что это же самое произошло с вами и на прошлой неделе (вчера, два дня назад и т.д.)

Model: I usually wake up early. – I woke up early yesterday too.

1. I always have breakfast at home. 2. I often have eggs and bacon for breakfast. 3. I often walk to the Institute. 4. Sometimes I take a bus. 5. I am never late for the classes. 6. We usually read and write at the English lessons. 7. Sometimes we translate texts. 8. We always speak English at our English lessons. 9. I often get good marks at the lessons. 10. I usually come home after 4 p.m. 11. Sometimes I help my mother about the house. 12. In the evening I watch TV. 13. I go to bed at 11 o’clock.

Упр.15. Ответьте на вопросы, а затем расскажите о том, как вы провели прошлые каникулы.

1.Where did you spend your last summer holidays?

  1. Did you get to the place by train or by car?

  2. How long did it take you to get to the place?

  3. Who did you go there with?

  4. Did you stay in the hotel or did you rent an apartment?

  5. How long did you stay there?

  6. What was the weather like?

  7. Did you meet interesting people there?

  8. What did you do during the daytime (in the evenings)?

  9. When did you return home?

  10. Did you enjoy your holidays?

Упр.16. Выразите несогласие со своим собеседником.

Model: - You came home late yesterday.

  • But I didn’t come late. I came at 9 o’clock.

1. You got up very late yesterday. - …

2. You spent too much money at the shop yesterday. - …

3. You forgot to write a greeting card to your granny. - …

4. You forgot to clean your teeth in the morning. - …

5. You missed your classes yesterday. - …

6. You went to bed too late yesterday. - …

7. You told me a lie. - …

8. You got a bad mark yesterday. - …

9. She bought a new dress. - …

10. They invited us to the concert. - …

Упр.17. Постарайтесь оправдаться перед своим другом.

Model: - I didn’t receive any letters from you last month.

- But I wrote you last week.

  1. You didn’t ring me up yesterday.

  2. You didn’t help me to clean the classroom.

  3. You didn’t read the book.

  4. You didn’t go to the Institute yesterday.

  5. You didn’t return me the book.

  6. You didn’t tell me about your travelling.

  7. You didn’t tell us about your marriage.

  8. You didn’t take part in the competition last time.

  9. You didn’t bring a present to me for my birthday.

  10. You didn’t enjoy our party.

Упр.18. Cпросите своего товарища, как он провел вчерашний день.

When

What

How

How many lessons

What lessons

What mark

With whom

Why

did

you

get up

have for breakfast

get to the Institute

have

do at the lessons

get

meet

have lunch

come home

do in the evening

do your homework

go to bed

yesterday?

Упр. 19*. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму.

A.

  1. I went to the cinema yesterday.

  2. He sent a telegramme to his uncle.

  3. My brother took part in the chess tournament.

  4. We swam in the lake last summer.

  5. She came in time.

  6. He smoked too much during the party.

  7. It rained two days ago.

  8. It snowed yesterday.

B.

  1. It was cold yesterday.

  2. She was at the party.

  3. I was happy.

  4. There were two books in the bag.

  5. We were at the lesson.

  6. It took us 20 minutes to write the letter.

  7. It took her much time to find the book.

Упр. 20.* Задайте как можно больше вопросов к предложениям, чтобы получить дополнительную информацию.

  1. I bought some clothing yesterday.

  2. She was ill.

  3. He invited me for lunch.

  4. They were at the lecture.

  5. I went to Moscow in summer.

Упр. 21.* Перепишите следующие тексты, описывая события, которые произошли вчера.

A.

1. On Monday we have four lessons. The first lesson is English. At this lesson we read and translate texts, speak English and answer the teacher’s questions. I get only good marks at the English lessons. After classes I go to the canteen and have lunch there. I eat soup and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink coffee. Then I go to the library, take some books there and work in the reading-hall. I come home at 7 o’clock. After supper I watch TV and help my mother about the house. I go to bed at 10 o’clock.

B.

1. Boris wakes up when it is already quite light. He looks at his watch. It is a quarter to seven. Boris jumps out of bed and runs to the bathroom. He has a cold shower and drinks a cup of tea with a sandwich. He is in a hurry to catch an eight o’clock train. At the railway station he meets three other boys from his group. They all have backpacks with them. In less than an hour they get off the train at a small station near a wood. They walk very quickly and soon find themselves on the shore of a large lake. The boys spend the whole day there. They return home late at night, tired but happy.

Упр. 22*. Раскройте скобки, относя все действия к прошлому.

  1. Tom (not\to shave) in the morning because he (not\to have) time.

  2. We (not\to eat) anything because we (not\to be) hungry.

  3. She (not\to be) interested in the book because she (not\to

understand) it.

  1. I (to meet) them at the station yesterday.

  2. He (to begin) to study German when he (to be) at school.

  3. The child (to break) a cup and his mother (to punish) him.

  4. He (to invite) us to his house and (to show) the garden.

  5. We (not\to know) where to go as nobody (to tell) us the way.

  6. The weather (to be) fine and we (to drive) out of town.

  7. I (to visit) my grandparents and (to bring) them some fruit.

Упр. 23. Переведите на английский язык, используя прошедшее неопределенное время.

1. Мы закончили нашу работу на прошлой неделе. 2. Они вернулись домой в 7 часов вечера. 3. Мы решили послать ему телеграмму. 4. Кому вы отдали эти журналы? 5. Вчера я встретил Ольгу в институте. 6. Когда вы видели его в последний раз? 7. В прошлом году мы не изучали французский. Мы изучали английский. 8. Когда вы начали работу вчера? -–После обеда. У нас было мало работы. 9. Погода была хорошая, и мы с друзьями пошли в парк. 10. Вчера шел дождь, и мы провели весь день дома. 11. Где вы были час тому назад? 12. Я встретил ее позавчера, и она рассказала мне об этом.

PRESENT AND PAST INDEFINITE

Упр. 24. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы.

  1. How did you sleep well last night?

  2. Was it cold or warm yesterday?

  3. When does it snow?

  4. How often did it rain last summer?

  5. What mark did you get at the last seminars?

  6. Where did you go last Sunday?

  7. How many books are there on the desk?

  8. Where does your father have dinner?

  9. When did you come to the Academy yesterday?

  10. What do your parents give you for your birthday?

  11. Why did you enter the Law Academy?

  12. How does your friend study?

  13. How many students were there at the lecture yesterday?

Упр. 25. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму. Вопросы начинайте со слов, данных в скобках.

  1. He rang me up yesterday. (When?)

  2. My parents go to the sea-side every summer. (Where?) (Who?)

  3. I was in the Crimea in summer. (When?)

  4. It snowed heavily last night. (How?)

  5. I am the best student in the group. (Who?)

  6. I had dinner at a restaurant last week-end.

  7. You get good marks at the last English lesson. (What marks?)

  8. It takes them 4 hours to get to the country. (How many hours?)

  9. My parents bought me a fur-coat. (Who?) (What?)

  10. My friend swims well. (How?)

  11. Our neighbors made a great noise last night. (When?)

  12. There are 10 boys in the group. (How many?)

  13. He did the work well. (What?)

  14. It took Mum half an hour to cook breakfast. (How long?)

Упр. 26*. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в настоящем или прошедшем неопределенном.

A.

1. I (to go) to bed at 10 o’clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at 10 o’clock yesterday. 3. My brother always (to wash) his face. 4. Yesterday he (to wash) his face with soap. 5. I (not\to have) lectures every day. 6. We (not\to rest) yesterday. 7. My brother (not\to drink) coffee yesterday. 8. My Mother always (to take) a bus to get to the work but yesterday she (not\to take) a bus but (to walk). 9. You (to exchange) news with your friends every day? – Yes, I … But yesterday I (not\to talk) to them, I (to be) very busy. 10. You (to come) home at 6 o’clock yesterday? – No, I … Yesterday I (to return) home earlier. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family and I (to relax). 11. Your sister (to go) to school every day? – Yes, she…

B.

1. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 2. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago? 3. He (to live) on the third floor. 4. It (to take) you long to find his house yesterday? 5. When your lessons (to be) usually over? 6. I (to drive) to the country last week-end. 7. Her friends seldom (to visit) her. 8. One of her brothers (to make) a tour around Europe last summer. 9. Queen Elizabeth II (to be) born in 1926. She (to become) the Queen of England in 1952. 10. You always (to get up) at 7 o’clock? – No, sometimes I (to get up) later. Yesterday I (to get up) at 9. 11. I (not to know) where she (to live) before but I (to be) sure she (to come) here from far away.

Упр. 27*. Переведите на английский язык, используя настоящее или прошедшее неопределенное время.

  1. Я очень рад, что вы пригласили меня на вечер. 2. Он улыбнулся,

когда увидел своего приятеля. 3. Жаль, что вы не хотите присоединиться к нам. 4. Он говорит, что не помнит многих деталей романа, так как читал его еще в детстве. 5. Этой книги уже нет в магазинах. Жаль, что я не купил ее на прошлой неделе. 6. Он увлекается химией? – Да, он заинтересовался этим предметом еще в школе. 7. Вы не пришли вчера за книгой, а сегодня у меня ее уже нет. 8. Она осталась в гостинице, так как у нее болела голова, а мы отправились осматривать город. 9. Я сержусь на вас, так как вчера вы были очень невнимательны. 10. Наша библиотека снабжает студентов всеми необходимыми книгами.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]