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Oxford Thesaurus - An A-Z Dictionary Of Synonyms

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invent v. 1 create, devise, contrive, originate, think up, dream up, conceive, concoct, make up, imagine, formulate, improvise, design, hit upon; coin: He claims to have invented the toothpaste tube. 2 fabricate, make up, concoct, Colloq cook up: She invented that story about having been a lion-tamer.

invention n. 1 creation, origination, contriving, devising, conception, contrivance, introduction, development: The invention of the screwdriver has spared many a broken fingernail. 2 creation, contrivance, device, gadget, Colloq contraption, US gismo or gizmo: Thomas Edison held patents on a huge number of inventions. 3 fiction, figment, story, fantasy, fabrication,

tale, fable, yarn, fib, tall story or tale, falsification, fake, sham, falsehood, lie, prevarication: Her claim that the accident was my fault is a flagrant invention.

invest v. 1 venture, lay out, put in, sink: She was persuaded to invest her life savings in unit trusts. 2 devote, allot, spend, contribute, supply, provide: We have invested a lot of time in cleaning up local government. 3 install or instal, inaugurate, induct, initiate, instate, establish, ordain, swear in, seat:

He will be invested with the Order of Merit on Tuesday.


v. enquire or inquire into, examine, study, consider, explore, probe, look into, research, scrutinize, analyse, sift (through), winnow: The laboratory is investigating the nature of the strange phenomenon.


n. enquiry or inquiry, examination, study, review, exploration, quest, search, probe, research, discovery procedure, scrutiny, analysis, inquest, inquisition, interrogation, questioning: Has the investigation turned up any evidence of collusion?


adj. stimulating, bracing, rejuvenating, tonic, vitalizing, restorative, energizing, vivifying, enlivening, exhilarating; fresh, healthful, healthy, salubrious, salutary: Each morning I go for an invigorating walk. The doctor recommended the invigorating mountain air.


adj. 1 unconquerable, unbeatable, indomitable, insuperable, undefeated, unstoppable: United look invincible, and are likely to retain the cup for a fourth successive season. 2 impregnable, invulnerable, impenetrable, indestructible, unassailable: The Romans believed the fortress to be invincible.

invisible adj. 1 unseeable, imperceptible, undetectable, imperceivable; unseen: The air we breathe is invisible. 2 concealed, hidden, disguised, camouflaged, masked, covered, unperceived, veiled, indiscernible: Once the part has been painted, the damage will be invisible.


n. 1 summons, request, call, bidding, Colloq invite: I am still waiting for my invitation to their wedding. 2 attraction, inducement, allure, allurement, enticement, temptation, magnetism, bait, lure, draw, pull: The possibility of going where no man had gone before was too great an invitation to ignore.

inviting adj. alluring, tempting, enticing, attractive, beckoning, appealing, captivating, engaging, intriguing, irresistible, winsome, beguiling, bewitching, entrancing, fascinating, tantalizing, seductive: She gave him an inviting smile but he still approached cautiously.


adj. unconscious, unintentional, unthinking, impulsive, spontaneous, unpremeditated, instinctive, instinctual, unwitting; automatic, reflex, mechanical, conditioned,

uncontrolled, uncontrollable: When I was struck, my involuntary reaction was to strike back at once. At the mention of his name she gave an involuntary start.

involve v. 1 include, contain, comprise, cover, embrace, incorporate, encompass, take in, subsume, embody, comprehend, number among, count in: The survey involved many people from all walks of

life. 2 imply, entail, suggest, mean, betoken, require, necessitate, presuppose: Enrolling for a course involves doing homework as well as attending classes. 3 Often, involve in or with. implicate, concern, affect, touch, entangle, draw in; incriminate, inculpate; associate with, connect with, catch (up)

in: I didn't know that Annette was involved. Are you involved in that murder investigation?

involved adj. 1 implicated, concerned, affected, interested, active: The public enquiry was attended by all involved members of the community. 2 tangled, complicated, complex, twisted, snarled, convoluted, confused, confusing, intricate, tortuous, elaborate, knotty, Byzantine, labyrinthine: The plot is too involved to be followed easily. The involved problems of adolescence cannot be treated in a one-day conference. 3 involved with. associated with, entangled with, embroiled with, enmeshed with, Colloq mixed up with: Dennis is still very much involved with that singer from the Green Dragon.

9.7 irk...



v. irritate, annoy, vex, pester, provoke, chafe, nettle,


exasperate, Colloq needle, miff, aggravate, bug, peeve, rub


(someone) (up) the wrong way, put out: It really irks me to


know that we lost because we didn't practise.

irksome adj. irritating, annoying, vexing, vexatious, chafing, nettling, exasperating, bothersome, troublesome, burdensome, tiresome, tedious, boring, wearisome, uninteresting, Colloq aggravating, pestiferous: The mosquitoes are particularly irksome on muggy, windless evenings.

irregular adj. 1 uneven, bumpy, lumpy, coarse, rough, unequal, unsymmetrical, asymmetric(al), pitted, potholed, jagged, craggy, lopsided: The irregular surface of the road bounced us about in the car. 2 sporadic, uneven, random, erratic, unequal, fitful, haphazard, unsystematic, unsystematized, disorderly, uncertain, unmethodical; occasional, casual: In the distance I could hear the staccato of irregular machine-gun fire. 3 extraordinary, unusual, eccentric, abnormal, anomalous, aberrant, unnatural, peculiar, queer, odd, weird, bizarre, strange, singular, nonconforming, nonconformist, exceptional, unconventional, offbeat, uncommon, freakish, Colloq freaky: Don't you think that keeping a Komodo dragon as a pet is somewhat irregular?


adj. inappropriate, inapplicable, impertinent, unrelated, alien, inapposite, malapropos, beside the point, inapt,

non-germane, unconnected, extraneous, neither here nor there, out of place, gratuitous, uncalled-for, Colloq out of the blue, off the beam, Slang off-the-wall: The name of the person who asked the question is entirely irrelevant.


adj. unrestrainable, irrestrainable, uncontainable, uncontrollable, unmanageable, insuppressible or unsuppressible, unstoppable, ebullient, buoyant, effervescent, bubbling, boisterous: Nothing could dampen our irrepressible high spirits after winning the game.


adj. blameless, unimpeachable, beyond reproach, unreprovable, faultless, innocent, above suspicion, impeccable, inculpable, honest, pure: Till now, Forsyth's record in the army has been irreproachable.


adj. 1 irrepressible, unconquerable, indomitable, overpowering, unbearable, overwhelming, overriding, unmanageable, ungovernable, uncontrollable: I had an irresistible desire to punch him in the nose. 2 unstoppable, inexorable, relentless, unavoidable, ineluctable, inescapable: What happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?


adj. vacillating, wavering, faltering, indecisive, infirm of purpose, in or US only of two minds, undecided, hesitant, hesitating, shifting, changing, erratic, uncertain, unsure,

undetermined, unresolved, half-hearted, Colloq wishy-washy: You must act; this is no time to be irresolute.

irrespective of

prep. regardless of, notwithstanding, despite, apart from, in spite of, without regard to, ignoring, discounting: We shall carry on irrespective of public opinion.


adj. careless, reckless, devil-may-care, unanswerable, unaccountable, non-liable, rash, unruly, wild; unreliable,

undependable, untrustworthy, weak, feckless, ineffectual: Cyril is too irresponsible to take care of the children by himself.


adj. 1 non-retrievable, unretrievable, unrecoverable, irrecoverable, unsalvageable, unsavable, lost, irreclaimable: The data that was deleted is now irretrievable. 2 irreparable, irremediable, uncorrectable, unrectifiable, irredeemable, irreversible, irrevocable: The radiation from the atomic blast did irretrievable damage.


adj. 1 blasphemous, impious, profane, sacrilegious, unholy, ungodly, irreligious: She was reprimanded for her irreverent attitude to morning prayers. 2 disrespectful, insulting, insolent, rude, discourteous, uncivil, derisive, impudent, impertinent, saucy, flippant, mocking, tongue-in-cheek, Colloq flip, cheeky: The prince did not appreciate being the butt of the irreverent skit.


adj. unreversible, non-reversible, irrevocable, unchangeable, unalterable, permanent, fixed, final, unrepealable, irredeemable, irretrievable: Burning, essentially the chemical process of rapid oxidation, is irreversible.


adj. irreversible, unchangeable, immutable, changeless, fixed, unalterable, settled, unrecallable, irretrievable, irrepealable, not undoable; irreparable, permanent, enduring, everlasting: The colonel says that his was an irrevocable order. That speech did you irrevocable harm.

irritable adj. impatient, excitable, testy, touchy, quarrelsome, grouchy, fretful, peevish, cross, crabby, crusty, short-tempered,

petulant, prickly, irascible, moody, temperamental, gruff, cantankerous, curmudgeonly, dyspeptic, bad-tempered, ill-tempered, ill-humoured, snappy or snappish, grumpy or Brit also grumpish, Colloq crotchety, US and Canadian and Irish cranky: Why are you always so irritable before breakfast?

irritate v. annoy, vex, nettle, pester, provoke, bother, anger, enrage, chafe, pique, exasperate, ruffle, hector, harass, harry, nag,

plague, worry, fret, fluster, trouble, pick at or on, Colloq needle, get under (someone's) skin, get in (someone's) hair,

hassle, peeve, get on (someone's) nerves, drive (someone) up the wall, get (someone's) hackles up, get (someone's) back up, drive (someone) crazy or mad, rub (someone) (up) the wrong way, Brit get up (someone's) nose, US burn (someone) up: All these stupid questions are beginning to irritate me.

9.8 island...



n. isle, islet, ait, cay, key; atoll; archipelago; Brit dialect

eyot, holm: There are actually about 1500 islands in the

Thousand Islands in the St Lawrence river.


v. separate, segregate, sequester, cloister, detach, cut off,

send to Coventry, ostracize, maroon, exclude, shut out, bar, debar, banish, deport, transport, exile, reject, eject, throw

out, expel, shun, spurn, avoid, ignore, snub; quarantine; Colloq cut, give (someone) the cold shoulder: You cannot isolate a child from the pressures of modern society.

isolated adj. 1 lone, solitary, single, singular, unique, anomalous, separate, special, particular, individual, exceptional,

unrelated: In one isolated case they recommended a suspended sentence. 2 alone, separated, segregated, secluded, sequestered, cloistered, unconnected, detached, (set) apart, removed, cut off, excluded; forlorn, lonely, hermitic(al), eremitic(al), anchoretic(al), troglodytic(al), monastic: Away from his friends and family, he felt totally isolated. After his wife died, he led an isolated existence. 3 secluded, remote, out-of-the-way, off the beaten track, unfrequented, lonely; secret, hidden: For twenty years we lived in that isolated shack in the wilderness.

issue n. 1 outflow, outgoing, exit, egress, issuance, emanation, efflux, debouchment, emergence, outlet: The river's colour changed abruptly at its point of issue into the sea. 2 outcome, conclusion, consequence, culmination, result, end, effect, consummation, event, climax, Colloq pay-off: Whatever the issue, it has been a brave effort. 3 point, topic, subject, matter, affair, problem, question: That is an issue you should

take up with the mayor. 4 Usually, major issue. (major or big) problem or difficulty, controversy, fight, dispute, cause c‚lŠbre: He turns even walking the dog into a major issue. 5 printing, edition, version; copy, number: I have a copy of the Sunday issue. See if you can buy an issue of today's paper. 6 publication, promulgation, issuance, issuing, distribution, delivery, dissemination, broadcasting, proclamation, circulation: There will be a special issue of stamps to commemorate his death. 7 offspring, child or children, descendant(s), progeny, young, scion(s), son(s), daughter(s):

According to the records, your uncle died without issue, making you his sole heir. 8 at issue. in contention, in dispute, unresolved, unsettled, uncertain, up in the air, to be decided: The point at issue is which system will be the most efficient.

9 take issue. disagree, argue, contend, dispute, oppose, take exception: I feel that I must take issue with your conclusion.

--v. 10 proclaim, promulgate, declare, publish, put out, put or set forth, announce, circulate, distribute, get out, release, deliver, broadcast, disseminate, get out: The kidnappers have issued an ultimatum. 11 emerge, come or go forth, exit, emanate, discharge, stream, flow, pour; appear, originate, spring, stem, arise: The play ended, and people issued from the theatre. Where Pegasus stamped his foot the Pierian spring issued forth.

9.9 itch...



v. 1 tickle, tingle, prickle: These mosquito bites itch


terribly. 2 desire, crave, hanker, hunger, thirst, yearn, pine,


wish, want, die: I am itching to get my hands on whoever told


you that I was dead.


--n. 3 tickle, tickling, tingle, tingling, prickle, prickling,


irritation: My frustration is like having an itch I can't


scratch. 4 desire, craving, hankering, hunger, thirst,


yearning, longing, Colloq yen: I have a sudden itch to visit


mother for the weekend.


n. 1 detail, article, point, particular, matter, thing,


element, component, ingredient: There's one item I'd like you

to keep in mind. 2 piece, mention, notice, note, memorandum, memo, filler, jotting: We often publish short items to fill out a column.

itemize v. enumerate, list, specify, particularize, detail, document, number, record, count, tabulate: Must I itemize every single book in the inventory?

10.0 J =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

10.1 jab...



v. 1 stab, thrust, poke, dig, prod; plunge; nudge; tap: The


doctor jabbed a needle into my arm. 2 punch, hit, strike, belt,


smack, rap, whack, thwack, cuff, thump, wallop; elbow; Colloq


clip, sock, slug, biff: I jabbed him in the jaw with a quick




--n. 3 stab, thrust, poke, dig, prod, nudge: I felt the jab of


her elbow signalling me to be quiet. 4 punch, belt, smack, rap,


whack, thwack, cuff, thump, wallop, Colloq clip, sock, slug,


biff: A hard jab in the stomach made the bully turn to pudding.


v. 1 blether or US only blather, chatter, babble, gibber,


gabble, prate, prattle, patter, drivel, rattle, Brit natter,


Scots yatter, Colloq gab, gas, yap, witter: The couple behind


me jabbered throughout the entire film.


--n. 2 See jargon, 2.


n. 1 nag, hack, Slang Brit screw, US plug: That old jade


hasn't won a race in his last ten times out. 2 shrew, harridan,


nag, hag, drab, witch, crone, hussy, minx, vixen, virago,


termagant, beldam, slut, slattern, trull, trollop, baggage,


tart, Slang battle-axe, broad, bitch, old bag, floozie or floozy


or floosie: He was married to an expensive jade of a wife.

jaded adj. 1 exhausted, weary, tired, dead tired, bone-tired,

bone-weary, dog-tired, fatigued, enervated, spent, Colloq (dead) beat, dead, bushed, fagged, US and Canadian pooped: The nightspot was full of jaded businessmen, who had gone there to relax after a heavy day at the office. 2 sated, satiated,

cloyed, surfeited, glutted, gorged, fed up, sick (and tired) of, slaked; dull, bored: You need a little champagne and caviar to reawaken your jaded palate.


n. spree, carouse, orgy, bout, Colloq binge, US and Canadian

toot: She was terribly hung-over after last night's jag.


adj. rough, uneven, notched, sawtooth, ragged, toothed, spiked,

indented, denticulate, serrated, chipped: I cut myself on the

jagged edge of that broken window.


n. 1 Brit gaol, prison, lock-up, reformatory, Brit Borstal, US

penitentiary, reform school, Nautical brig, Slang cooler, clink,


can, jug, stir, slammer, Brit nick, quod, choky or chokey, US


calaboose, big house, pen, coop, hoosegow, pokey: They were


sent to jail for life.


--v. 2 imprison, lock up, incarcerate, detain, confine, Brit


send down, US send up (the river): He was jailed for 30 days.


n. Brit gaoler, turnkey, guard, Brit warder, governor, US


warden, Slang screw: The jailers let us out for exercise for an


hour each day.


v. 1 cram, force, push, wedge, stuff, press, ram, squeeze,


shove, pack, crowd: We were jammed in so tightly that we


couldn't move. 2 block, obstruct, congest, fill up, clog, plug,


stop up: The toilet is jammed with paper again. 3 slam,


activate, actuate: I jammed on the brakes.


--n. 4 obstruction, blockage, blocking, block, congestion,


tie-up, bottleneck, stoppage: She was stuck in a traffic jam


for an hour. 5 crush, squeeze, crowd, mob, swarm, multitude,


throng, mass, horde, pack, press: You wouldn't believe the jam


of football fans at the cup final! 6 trouble, difficulty,


predicament, quandary, dilemma, Colloq bind, fix, hole, pickle,


hot water, (tight) spot, scrape: Harry helped me out of a jam


once, and I won't forget it.

jamboree n. gathering, get-together, party, celebration, fˆte, festival, festivity, carnival, frolic, revelry, spree, carouse, jubilee, revels, charivari: Everyone is invited to the annual jamboree in the village square.

jangle v. 1 clatter, clash, rattle, clang, clank, crash, ring, jingle: The chains jangled as the prisoners marched to their cells. 2 jar, upset, irritate: The continuous screaming of the sirens jangled my nerves.


--n. 3 jangling, clatter, clash, rattle, jarring, clang,


clanging, clank, clanking, crash, clangour, noise, din, racket,


clamour, dissonance, cacophony, reverberation, Literary stridor:


I heard the jangle of the rag-and-bone man's cart in the next




n. crock; receptacle, vessel, container, urn, pot, vase; jug,


pitcher, ewer, flagon, carafe, bottle, amphora: We always keep


some small change in that blue jar.


v. 1 shake, agitate, disturb, stir, shock, jolt, jounce,

bounce, jog, jerk, jiggle, joggle: Don't jar the oven or the cake will collapse. 2 disagree, conflict, clash, bicker,

quarrel, wrangle, oppose, discord: She finds that her emotions about her ex-husband are jarring. 3 disturb, upset, disconcert, unsettle, disquiet, bother, trouble, vex, gall, offend, take aback, irritate, grate, irk, nettle, annoy: It jars me to think that they got off with light sentences.

--n. 4 shock, start, jolt, surprise: Seeing Sam after all those years gave me quite a jar.

jargon n. 1 cant, argot, parlance, idiom, vernacular, slang; patois, Creole, dialect, pidgin; Colloq lingo: In the jargon of philately, this is known as a 'first day cover'. 2 blether or US also blather, chatter, babble, gibberish, jabber, gabble,

gobbledegook or gobbledygook, prattle, patter, drivel, cackle, jabberwocky, twaddle, (stuff and) nonsense, rubbish, codswallop, balderdash, bunk, humbug, palaver, bavardage, Colloq rot, garbage, hogwash, bosh, piffle, flapdoodle, chit-chat, gab, claptrap, Slang bull, crap: When I questioned my bank manager about the fee, he just gave me a lot of jargon.