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Oxford Thesaurus - An A-Z Dictionary Of Synonyms

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good, virtuous, honest, straightforward, straight, unimpeachable, incorruptible, undefiled, impeccable, spotless, immaculate, faultless, flawless: Show me one nation run by a totally incorrupt government. 2 error-free, correct, uncorrupted: He possesses the only incorrupt manuscript of the play.

increase v. 1 grow, swell, enlarge, dilate, wax, expand, extend, distend, inflate, augment, snowball, enhance, heighten, raise, develop, multiply, burgeon or bourgeon, flourish, proliferate, spread, broaden, widen, lengthen: Since you left, my work has increased threefold. 2 prolong, advance, further, improve, better, strengthen: The more lottery tickets you buy, the more you increase your chances of winning.

--n. 3 growth, enlargement, expansion, extension, augmentation, enhancement, development, multiplication, proliferation, spread: The increase in scientific knowledge has been phenomenal. 4 addition, increment, escalation, inflation, gain, rise, boost: Increases in costs are reflected in increases in prices. 5 on

the increase. waxing, developing, growing, expanding, increasing, escalating, on the rise, proliferating, spreading: Trade with the Far East will be on the increase next year.


adj. 1 unbelievable, beyond belief, inconceivable, unimaginable, unthinkable, improbable, implausible, far-fetched, absurd, preposterous, ridiculous, unlikely, impossible, unrealistic, unreal, fictitious, mythic(al): Incredible as it

may appear, continents move a few inches a year. 2 extraordinary, astounding, astonishing, amazing, wonderful, awe-inspiring, awesome, tremendous, marvellous, prodigious, Colloq far-out, US humongous: The incredible amounts spent on arms could be better spent on medical research.


adj. disbelieving, unbelieving, dubious, doubtful, sceptical, mistrustful, distrustful, suspicious: We were incredulous when we learnt who had won the award.

increment n. increase, addition, gain, accrual or chiefly Brit accrument, augmentation: The increment last year barely compensated for inflation.


v. accuse, charge, blame, implicate, inculpate, indict, impeach, involve, entangle, Colloq point the finger at, Chiefly US put the finger on, Slang US finger: The suspect confessed and incriminated two others.

incubate v. hatch, brood; nurse, nurture, develop: How long have you been incubating this plan?

incumbent adj. 1 obligatory, necessary, required, mandatory, compulsory, binding, demanding, commanding, prescribed: As their father,

you ought to feel it incumbent on you to talk to the children's teachers. 2 office-holding: The incumbent chairman is not responsible for his predecessor's mistakes.

--n. 3 office-holder, official, occupant: As the incumbent, you have a better chance of being re-elected.

incur v. bring upon or on (oneself), draw, attract, arouse, provoke, invite, expose (oneself) to, lay (oneself) open to: For some reason he incurred the displeasure of his manager.

incurable adj. 1 irremediable, terminal, inoperable, fatal, hopeless: The doctor told me yesterday that the condition is incurable. 2 hopeless, inveterate, habitual, incorrigible, dyed in the wool, unflagging, relentless, irredeemable; irreparable, unrectifiable: You are an incurable optimist if you think you will complete this book by the deadline.

indebted adj. obligated, owing, obliged, beholden, bound, liable, responsible: I am indebted to the Salvation Army for their help.

indecent adj. 1 indecorous, indelicate, immodest, improper, unbecoming, unsuitable, unfit, inappropriate; in bad taste: When he

proposed marriage she accepted with indecent haste. 2 unseemly, shameless, shameful, offensive, outrageous, repellent,

repulsive, distasteful, ill-mannered, rude, suggestive, coarse, risqu‚, vulgar, blue, obscene, gross, rank, prurient, dirty, foul, filthy, pornographic, ithyphallic, scatological, salacious, lascivious, licentious, lewd, lubricious or lubricous, smutty, vile, degenerate, debauched: There are

always a lot of complaints about indecent language on television.


n. hesitation, wavering, indecisiveness, vacillation, irresolution, uncertainty, ambivalence, shilly-shally or shilly-shallying, fluctuation, tergiversation: Her indecision stems from caution, not ignorance of the issues.


adj. 1 hesitating, hesitant, wavering, doubtful, vacillating, undecided, irresolute, uncertain, of two minds, ambivalent, shilly-shallying, wishy-washy, namby-pamby, fluctuating, tergiversating: Why are you so assertive at the office yet so indecisive at home? 2 indefinite, indeterminate, undecided, inconclusive, open, unsettled, moot, doubtful: The battle was indecisive, with both sides incurring heavy losses.

indeed adv. 1 certainly, surely, to be sure, doubtless(ly), undoubtedly, undeniably, definitely, positively, absolutely, exactly, just so, actually, truly, truthfully, seriously, (all) joking aside, in (point of) fact, of course, really, in reality,

to be realistic, naturally, upon my word, on my honour, on my oath, Brit rather, Colloq no kidding: Indeed, that is the news he has been expecting. 2 what is more, still, not to say, as a matter of fact, if the truth be known, to say the least: His

had been a depressing, indeed miserable childhood.

--interj. 3 Is that so!, You don't say!, Really!, By George!,

By Jove!, (Upon) my word!, My goodness!, Goodness!, Gracious!, Mercy!, Good Lord!, Good heavens!, My stars!, Fancy that!, Imagine (that)!, Well, I'll be (damned)!, Colloq Brit Blimey!, Cor!, Crikey!: 'I've torn up the winning lottery ticket.'



adj. 1 uncertain, undetermined, undefined, imprecise, inexact, inexplicit, unspecified, unsettled, unfixed, unspecific, non-specific, vague, general, indeterminate, undecided, sub judice: The time of the meeting was indefinite. 2 vague, unclear, obscure, confused, confusing, puzzling, baffling, cryptic, bewildering, mystifying, equivocal, ambiguous, unspecific, non-specific, inexplicit, inexact, imprecise: Your

directions for getting here were too indefinite. 3 ill-defined, undefined, blurred, blurry, hazy, indistinct, obscure, dim, fuzzy, unrecognizable, indistinguishable: Indefinite shapes loomed in the fog. 4 unlimited, unknown, uncounted, uncountable, undefinable, indeterminate, indeterminable, unbounded, boundless, immeasurable, incalculable, limitless, endless, infinite: He pondered the indefinite capacities of the mind. 5 hesitant, vague, shilly-shallying, vacillating, indecisive, undecided, inconstant, wavering, unsure, uncertain, Colloq wishy-washy: She is still indefinite about going to the party.

indelible adj. ineradicable or uneradicable or non-eradicable, inerasable or unerasable or non-erasable, ineffaceable, inexpungible, indestructible, uncancellable or non-cancellable, enduring, permanent, lasting, fixed, ingrained, inextirpable: The laundry marks are in indelible ink. Irena makes an indelible impression on everyone she meets.


n. coarseness, crudeness, roughness, vulgarity, boorishness, churlishness, offensiveness, rudeness, immodesty, indecency, shamelessness; incivility, indecorum, inelegance, uncourtliness, unmannerliness, impoliteness, unrefinement, unseemliness, tastelessness, bad or poor taste, grossness: She refuses to comment on the indelicacy of his proposal.

indemnity n. 1 compensation, repayment, reimbursement, remuneration, recompense, consideration, restitution, reparation(s), redress, indemnification, return, quid pro quo, restoration, award,

reward, payment, disbursement, amends, requital, atonement, reckoning, quittance: The victors demanded indemnity for the losses they had suffered. 2 insurance, protection, security, safety, guarantee, assurance, underwriting, warrant, endorsement, certification; exemption, impunity, privilege: Am I covered for indemnity against third-party claims?


n. notch, dent, nick, cut, score, mark, depression, impression, hollow, dimple, pit; Typography indention: The chair legs had left small indentations in the parquet floor. The indentation

of each paragraph should be five spaces.


n. 1 freedom, liberty, autonomy, sovereignty, self-rule, home rule, self-determination, self-government, self-direction, autonomy, autarchy: The colony gained independence from Portugal. 2 confidence, self-confidence, self-sufficiency, self-reliance, self-assurance: Edwina asserted her independence by taking over the company herself.


adj. 1 free, self-governing, autonomous, sovereign: In 1829 Greece was acknowledged as an independent state. 2 unrestrained, unrestricted, unfettered, untrammelled, unregulated, uncontrolled, separate(d), unconnected, disconnected, unrelated, distinct: Air is made up of independent particles. 3 self-reliant, self-sufficient, self-assured, (self-)confident, bold, individualistic, competent: For a six-year-old, he is very independent. 4 voluntary, non-partisan, spontaneous, unsolicited, unbidden, unprejudiced, unbiased, non-aligned, unaligned, disinterested, neutral: Four independent witnesses testified to seeing him at the scene of the crime. 5 unlimited, unrestricted, affluent,

self-sufficient; unearned: She is a woman of independent means. 6 unallied, unaffiliated, uncommitted, individualistic, undecided: Independent candidates outnumber those of the two main parties in this election. 7 outside, external,

unaffiliated, non-affiliated, unconnected, disinterested: An independent auditor was engaged to go over the company's books. 8 independent of. irrespective of, disregarding,

notwithstanding, ignoring, excluding; exclusive of, except for, barring, apart from, besides, beyond, US aside from: He insists on doing things his way, independent of others' feelings. Independent of you and me, no one cares what he does.

--n. 9 individual, nonconformist, maverick, Colloq loner: He is an independent, not affiliated to any political party.


adj. durable, long-lasting, everlasting, eternal, endless, perennial, permanent, fixed, unchanging, changeless, unchangeable, indelible, ineradicable, inextirpable, immutable, unalterable, constant, undying, non-perishable, imperishable; unbreakable, non-breakable, shatter-proof: The problem is that many plastics are virtually indestructible.

index n. 1 guide, directory, list, listing, table of contents, catalogue, key, thesaurus: To find synonyms for a word in this book, look first in the index. 2 mark, sign, clue, token, hint, pointer, indicator, indication, guide: An index to his feelings can be seen in the way he treats people. 3 index finger, forefinger, first finger; pointer, marker, needle, Chiefly Brit typography hand, Chiefly US typography fist: Use an index to emphasize important paragraphs. 4 ratio, measure, formula, factor: The cephalic index is the ratio of the width of a skull to its length multiplied by 100.

indicate v. 1 point out, point to, mark, specify, designate, indicate; call or direct attention to, show: The thermometer indicated that the temperature was 22øC. Sally indicated the place where the dam would be built. 2 imply, suggest, betoken, manifest, signify, bespeak, reveal, evince, evidence, denote: Measles is indicated by the presence of Koplik's spots. 3 suggest, hint, imply, intimate; say, express, state, disclose, tell, make known, make clear, register, show, display, exhibit: His frown indicated his doubts. She indicated her displeasure in a few,

well-chosen words. 4 call for, require, demand, need, recommend: The doctor advised that a surgical procedure is indicated in

such cases.


n. 1 sign, signal, token, suggestion, hint, intimation,

inkling, clue, implication, symptom: A bullet-riddled corpse, said the detective, is usually a good indication of foul play. 2 reading, measure, degree: The indication on the pressure gauge is reaching the danger point. 3 omen, portent, forewarning, warning, augury, foreshadowing, foretoken: Those black clouds are an indication that a storm is brewing. Can't you give us

any indication of what will become of us? 4 indications. evidence, data, clues, signs: Indications are that she left on the last train.

indicative of

adj. signifying, indicating, indicatory of, suggesting, suggestive of, hinting (at), symptomatic of, denotative of, characteristic of, typical of, typifying: Repeated stalling is indicative of some fault in the fuel.

indicator n. pointer, needle; gauge, meter, display: The indicator reads exactly 67øC.

indict v. Often, indict for. charge (with), accuse (with or of), arraign (for), incriminate (in or for), inculpate (in or for),

cite (for or with), denounce (for), blame (for or with); summon, summons, subpoena: She has been indicted for murder in the first degree.


n. 1 unconcern, apathy, listlessness, disinterest, coolness, nonchalance, insouciance, aloofness, detachment, disregard, inattention, pococuranteism or pococurantism, coldness, phlegm, stolidity, callousness, insensibility, impassiveness or impassivity: I cannot believe the indifference she showed on learning about the tragedy. 2 unimportance, insignificance, irrelevance, unconcern, inconsequence, triviality: Whether I go or stay is a matter of indifference to me. 3 dispassion, disinterestedness, impartiality, neutrality, objectivity,

fairness, equitableness, even-handedness: The judges demonstrated their indifference by awarding first prize to a novice.


adj. 1 unconcerned, apathetic, uncaring, listless, disinterested, uninterested, cool, nonchalant, lukewarm, lackadaisical, Laodicean, dispassionate, insouciant, aloof, detached, distant, removed, inattentive, pococurante, cold, phlegmatic, stolid, callous, unemotional, uncompassionate, insensitive, unfeeling, inconsiderate, unsympathetic, insensible, impassive: Joan remained totally indifferent to Charles's attentions. 2 impartial, neutral, just, even-handed, objective, fair, equitable, unbiased, unprejudiced, non-partisan, non-discriminatory, dispassionate, disinterested:

The problem is in reaching an indifferent judgement. 3 neutral, average, mediocre, fair, undistinguished, uninspired, lightweight, passable, middling, ordinary, commonplace, everyday, so so, not bad; poor, inferior, not very or

particularly or especially good, Slang Brit naff: He is a writer of indifferent quality. I held indifferent cards but lost little money. 4 unimportant, insignificant, trivial, trifling, nugatory, immaterial, inconsequential, minor, inappreciable, slight, neither here nor there: It is indifferent to him where

she spends her money.


adj. 1 native, local, autochthonous, endemic, natural, aboriginal, original: The indigenous inhabitants were displaced by marauding tribes. 2 innate, inborn, inbred, inherent: It is often difficult to distinguish between man's indigenous and his acquired characteristics.

indigent adj. needy, poor, destitute, poverty-stricken, in want, penniless, impoverished, penurious, impecunious, necessitous, Colloq (dead or flat) broke, stony-broke, hard up, short, on one's uppers, Brit skint, US strapped: The two brothers made certain that their indigent parents were well looked after.


n. dyspepsia, upset stomach, stomach distress; stomach-ache, gastralgia: A bit of bicarbonate of soda cured my indigestion at once.

indignant adj. provoked, exasperated, disgruntled, piqued, irked, irritated, annoyed, vexed, angry, furious, irate, angered, enraged, incensed, wrathful, in high dudgeon, in a temper, in a rage, in a pet, Literary wroth, Colloq peeved, riled, in a huff, huffy, miffed, mad, livid, sore, US teed off, Slang pissed off: Peter was quite indignant to learn that the publisher had lost his manuscript.


n. anger, fury, rage, wrath, exasperation, irritation, annoyance, vexation, resentment, Literary ire, choler: She was filled with righteous indignation at the treatment she received.

indignity n. insult, affront, outrage, injury, offence, humiliation, disrespect, slight, dishonour, snub, obloquy, contumely, scorn, reproach, abuse, discourtesy, aspersion, Colloq slap (in the face): The duchess had to suffer the indignity of arrest for shoplifting.

indirect adj. 1 roundabout, circuitous, circumambient, devious, tortuous, zigzag, winding, rambling, roving, wandering, erratic, meandering, ambagious, crooked, oblique, twisted, twisting; circumlocutory, periphrastic: In an indirect way she told me

that I was fired. 2 secondary, incidental, ancillary, collateral, accidental, side, subordinate, subsidiary, accessory, additional, accidental, adscititious, adventitious: An indirect effect of winning the prize was an offer of more work.


adj. imprudent, tactless, incautious, impolitic, undiplomatic, improvident, injudicious, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-considered, rash, reckless, audacious, bold, temerarious, impulsive, hasty, impetuous, thoughtless, insensitive, heedless, careless, unthinking, mindless, unwise, na‹ve, foolish, foolhardy: Your reference to her plastic surgery was indiscreet to say the least.


n. 1 imprudence, tactlessness, improvidence, injudiciousness, rashness, recklessness, audacity, boldness, temerity, impulsiveness, hastiness, haste, impetuousness, impetuosity, thoughtlessness, insensitivity, heedlessness, carelessness, na‹vety, foolishness, foolhardiness, folly: He was guilty of indiscretion in talking to the press about the confidential report. 2 blunder, error, mistake, slip, lapse, misstep, gaffe,

faux pas, peccadillo, Colloq boner, Brit bloomer: He spent much of his adult life paying for the indiscretions of his youth.


adj. 1 undiscriminating, unselective, unparticular, uncritical, undiscerning, careless, promiscuous, random: Viola seems indiscriminate in her choice of companions. 2 confused, haphazard, unorganized, chaotic, disorganized, jumbled, disordered, disarranged, scrambled, mixed-up, casual, random, unsystematic, unsystematized, uncoordinated, unmethodical, wholesale, erratic, Colloq higgledy-piggledy: The Aztecs were victims of indiscriminate slaughter at the hands of the conquistadors.


adj. 1 crucial, vital, essential, urgent, imperative,

necessary, needed, needful, required, requisite, demanded, in demand, called-for, of the essence, important, compelling: A good television manner is indispensable in a national leader these days. 2 key, unavoidable, inescapable, ineluctable,

compulsory, mandatory, sine qua non, obligatory: Are a black bowler and tightly furled umbrella still indispensable to doing business in the City?


adj. 1 ill, ailing, unwell, sick, sickly, unsound, unhealthy,

in bad health, valetudinarian, out of commission, Colloq on the sick-list, (doing) poorly, laid up, in a bad way, not up to

snuff, off one's feed or Brit also grub, under the weather: Madam is indisposed and cannot have tea with you. 2 averse, disinclined, loath, unwilling, reluctant, resistant, hesitant: The judge was indisposed to leniency in such a serious case.


adj. unquestionable, incontrovertible, incontestable, irrefutable, undeniable, indubitable, beyond doubt, sure, certain, positive, definite, definitive, absolute, fixed: It

was indisputable that the outlook was grim. The show was an indisputable success.


adj. 1 faint, dim, obscure, vague, blurred, blurry, filmy, hazy, misty, bleary, shadowy, fuzzy, foggy, murky, muddy, unclear, indiscernible, illegible, muffled, unintelligible, indistinguishable, indeterminate, confused, indefinite: I could

barely make out an indistinct figure in the dark. The writing on the matchbox was indistinct. 2 indistinguishable, ambiguous, not distinct, equivocal, inseparable, ill-defined, undefined, nebulous, vague, confused: The identity of the three brothers

is indistinct in my mind.


adj. 1 Often, indistinguishable from. undifferentiated (from), identical (to), alike, like two peas in a pod, twin, inseparable: He is indistinguishable from his brother. Her fingerprints and those found on the dagger are indistinguishable. 2 indiscernible, imperceptible, indefinite, unclear, indistinct: His good qualities were indistinguishable to me.


adj. 1 single, sole, particular, separate, distinct, discrete, solitary, lone: Consider the entire utterance, not just the