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Dictionary of Literary Influences

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Heidegger, Martin

Friedrich Nietzsche, Georg Simmel, Max Scheler, Henri Bergson, and representatives of early Protestant theology, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldreich Zwingli.

After noncombatant army service in World War I, Heidegger began teaching philosophy at Freiburg in 1918 and became Husserl’s assistant there in 1919. For the next decade he considered Husserl his mentor. By the early 1920s he was friends with Karl Jaspers and Rudolf Bultmann and knew the work of Ernst Cassirer and Karl Barth. From 1923 until 1928 he taught at the University of Marburg, where, even though married to Elfride Petri since 1917 and already the father of two boys, he started a love affair in 1924 with his student Hannah Arendt.

Heidegger’s 1927 publication of Being and Time, dedicated to Husserl, quickly made him world famous. He succeeded to Husserl’s chair of philosophy at Freiburg in 1928, began supporting Nazism in 1931, became rector of that university in 1933, soon disavowed or ignored Husserl, Arendt, Karl Löwith, and other Jews, and collaborated with the Nazis even after he resigned the rectorship in 1934. Captured by the French in 1945, he was tried by a denazification committee and forbidden to teach until 1949. Thereafter he lived nearly as a recluse, always under the shadow of his mysterious and perhaps cowardly actions during the Nazi era, a controversy that continues into the twenty-first century.

Heidegger’s central concept of Dasein acquired much from Wilhelm Dilthey’s concept of Leben (life), and the Heideggerian hermeneutic circle has much in common with Dilthey’s version of Verstehen (understanding). Meister Eckhart also had a profound effect on Heidegger, readily seen in Heidegger’s 1959 essay, Gelassenheit (“Release”). A detractor once said that most of Heidegger’s good ideas, especially his philosophy of time, were derived from Augustine, but that most of his bad ideas were his own. Despite the strong presence of Augustine, the pre-Socratics, Plato, Hegel, and many other speculative thinkers in Heidegger’s thought, Aristotle and Husserl always remained his two greatest influences.

Archives

Significant collections of Heidegger’s manuscripts, personal papers, and correspondence are in Germany at the Schiller-Nationalmuseum/Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach, and the University of Freiburg im Breisgau. The Martin-Heidegger-Archiv was under construction in 2002 in Messkirch, supported by the Martin-Heidegger-Gesellschaft, founded there in 1975, and the Messkircher-Martin-Heidegger-Stiftung (Martin Heidegger Foundation of Messkirch). Klostermann Verlag began in 1975 to publish Heidegger’s complete works (Gesamtausgabe). By 2000, 59 of the projected 102 volumes had appeared.

Printed Sources

Clark, Timothy. Martin Heidegger (New York: Routledge, 2002).

Gadamer, Hans Georg. Heidegger’s Ways, John W. Stanley (trans.), (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994).

Kisiel, Theodore J. The Genesis of Heidegger’s Being and Time” (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).

Kisiel, Theodore J., and John van Buren. Reading Heidegger from the Start: Essays in His Earliest Thought (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994).

May, Reinhard. Heidegger’s Hidden Sources: East Asian Influences on His Work, Graham Parkes (trans.), (London: Routledge, 1996).

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Ott, Hugo. Martin Heidegger: A Political Life, Allan Blunden (trans.), (Hammersmith, England: HarperCollins; New York: Basic Books, 1993).

Pöggeler, Otto. The Paths of Heidegger’s Life and Thought, John Bailiff (trans.), (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1998).

Rockmore, Tom. On Heidegger’s Nazism and Philosophy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).

Safranski, Rüdiger. Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil, Ewald Osers (trans.), (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

Van Buren, John. The Young Heidegger: Rumor of the Hidden King (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).

Eric v.d. Luft

HEMINGWAY, ERNEST (1899–1961)

Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois. Upon completing high school in 1917, he became a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star in Missouri. In 1818 he volunteered as a Red Cross ambulance driver in World War I Italy where, as recreated in A Farewell to Arms (1929), he was injured in an explosion. In 1920 Hemingway wrote for the Toronto Star and the Chicago magazine The Cooperative Commonwealth, and in 1921 in Chicago, he met Sherwood Anderson, author of Winesburg, Ohio (1919), and poet Carl Sandburg, and he married. Hemingway moved to Paris in the same year and wrote fiction while working as a newspaper correspondent, experiences recounted in the posthumously published novel A Moveable Feast (1964). Hemingway’s first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems, was published in 1923. Among his other published fiction are In Our Time (1925), The Sun Also Rises (1926), To Have and Have Not (1937), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and the Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning novella, The Old Man and the Sea (1952). In 1930 Hemingway left Europe to live in Key West, Florida, and in 1940 moved to Cuba. He became a United States war correspondent in 1944 and was awarded the Bronze Star for his war efforts. No longer able to write, and worn from many years of depression, Hemingway shot and killed himself on July 2, 1961, in Ketchum, Idaho.

As a young man, Hemingway admired the realism and naturalism of Theodore Dreiser and Frank Norris, and the “mannerism of Jack London and O. Henry

. . . crept into the short stories he wrote during his high school years” (Lynn 1987, 24). He was deeply impressed by Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), which he dubbed the progenitor of modern American literature. In his youth Hemingway also read Theodore Roosevelt’s African Game Trails (1910), Owen Wister’s The Virginian (1902), Sinclair Lewis’s Main Street (1920), Somerset Maugham’s The Moon and Sixpence (1919), and Joseph Conrad’s The Nigger of Narcissus (1897); he is likely, too, to have encountered the novels of fellow Oak Park resident Edgar Rice Burroughs. Hemingway’s critics note Sherwood Anderson’s and Ring Lardner’s influence on his craft, and although Hemingway later resented the comparison, he initially praised and emulated the simplicity of Anderson’s writing and modeled elements of his own abbreviated yet expressive style after Lardner’s journalistic mode. Hemingway’s stories are further reminiscent of Lardner’s in that they are told colloquially and reveal the first-person narrator’s character. Anderson encouraged Hemingway to move to Paris and provided letters of intro-

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Hesse, Hermann

duction to revolutionary modernist writers Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Ezra Pound. It was Stein whom Hemingway quoted in the epigraph to The Sun Also Rises (1926) as saying, “You are all a lost generation”; both quotation and book succeeded in defining the postwar age. In Paris, Hemingway also became acquainted with John Dos Passos, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Archibald MacLeish, and Ford Madox Ford and read Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev’s A Sportsman’s Sketches (1895), D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers (1913), and Joyce’s Ulysses (1922), the latter of which Hemingway had a small hand in getting published.

Archives

Firestone Library, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.: autographed manuscripts of articles and short stories; signed carbon of The Torrents of Spring, inscribed to the Fitzgeralds; correspondence; photographs.

Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin: manuscripts of Death in the Afternoon and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”; family papers, correspondence.

Hemingway Room, John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Mass.: immense collection, approximately 600 manuscripts, including short stories, articles, poetry, stages of books; over 1,100 letters and 10,000 photographs; Grace Hemingway’s scrapbooks of son Ernest.

Printed Sources

Lynn, Kenneth S. Hemingway (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987).

Mellow, James R. Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1992).

Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography (New York: Harper & Row, 1985).

Reynolds, Michael S. Hemingway’s Reading, 1910–1940: An Inventory (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981).

Spilka, Mark. Hemingway’s Quarrel with Androg yny (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990).

Tiffany Aldrich

HESSE, HERMANN (1877–1962)

Hermann Hesse was born in Calw, Germany, into a pietistic Christian family. From his early years, school held little interest and led to a succession of brief stints at the Latin School in Göppingen (1890–91), the Protestant church school in Maulbronn (1891–92), schools for the emotionally disturbed and handicapped in Bad Boll and Stetten (1892), and finally the gymnasium in Cannstatt (1892–93). Largely self-educated, his early aestheticism and romanticism eventually fused with a more realistic assessment of the world, which itself was tempered by Indian and Eastern influences and Jungian psychology. Hesse’s quest for identity, influenced by his dualistic view of man as spirit and matter, found voice in his autobiographical novellas and poems. Opposing the virulent nationalism and militarism of World Wars I and II from his home in Switzerland, having become a citizen in 1919, Hesse gained acclaim after both wars as a moral guide amid cultural crisis and chaos. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1946.

Hesse’s literary awakening can be traced to his years in Calw (1893–95) and his time as an apprentice in a Tübingen bookshop (1895–99). His readings in eighteenthand nineteenth-century German literature formed his aesthetic and romantic inclinations. Although Hesse expressed his greatest indebtedness to

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he also drew inspiration from the romantic Novalis as well as Joseph Eichendorff, Heinrich Heine, Ernst Theodor Amadeus (E.T.A.) Hoffmann, Maurice Maeterlinck, Ludwig Tieck and the Swabian poets Friedrich Hölderlin and Eduard Friedrich Mörike, among others. For Russian literature, he maintained great respect and interest, especially for the works of Lev Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev. Stylistically and thematically influenced by medieval literature and the Italian Renaissance, notably the hagiography of St. Francis of Assisi, the Latin literature embodied in Cäsarius von Heisterbach and the novellas of Giovanni Boccaccio—and later still the novellas of Gottfried Keller—Hesse also drew from the historical learning of Jacob Burckhardt and the philosophies of Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. Nietzsche’s pervasive sense of life’s loneliness and suffering and the need for a morality beyond good and evil found expression in Hesse’s Demian: Die Geschichte einer Jugend von Emil Sinclair (1919; translated 1923 as Demian) while Schopenhauer’s philosophy embodied in Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (1818; translated 1966 as The World as Will and Representation) melded with Hesse’s Eastern religious influences. Underlying Hesse’s canon is a cosmopolitan religion of love and the soul, which is governed by a pietistically dominated mystic Christianity and subsequently influenced by his readings of Hinduism and Indian Brahmanism, especially the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita, and the discourses of the Buddha (ca. sixth to fourth century B.C.). Later still, the teachings of Confucius (551–479 B.C.) and Lao Tzu (ca. sixth century B.C.) find expression as well as the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Ever attempting to understand himself, his works are largely autobiographical reflections unfolding the inherent inner struggles in the myriad of influences in his life.

Archives

Hermann-Hesse-Archiv, Schiller-Nationalmuseum, Marbach am Neckar, Germany: most extensive collection of Hesse’s literary remains.

Hesse Sammlung, Schweizerische Landesbibliothek (Swiss National Library), Bern, Switzerland: large collection of Hesse’s correspondence, personal documents and items, manuscripts and typescripts.

Printed Sources

Freedman, Ralph. Hermann Hesse: Pilgrim of Crisis: A Biography (New York, Pantheon Books, 1978).

Hesse, Hermann. My Belief: Essays on Life and Art, Theodore Ziolkowski (ed.) and Denver Lindley (trans.), (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974).

Mileck, Joseph. Hermann Hesse: Life and Art (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). Ziolkowski, Theodore. Hesse: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice

Hall, 1973).

Rouven J. Steeves

HINDENBURG, PAUL VON (1847–1934)

Paul von Hindenburg was born to an officer’s family in the garrison town of Posen in Eastern Prussia, present day Poznan, Poland. With a family military tradition extending as far back as the thirteenth century, Hindenburg was destined to continue his family’s profession and lived a typical Prussian Junker’s childhood.

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Between Hindenburg’s parents he received the necessary education for a career officer; his father instructed him in geography and history and his mother was responsible for his religious training. Hindenburg began gymnasium in 1859 before transferring a year later to the Cadet School in Wahlstatt, Silesia. In 1865, Hindenburg completed Cadet School in Lichterfelde outside Berlin. These military schools were harsh and enforced brutal discipline, and by all accounts Hindenburg loved this time of his life. Only reluctantly, however, did Hindenburg enter the more intellectually challenging War Academy in 1873 as a means to enter the vaunted General Staff. Hindenburg had an unremarkable military career before retiring in 1911. Three years later he was called out of retirement and together with Erich Ludendorff emerged as virtual military dictator of Germany between 1916 and 1918. Hindenburg’s most important position was as two-term president of the fragile Weimar Republic. Hindenburg was a simple man whose loyalty and character were considered by most Germans as beyond reproach. These personal qualities made Hindenburg an ideal caretaker of the otherwise chaotic Weimar government.

Hindenburg once stated proudly, “Since my days as a cadet, I have never read a book that did not deal with military affairs.” There is every reason to believe that he was telling the truth. Hindenburg is one of those rare historical figures with no discernible intellectual influence whatsoever. Hindenburg’s mentor was Alfred von Schlieffen and his personal hero was Frederick the Great (1712–86), but Hindenburg found no value in reading anything but the Bible in his spare time. Hindenburg excelled in math because of its military utility, but otherwise he despised all intellectual endeavors, preferring physical education, map reading, and military history. His most difficult period was enduring the War Academy’s classical curriculum requiring foreign languages and philosophy. Hindenburg was known as a slow learner who never bothered to ask the question “why?” Hindenburg’s biographers note that the civilian world barely penetrated his Spartan lifestyle, although Hindenburg did marry in 1879. Hindenburg’s devotion to God, King, and country endeared him to confused voters seeking stability in the 1920s, but his simplicity also made him vulnerable to the political machinations of less scrupulous politicians.

Archives

Nachlass Paul von Hindenburg, Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg, Germany. Contains official and some nonofficial correspondence from his 45-year military career.

Significant papers concerning Hindenburg’s First World War career can be found in the Kriegsministerium record group (PH 2) also in Freiburg.

Printed Sources

Dorpelan, Andreas. Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964).

Goldsmith, Margaret, and Frederick Voigt. Hindenburg: The Man and the Legend (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1930).

Marchs, Erich. Hindenburg: Feldmarschall und Reichspräsident (Böttinsen: Masterschmidt Verlag, 1963).

Ruge, Wolfgang. Hindenburg: Porträt eines Militaristen (Berlin: Veb Deutscher Verlag, 1974). Weterstetten, Rudolph, and A. M. K. Watson. The Biography of President von Hindenburg

(New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930).

Brian Crim

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Hitchcock, Alfred

HITCHCOCK, ALFRED (1899–1980)

Born in London on August 13, 1899, Alfred Joseph Hitchcock received a Catholic Jesuit education at the Saint Ignatius’s College in London. He first wanted to study engineering, but his family couldn’t afford the tuition. Hitchcock left school in 1914 and found a job as a technical agent at the W. T. Henley’s Telegraph Works in London, where he worked until 1921. During this period, Hitchcock published his first short stories in the company’s small journal, The Henley Telegraph. He was hired as a set-designer by the Londonian Famous Players Lasky Film Studio in 1921, and four years later directed his first film, The Pleasure Garden. In 1926 he married a colleague scriptwriter, Brompton Alma Reville, who assisted him throughout his career. The Lodger (1926) was his first thriller, and Blackmail (1929) his first talking picture. In 1940, Hitchcock released his first Hollywood movie and the only one to ever win an Oscar, Rebecca, an adaptation of the Daphne Du Maurier novel, produced by David O. Selznick. He released his best films during the 1950s: I Confess (1952), Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), North by Northwest

(1959). The greater commercial successes in Psycho (1960) and The Birds (1963) actually mark the beginning of his decline. His last film, Family Plot, was released in 1976.

As a teenager, Alfred Hitchcock often bought the Lloyd’s Bulletin to help him locate the English boats sailing on the seas. His fascination with the ocean appears in his Lifeboat (1943), specially written for Hitchcock by John Steinbeck. In a 1976 interview with John Russell Taylor (reprinted in Gottlieb 1999–2000, 1995), Hitchcock says that in his prime, he read novels by John Buchan (who wrote The Thirty-Nine Steps), but also “all the real-life crime stories I could get a hold of . . . ” (Gottlieb 1999–2000, 60). Hitchcock liked to quote Thomas de Quincy’s essay, Murder as One of the Fine Arts. Hitchcock worked with scriptwriter John Michael Hayes for some movies in the fifties: Rear Window, To Catch a Thief (1955), The Trouble with Harry (1956), and his remake of his own British movie from 1935, The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956). It was after seeing the French film Les Diaboliques (1955) by Henri-Georges Clouzot, from a novel by Pierre Boileau and Thomas Narcejac, that Hitchcock asked the two authors to write a story for his next movie; that project would become Vertigo (1958), his most beautiful masterpiece. In a half century, Alfred Hitchcock made 53 movies, most of them adapted from almost as many authors, including Charles Bennett, Somerset Maugham, and Campbell Dixon.

Archives

Hitchcock Collection at the Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Manuscripts, diaries, scripts, storyboards, notebooks.

The Alfred Hitchcock Files, The Cinema-Television Library and Archives of the Performing Arts, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

The David O. Selznick Collection, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Correspondence with Hitchcock. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/HRC/HRHRC/DOS/DOSUTCAT2.html.

Printed Sources

DeRosa, Steven. Writing with Hitchcock: The Collaboration of Alfred Hitchcock and John Michael Hayes (London: Faber and Faber, 2001).

Garncarz, Joseph. “German Hitchcock,” Hitchcock Annual, 2000–2001, 73–99.

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Garrett, Greg. “The Men Who Knew Too Much: The Unmade Films of Hitchcock and Lehman,” North Dakota Quarterly 61, 2 (Spring 1993), 47–57.

Gottlieb, Sidney. “Early Hitchcock: The German Influence.” Hitchcock Annual, 1999–2000, 100–130.

Gross, Larry. “Parallel Lines: Hitchcock the Screenwriter,” Sight & Sound 9:8 (August 1999 supplement), 38–44.

Hitchcock, Alfred. Hitchcock’s Notebooks: An Authorized and Illustrated Look Inside the Creative Mind of Alfred Hitchcock, Dan Auiler (ed.), (New York: Spike, 1999).

———. Hitchcock on Hitchcock: Selected Writings and Interviews, Sidney Gottlieb (ed.), (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995).

Krohn, Bill. Hitchcock at Work (London: Phaidon, 2000).

Leff, Leonard J. Hitchcock and Selznick: The Rich and Strange Collaboration of Alfred Hitchcock and David O. Selznick in Hollywood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

Marantz Cohen, Paula. Alfred Hitchcock: The Legacy of Victorianism (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995).

Perry, Dennis R. “Bibliography of Scholarship Linking. Alfred Hitchcock and Edgar Allan Poe,” Hitchcock Annual, 2000–2001, 163–73.

Sloan, Jane E. Alfred Hitchcock: A Filmography and Bibliography (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995).

———. Alfred Hitchcock: A Guide to References and Resources (New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1993).

Truffaut, François, and Helen G. Scott. Hitchcock, rev. ed. (New York: Touchstone Books, 1985).

Yves Laberge

HITLER, ADOLF (1889–1945)

Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, to a despotic 51-year-old customs official, Alois Hitler, who had changed his name from Schicklgruber in 1876, and his long-suffering 28-year-old wife, Klara, née Pölzl, whom Hitler professed to love dearly. Hitler was baptized and enrolled in school as “Adolfus.” He attended various schools near Linz, Austria, including a Benedictine monastery school for two years. After his father, whom he actively hated, died in January 1903, Hitler lived with his mother and sister in Urfahr, near Linz. He nearly failed at the Linz high school, blaming his teachers for his bad grades, but admired science teacher Theodor Gissinger and history teacher Leopold Poetsch. Having transferred to the Staatsrealschule in Steyr, Austria, he remained a poor student, except in drawing and athletics, and dropped out in September 1905 shortly before he was to take his final examinations. He then went to Munich, his first time in Germany, and studied briefly at the private art school of a Professor Gröber.

Back in Linz early in 1906, at the beginning of the happiest three years of his life, he discovered Richard Wagner, who soon became his greatest influence. Hitler not only listened to Wagner’s music, but also read Wagner’s tracts against Jews, cultural degeneration, national disunity, and racial pollution. Because of Wagner, Hitler became a vegetarian. He moved to Vienna in 1907, frequented the concert halls, museums, galleries, and theaters, and twice failed to gain admittance to the prestigious Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. He hoped to become a painter, architect, or writer, but could not convince anyone of his talent. His mother’s death from breast cancer in December 1908 plunged him into poverty, despair, and the saddest four years of his life. He came to hate the masses of Slavs, Jews, and other non-Germans

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in Vienna who all seemed to be faring better than he was. As his racist, nationalist, anti-democratic views took shape, he became attracted to Georg Ritter von Schoenerer’s Pan-German Nationalist Party and Karl Lueger’s Christian Social Party. Frustrated by Lueger’s tolerance of the Jews, he moved to Germany in May 1913.

The outbreak of World War I was a godsend to Hitler’s fortunes. He volunteered in August 1914 for the Sixteenth Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, served with distinction until 1920, was wounded in 1916 and gassed in 1918, achieved the rank of corporal, and was decorated four times, including the Iron Cross, First Class, for bravery. When the war ended in November 1918, Hitler was convinced that the German army was not beaten in the field, but sabotaged by Jewish financiers and industrialists. He joined the German Workers’ Party in 1919, had its name changed to the National Socialist German Workers’ Party in 1920, and became its leader in 1921. Sentenced to five years in Landsberg am Lech prison for his role in the “Beer Hall Putsch,” the unsuccessful Bavarian coup d’état of 1923, he took that opportunity to dictate his ideological autobiography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), to his secretary, Rudolf Hess. Released after only nine months and now a national celebrity, he gained strength and followers throughout the 1920s and 1930s, was named chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg in 1933, realized dictatorial power by 1934, and plunged the world into the most horrible war in history in 1939. He committed suicide in 1945 just before the Soviet army entered Berlin.

There is no evidence that Hitler ever read much. He knew no languages besides German. Nevertheless, he seems to have had a fair grasp of German and Austrian history. He was certainly familiar as a young man with The Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, a vicious, subversive, often translated, and widely circulated piece of Russian propaganda designed to reveal a worldwide Jewish plot to undermine legitimate governments and corrupt wholesome societies. Aside from that, he seems to have gathered most of his knowledge, formulated most of his opinions, and honed most of his demagogic skills in the streets of Vienna and Munich.

Contrary to a frequently attested belief, Hitler was not influenced by the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, or, if he was, it was only through the distorted and simplistic Hegelianism derived from the German popular imagination. The case is similar with Friedrich Nietzsche. There is a famous photograph, reminiscent of Rembrandt’s Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, depicting Hitler at the Nietzsche-Archiv in Weimar in about 1932 staring at the bust of Nietzsche. But Hitler had no real knowledge of Nietzsche. Facile misinterpretations of Nietzschean thought can be made consonant with Nazi ideology, but Nietzsche himself preferred the Jews and the Poles to the Germans, disliked militarism, hated nationalism, and held above all other values the high cultural creativity of individual artists in the world-historical future. He relinquished his German birthright and became a naturalized Swiss. His image of the “blond beast,” which the Nazis used as a metaphor for the Aryan superman, was in fact only a lion.

Archives

Most of Hitler’s personal papers and effects were destroyed by the Soviets in the last days of the Nazi regime. Some material may be in repositories in Russia or other former Soviet states.

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Printed Sources

Birken, Lawrence. Hitler as Philosophe: Remnants of the Enlightenment in National Socialism

(Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995).

Gassert, Philipp, and Daniel S. Mattern. The Hitler Library: A Bibliography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2001).

Hamann, Brigitte. Hitler’s Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Heiden, Konrad. Der Fuehrer: Hitler’s Rise to Power (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1944). Hitler, Adolf. Hitler’s Table Talk, 1941–1944: His Private Conversations (New York: Enigma,

2000).

———. Mein Kampf (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1939).

Müller, Michael Berthold. Der junge Hitler: eine Biographie der ersten dreissig Lebensjahre

(Frankfurt am Main: Haag & Herchen, 2000).

Schwaab, Edleff H. Hitler’s Mind: A Plunge Into Madness (New York: Praeger, 1992). Scobie, Alexander. Hitler’s State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity (University

Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990).

Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960).

Weinreich, Max. Hitler’s Professors: The Part of Scholarship in Germany’s Crimes against the Jewish People (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999).

Eric v.d. Luft

HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON (1874–1929)

Hugo von Hofmannsthal was born at Vienna, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He began publishing poetry at the age of 16 and wrote book reviews for Viennese periodicals under the pseudonym “Loris.” Hofmannsthal read from his poems in Viennese coffeehouses, the gathering places of Viennese poets and authors at the turn of the century. The authors Arthur Schnitzler (1862–1931) and Hermann Bahr (1863–1934) were deeply impressed by Hofmannsthal’s talent. The German symbolist poet Stefan George (1868–1933) was intellectually but most likely also physically attracted to Hofmannsthal. After a personal, unspecified disagreement, Hofmannsthal’s relationship toward George changed, but he agreed to write short verse plays and poems for George’s journal Blätter für die Kunst. However, Hofmannsthal distanced himself from George and his quasi-esoteric symbolist school and broke off all contact in 1906. After 1902, Hofmannsthal turned away from symbolism and poetry and concentrated on librettos for Richard Strauss’s operas, such as Der Rosenkavalier of 1910 and Die Frau ohne Schatten of 1919. His later period was dominated by religious allegories and political pessimism. Hofmannsthal also wrote numerous essays, plays, and an unfinished novel, Andreas, which was posthumously published in 1932. In 1920, his neo-baroque play Jedermann was performed in front of the Salzburg Cathedral, which marked the beginning of the Salzburg Festival. Hofmannsthal’s collaboration with the director Max Reinhardt proved to be very fruitful as their yearly festival became internationally renowned within a few years.

In his youth, Hofmannsthal was primarily influenced by baroque plays he had seen at the Viennese Burgtheater and also by French symbolists such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, and Charles Baudelaire. However, Hofmannsthal did not become an epigone, as some critics claimed, but found his own distinctive voice.

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He had already been fascinated by French symbolism when he met the German symbolist poet Stefan George.

At the turn of the century, Hofmannsthal’s skeptical notions concerning language in general reached their climax. Contemporary writers such as Robert Musil and Hermann Bahr also voiced their doubts that reality could be represented by language in a meaningful way. Hofmannsthal’s predicament was surely triggered by the physicist Ernst Mach, whose lectures Hofmannsthal attended at the University of Vienna. Hofmannsthal wrote about his “language crisis” in “Ein Brief” (1902). In his “Märchen der 672. Nacht” (1895) and in Die Frau ohne Schatten (1914), he alluded to oriental stories of The Thousand and One Nights. Hofmannsthal’s story “Das Erlebnis des Marschalls von Bassompierre” retells an anecdote in Goethe’s Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderter (1795). Furthermore, Hofmannsthal was influenced by Elizabethan drama when he based his Das gerettete Venedig (1905) on Thomas Otway’s Venice Preserv’d (1682). He also turned to Greek drama and motives in his librettos

Elektra (1904), Ariadne auf Naxos (1910), and Die äg yptische Helena (1929). In his later years, Hofmannsthal was drawn to morality plays from the baroque era. His allegorical Jedermann (1911) is loosely based on the fifteenth-century English play Everyman. Hofmannsthal’s unfinished novel Andreas (1932) clearly refers to the bildungsroman tradition of Goethe, Novalis, and Gottfried Keller.

Archives

Hofmannsthal-Archiv des Freien Deutschen Hochstifts, Frankfurter Goethe-Museum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: majority of Hofmannsthal’s draft manuscripts, librettos, stories, poems, plays, essays, correspondence, and photographs.

Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Schiller Nationalmuseum, Marburg am Neckar, Germany: various poems, plays, correspondence.

Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.: majority of Hofmannsthal’s posthumous works, first editions, correspondence.

Printed Sources

Janik, Allen, and Stephen Toulmin. Wittgenstein’s Vienna (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973).

Mayer, Mathias. Hugo von Hofmannsthal (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1993).

Schorske, Carl. Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York: Knopf, 1980). Steinberg, Michael P. The Meaning of the Salzburg Festival: Austria as Theater and Ideolog y,

1890–1938 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990).

Vilain, Robert. The Poetry of Hugo von Hofmannsthal and French Symbolism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Gregor Thuswaldner

HOLLAND, AGNIESZKA (1948– )

Agnieszka Holland was born in Warsaw to a Catholic mother and a Jewish father, both of whom were prominent journalists. Following very much in her parents’ footsteps, the young Agnieszka began writing plays at an early age. Tragically, when she was 13 years old her father was arrested by the KGB and died in the most mysterious of circumstances during interrogation.

Later as a student, Holland studied film directing at the Prague Film Academy, during which time she would meet her future husband. Holland was politically

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