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5. Find in the text the equivalents of these words and word combinations.

Дальновидный, гибкий; завоевывать внутренний и внешний рынки; производство более качественных товаров; неопытные и неумелые менеджеры; делать все возможное; в целом; чтобы удовлетворять спрос на рынке; вот почему; искать новые рынки сбыта; сочетать интересы компании и потребителей; стратегия коммерческой деятельности; выжить и даже остаться прибыльными; внедрение перспективных технологий; совместное предприятие; заключить соглашение о сотрудничестве.

  1. Answer the following questions.

  1. What can help poor managers to make management effective?

  2. What are a manager`s major responsibilities?

  3. How does a manager use his intuition?

  4. What can companies do to improve business activity?

  5. How do managers organize customer service?

  1. Summarize the text.

Тексты для чтения Effective Thinking in Management

One of the most important tasks in management is to cultivate good collective thinking. American consultant Ben Heirs in his book «The Professional Decision Thinker » explores the art of managing a thinking team.

Every organization has a team of «doers». And the manager's first priority is to transform this group of people into a team of thinkers.

Decision-thinking process consists of four stages. Stage I deals with formulating a question in the clearest possible way. Then the thinkers must gather information relevant to answering the question. Stage II implies creating the most effective range of alternative answers to the question. Stage III concerns evaluating each of the alternatives and predicting the consequences. Stage IV regards decision making. Here, finally the thinking team must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative and decide upon which alternative to act.

The author of the book suggests certain rules to improve decision-thinking process. Here are some of his ideas. The objectives of the thinking game must be explained precisely. The members of the thinking team should understand their roles and responsibilities in the process. As for the manager, he must be very courteous. There must be mutual understanding and trust between the manager and his people. His duties are to stimulate good thinking and prevent its stagnation.

Women in Management

Significant changes have taken place in the demographic makeup of the labour force. The share of working women has grown considerably. Important changes have also been made in the labour legislation of most developed economies. For example, in the 1960s the United States enacted a series of equal employment opportunity laws, which forbid discrimination in employment on the basis of race, colour, creed, sex, age, or disability. Companies that do business with the US government have an additional obligation to provide job opportunities for women.

The role of women in modern society and in business in particular is growing. There are women politicians, lawyers, doctors, teachers and managers. In developed countries more and more women hold high positions in companies, though men still dominate boards of directors.

In some European countries there is a tendency to promote women to high and top positions in companies. These changes in the management system have resulted from the government policy, aimed at giving women equal opportunities and rights, feminists' struggle against discrimination at work, and ideological changes in society.

Unfortunately, very often the traditional roles of mother and wife contradict the new role of professional.

It is not easy for a career woman to combine family duties with work. She is too busy with job-connected problems and spends a lot of time away from home. She cannot take care of her husband and children properly, cook, do the washing and cleaning. Sometimes marriages end in divorce.

According to another study, female bank officers have the highest divorce rate. Female restaurant managers also rank among the most divorce-prone. Psychologists explain that these positions draw independent, assertive women who concentrate more on their career than on their marriages.

At best, professional growth and a happy family life can parallel and coexist peacefully. But very often modern women have to make a difficult choice between a successful career and a good marriage. Some women prefer being a professional. Others choose their families and give up their careers.

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