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3.The Comparative and Historical method.

Linguistics uses various methods to study languages:descriptive,statistic,experimental.

One of them is C&H method.This is a scientific

way of reconstruction of those lang phenome

na of the past,which weren’t fixed in written texts.

The reconstruction can be effected by means of

comparing later facts of two or more langs known

from written texts or real speech. Smtimes only i

t works in studying lang phenomena. Steps of t

process of comparing lang phenomena: 1)to

compare sounds&morphemes;2)to establish

common laws;3)to establish chronological corres

pondences among them;4)to reconstruct a primary

form.Drawbacks:-it cant give t exact dates of lang

change;-it doesn’t explain several phenomena;

-its not suitable for all types of langs.Its necessary to develop&improve,cos it helps to define t place of Germanic langs among other Lngs of t world. Based of following principles:-genetic commonness of t compared units;-comparison of t meaningful units;-regularity of correspondences;-phonetic laws;-semantic laws. T 1st scientists who developed it:William Jones,Franz Bopp,Rasmus Rask Christian,A. Vostokov, Karl Verner,others.

1.Subject,aims&tasks of Germanic Philology

GP is a branch of special philology cos t Engl lang is a representative of t Germanic group of t IE family of langs. GP:-studies t langs of t Germanic group,their origin,development&structure;mutual connections,common laws;tendencies of development;connections with other langs of other groups.Its main tasks are to explain modern state of Germanic langs&to reconstruct their ancient forms.Modern state cant be explained without studying ancient situation. In other words it studies langs,literatures&culture with the help of texts of literature,history,etc.

Special ph(Greek phileo,logos) is one of the subjects,which establish the basement of the preparation of philologists.Phylology as a science appeared in antiquity in order to explain old texts,but now it studies all types of not only texts but material remnants as well.

14. Old Germanic types of writing. Latin alphabet.

Germanic tribes used 3 alphabets in their writing. These alphabets succeeded each other. The earliest of them was Runic alphabet,then Gothic,and the last was Latin alphabet. This alphabet is the latest to be used by Germanic people,cos its spread corresponded with the spread of Christianity. First glosses appeared to render the names into Latin. At that time the Latin alphabet had only 23 letters(without J,W,V). There were 4 types of Latin writing: scriptura capitalis, scriptura uncialis, semiuncialis, minusculis.

13.Old Germanic types of writing.Gothic alphabet

Germanic tribes used 3 alphabets in their writing. These alphabets succeeded each other. The earliest of them was Runic alphabet,then Gothic,and the last was Latin alphabet.

The Gothic alphabet is a peculiar type of writing cos it was developed by a person, a Gothic bishop Ulfilas,on the basis of Greek alphabet with some additions taken from the Latin.This alph was developed with t aim to translate t Bible from Greek in order to adopt it from Germanic people. Some scientist think that it was derived only from the Greek alph,but others maintain that there are some Gothic letters of runic or Latin origin. Before its creation,Gothic was written in Gothic runes.In medieval texts that metion the Goths many writers used “Goths” to mean any Germanic people in Eastern Europe.Some writers referred to Slavic-speaking people as Goths. We can also come across the “Crimean Goths” in old texts.

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