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Unit 4. Studying Law. Section 1. Training Lawyers in Ukraine

Unit 4. Studying Law

Section 1. Training Lawyers in Ukraine

I. WARMING – UP

1. Answer the following questions:

1.Why is it important for a lawyer to be highly educated?

2.Why are the lawyers needed in the human society?

3.Do you agree that education of a good legal specialist must never stop? Why?

2.Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) qualification requirements

a) юридичний навчальний заклад

2) legal educational institution

b) наукові дослідження

3) certificate of a specialist

c) диплом спеціаліста

4) scientific research

d) освітньо-професійний рівень

5) educational-proficiency level

e) відповідний рівень

6) scientific degree

f) галузь науки

7) field of science

g) науковий ступінь

8) appropriate level

h) кваліфікаційні вимоги

Read the text to understand what information on legal education in Ukraine is of primary importance or new for you.

TEXT 1

LEGAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

Notes:

Postgraduate education (Candidate's or Doctor's Degree) – освіта, спрямова-

на на отримання наукового ступеня кандидата або доктора наук.

The Law of Ukraine «On Education» – закон України «Про освіту» (№ 1060–XII).

The Law of Ukraine «On Higher Education» – закон України «Про вищу осві-

ту» (№ 2984–III).

A professional licence – дозвіл на здійснення професійної діяльності.

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PART I. Legal Systems

Requirements to the contents, scope and level of the educational and professional training in Ukraine are determined by the Law of Ukraine «On Education» of 1991. The Law establishes a four level system of higher education and defines qualification requirements for junior specialists and bachelor degree holders (basic higher education), specialists and master degree holders (complete higher education). The system of education also includes postgraduate education (Candidate's or Doctor's Degree).

As the legal profession becomes very prestigious and much in demand, a large network of legal educational institutions and faculties has been established in Ukraine recently. The higher educational establishments (HEE) that train lawyers in Ukraine include: technicums, colleges, institutes, academies, universities and other establishments. HEE have four degrees of accreditation based on their status:

the first degree – technicum or other HEE of the equal status;

the second degree – college or other HEE of the equal status;

the third and the fourth degrees (depending on the results of accreditation) – institute, academy, university and other HEE equal to them.

Legal education in Ukraine is centred in the state and private colleges and universities. The four year education gives a bachelor’s degree; graduates after five year studies receive a certificate of a specialist. Everybody has a possibility to continue his/her education and scientific research at the master’s and postgraduate courses.

Higher education graduates are awarded qualifications of the appropriate educational-proficiency levels and they are granted diplomas of the state format. The Diploma is a state-recognized document which serves as both an educational certificate and a professional licence. It confirms the attainment of the appropriate higher educational level and a certain professional qualification in some speciality. The Law of Ukraine «On Higher Education» (2002) establishes the following types of documents that confirm higher education qualifications:

Dyplom Molodshoho Spetsialista (Diploma/ qualification of Junior Specialist),

Dyplom Bakalavra (Diploma/ qualification of Bachelor), Dyplom Spetsialista (Diploma/ qualification of Specialist), Dyplom Mahistra (Diploma/ qualification of Master).

At the postgraduate level Ukraine has a two-degree system. The first qualification is the Candidate of Sciences (a scientific degree of Kandidat

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Unit 4. Studying Law. Section 1. Training Lawyers in Ukraine

Nauk). It normally requires at least three years of postgraduate study (aspirantura) after the award of the Specialist or the Master diploma. For this qualification a thesis (dissertation) must be submitted and defended. The second qualification is the Doctor of Sciences (a scientific degree of Doktor Nauk), the highest scientific degree in Ukraine. This qualification requires some period of studies (doktorantura) following the award of Kandidat Nauk degree. The dissertation for this degree must make an original contribution to a certain field of science.

A public defence of the dissertation is held in the form of a public presentation and scientific debates.

II. COMPREHENSION

1.Answer the following questions using the information from the text:

1.What does the Law of Ukraine «On Education» determine?

2.What is a four level system of higher education in Ukraine?

3.What is postgraduate education?

4.Why has a large network of legal educational institutions been established in Ukraine recently?

5.What are the types of Ukrainian higher educational institutions that train lawyers?

6.What degrees are given to students of HEEs after four and five years of education?

7.What is the Diploma granted to higher education graduates?

8.What is the first qualification of the postgraduate level in Ukraine? What are the requirements to it?

9.What is the second qualification of the postgraduate level in Ukraine? What are the requirements to it?

2.Define whether the statements are true or false according to the text.

1.The Law of Ukraine «On Education» establishes a four level system of higher education.

2.The five year education gives a bachelor’s degree; graduates after four year studies receive a certificate of a specialist.

3.The first postgraduate qualification in Ukraine is a master’s degree.

53

PART I. Legal Systems

4.The dissertation for a scientific degree of the Doctor of Sciences (Doktor Nauk) must make an original contribution to a certain field of science.

5.The Candidate of Sciences (a scientific degree of Kandidat Nauk) is the highest scientific degree in Ukraine.

6.The Diploma must not be recognized by the state.

3. Complete the following sentences consulting the text:

1.Requirements to the contents, scope and level of the educational and professional training in Ukraine are determined by ….

2.A large network of legal educational institutions has been established in Ukraine recently because….

3.The higher educational establishments (HEE) that train lawyers in Ukraine include: ….

4.Everybody has a possibility to continue his/her education and scientific research….

5.Higher education graduates are awarded qualifications of … and they are granted diplomas of ….

6.A public defence of the dissertation is held in the form of ….

4. Explain the words and word-combinations in your own words in English:

qualification requirements, legal educational institution (establishment), certificate of a specialist, higher education, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, postgraduate education.

III. VOCABULARY STUDY

1.a) Match the following nouns and noun phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) educational-proficiency level

a) внесок

2) higher education

b) наукове дослідження

3) qualification requirements

c) вища освіта

4) junior specialist

d) кваліфікаційні вимоги

5) legal profession

e) навчальний юридичний заклад

6) legal educational institution

f) галузь науки

7) scientific research

g) освітньо-професійний рівень

8) scientific degree

h) науковий ступінь

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Unit 4. Studying Law. Section 1. Training Lawyers in Ukraine

 

 

9) contribution

i) молодший спеціаліст

10) field of science

j) юридична професія

11) attainment

k) досягнення

b)Match the following verbs and verbal phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) to train

a) отримувати

2) to establish

b) готувати, навчати

3) to receive

c) підтверджувати

4) to require

d) захищати

5) to recognize

e) містити у собі

6) to confirm

f) визнавати

7) to make a contribution

g) вимагати

8) to submit

h) визначати, встановлювати

9) to defend

i) представляти на розгляд

10) to hold

j) проводити

11) to include

k) робити внесок

2.Substitute the words in italics with the words from the active vocabulary of the text:

1.Requirements to the contents, scope and level of the educational and speciality preparation in Ukraine are fixed by the Law of Ukraine «On Education».

2.The dissertation for the Doctor of Sciences degree must bring something original into a certain scientific sphere.

3.The first postgraduate qualification level is the Candidate of Sciences.

4.The Diploma proves the attainment of the appropriate higher educational level.

5.The persons who graduate from HEEs are granted diplomas of the state format.

6.Graduates after five year studies receive a Diploma of a specialist.

3.Choose the correct proposition of the given in brackets (to (3), of (5), by, in, at, for, on):

1.Requirements … the contents, scope and level … the educational and professional training in Ukraine are determined … the Law of Ukraine «On Education» of 1991.

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PART I. Legal Systems

2.The legal profession is very prestigious and much … demand

3.… the postgraduate level the first qualification is the Candidate … Sciences

4.The dissertation … this degree must make an original contribution … a certain field …science.

5.HEEs … the third and the fourth degrees (depending … the results …accreditation) are institutes, academies, universities and other establishments equal … them.

4.Find in the text the nouns derived from the following verbs and make up your own sentences with them:

to educate, to require, to train, to contribute, to qualify, to establish, to certify.

5. Complete the table:

Higher education

Postgraduate education

 

 

 

 

professional training, junior specialists, bachelor degree holders, master degree holders, the Doctor of Sciences, а certificate of a specialist, scientific degree, to make a contribution, a four level system, scientific debates, basic higher education, complete higher education, a two-degree system, the Candidate of Sciences, a thesis, higher educational level, public defence.

6. 1) Give English equivalents:

встановлювати кваліфікаційні вимоги, захищати дисертацію, готувати юристів, включати в себе, представляти на розсуд, проводити захист, робити внесок, вимагати, отримувати, підтверджувати.

2) Give Ukrainian equivalents:

field of science, level, scientific degree, professional training, professional licence, higher education, qualification requirements, junior specialists, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, legal profession, legal educational institutions, certificate of a specialist, scientific research, graduate, appropriate educational-proficiency level.

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Unit 4. Studying Law. Section 1. Training Lawyers in Ukraine

7.Make up sentences using the following words and wordcombinations:

1.Requirements to determine;

2.To include postgraduate education;

3.A large network to establish;

4.The higher educational establishments to include;

5.Legal education in Ukraine to centre;

6.Higher education graduates – appropriate educational-proficiency level;

7.The qualification of the Candidate of Sciences – to defend.

8.Translate the sentences into English:

1.Вимоги до змісту, обсягу та рівня освітньої професійної підготовки в Україні визначені Законом України «Про освіту».

2.Чотирирічна освіта дає ступінь бакалавра; випускники вищих навчальних закладів після п’яти років навчання отримують диплом спеціаліста.

3.Диплом – це визнаний державою документ, який служить і свідоцтвом про отримання освіти, і дозволом на здійснення професійної діяльності.

4.Диплом підтверджує отримання відповідного рівня вищої освіти.

5.Найвищий науковий ступінь в Україні – доктор наук.

6.Вищі навчальні заклади в Україні, що готують юристів, включають технікуми, коледжі, інститути, академії, університети.

IV. GRAMMAR FOCUS

1.Мake up the sentences using the Present Simple Tense as in the model.

Model: The Law of Ukraine «On Education» / to establish /a four level system of higher education.

The Law of Ukraine «On Education» establishes a four level system of higher education.

1.The Diploma/ the attainment of a certain professional qualification / to confirm.

2.The four year education/ does not/ a master’s degree/ to give.

3.to require/ the qualification of the Candidate of Sciences/ does/ three years of postgraduate study?

57

PART I. Legal Systems

4.Everybody/ a possibility/ to continue/ to have/ his/her postgraduate education.

2. Make the sentences in the Present Simple Tense correct:

1.The system of education also include postgraduate education.

2.What these students know about this higher educational institution?

3.Does this qualification requires any special studies?

4.These students doesn’t have a certificate of a specialist.

5.Do the Diploma serves as a professional licence?

V.SPEAKING

1.Some people believe that university students should be required to attend all the classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Give grounds to your answer.

2.Some students prefer to attend a small higher educational establishment. The others prefer to attend a big university. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

3. Discuss the following points:

1)A level of education defines future life of a person.

2)Building a future career starts:

at school;

at a higher educational establishment;

after graduation from an HEE, when a person begins practical professional activity.

3)Now, when you are a student, what are you ideas about postgraduate education?

postgraduate education is compulsory for developing my future career;

no postgraduate education, I’m tired of studying. In my opinion, it’s better to work;

I’ll try to combine postgraduate education and working;

your variant.

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Unit 4. Studying Law. Section 2. Training Lawyers in the UK and in the USA

Unit 4. Studying Law

Section 2. Training Lawyers in the UK

and in the USA

I.LEAD-IN

1.Answer the following questions:

1.Why is competition for a place at a US or UK law school traditionally fierce?

2.Prospective law school candidates in the USA should have a basic understanding in certain areas, including American history; political theory and the American political system; ethics and theories of justice (found in philosophy and religion courses); micro-economic theory; basic maths and accounting skills; human behaviour and social interaction (found in psychology and sociology courses) and an awareness of international issues. Are these requirements similar at Ukrainian law schools?

2.Match the following English words and phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) pursue further study

a) довірена власність

2) be «admitted to the bar»

b) учнівство

3) Training Contract

c) зобов’язальне право

4) mock trial

d) продовжувати навчання

5) tort e

e) відшкодування збитків

6) civil litigation

f) інсценований судовий процес

7) trust

g) стажування

8) restitution

h) вступити до колегії адвокатів

9) Law of Obligations

i) цивільне правопорушення, делікт

10) pupilage

j) судовий процес з цивільної справи

TEXT 2

Read the text «Training Lawyers in the UK and in the USA».

Notes on the text:

LLB – Bachelor of Law – бакалавр юридичних наук (перший ступінь вищої освіти в галузі права)

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PART I. Legal Systems

LLM – Master of Law – магістр юридичних наук (другий ступінь вищої осві-

ти в галузі права)

Juris Doctor (JD) – доктор права (перший ступінь вищої освіти в галузі

права в США)

The United States is the only common law country that no longer offers the LL.B. While the LL.B. was conferred until 1971 at Yale University, since that time, all universities in the United States have awarded the professional doctorate

J.D.,which then became the required degree for the practice of law. Inn of Court – «інн», школа підготовки баристерів

the Law Society – професійна спілка солісіторів

General Council of the Bar – генеральна рада спілки баристерів

Bar exam – іспит на право займатися адвокатською практикою

solicitor – солісітор (адвокат, який надає поради клієнту, готує справи для баристера та зазвичай виступає в судах нижчої інстанції)

barrister – баристер (адвокат, який має право виступати у вищих судах)

In the United States, the formal study of law is only available at the postgraduate level. To attend an American law school, a student must already hold an undergraduate degree.

The most common law degrees offered by American law schools are the professional Juris Doctor (JD) degree and the master’s degree in law (LLM).

The professional JD degree (requires three years of study) is meant for those who wish to practise law in the US. Therefore, the main concentration of the degree programme is on American law. The first year includes compulsory courses such as civil procedure, constitutional law, contracts, criminal law and procedure, legal method, legal writing, property law and torts (personal injury law). The first year may also include mock trials in which students argue cases against one another. During the second and third year, courses may include evidence, civil litigation, taxation, wills and trusts, administrative, corporate, commercial, family, environmental or international law.

LLM programs (typically one year at length) are intended for qualified lawyers who have several years of experience but wish to pursue further study. General LLM degree programmes can be individually adapted to suit a candidate's interests and normally require a thesis.

In order to practise law, one must first be «admitted to the bar» in an individual state. This entails passing the state bar exam and any other exams required by the state bar examiners. Generally, the state bar exam requires evidence of three qualities in exam candidates: sufficient general education

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