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Теоретическая фонетика

  1. Phonetics as a science. The phoneme theory.

Phonetics as a branch of linguistics, its own branches. The connection of Phonetics with Grammar, Lexicology and Stylistics. The sound matter of the language and its components. The functional aspect of the sound. The definition of the phoneme. The material, the abstractional, the generalized and the functional aspects of the phoneme – three functions of the phoneme. The principle and the subsidiary variants of the phoneme. The conception of the phoneme.

  1. The classification of English sounds.

The articulatory mechanisms of speech production. The organs of speech and their functions. The classification of speech sounds. The acoustic and the auditory aspect of speech sounds. The classification of English vowels – 5 types. Accomodation. Modification of vowels in connected speech. The classification of English consonants – 4 types. Assimilation. Different features of consonants affected by assimilation. Degrees of assimilation. Directions of assimilation.

  1. English intonation.

The definition of intonation. Intonation and its components. The role of intonation in speech. Sentence – stress. Stressed and unstressed words in sentence – stress. The distinctive function of sentence-stress. Rhythm. Tempo. Intonation of statements, special questions, general questions, imperatives, exclamations, direct address, parentheses, author’s words, disjunctive questions, compound and complex sentences.

Cтилистика

  1. Functional styles.

The definition, the features common for all styles. The general classification. Formal functional styles: scientific, business (official), publicistic, poetical. The aims, the general characterization, the linguistic features. Informal styles: the characteristic features, the specific language material. The peculiarities of literary :: familiar colloquial. The problem of belle-lettre style. The distinctive features of the language of literature.

  1. The main division of expressive means. Lexical means of expressiveness.

Stylistic devices and expressive means. The ancient classification of expressive means. The functional classification. Modern classification of expressive means. Lexical means of expressiveness and the classification of tropes; their definitions and functions.

  1. Metaphoric group. The structure and the semantics of an image.

Metaphor. Different approaches to the study of metaphor. Simile. Personification. The semantic structure of an image (tenor, vehicle, ground). Genuine and trite images. Sustained images. The functions of an image.

  1. Syntactical expressive means.

The definition of syntactical expressive means, their classification. The general classification of each group of syntactical expressive means, the devices comprising it. Syntactical structures with some change in their semantic function. The notion of stylistic transposition.

  1. Phonetic and graphical expressive means.

The functions of sound imagery. Euphony – the definition, means of creating. Alliteration – definition, spheres of usage, functions. Assonance. Onomotopoeia – direct and indirect, the theory of sound symbolism. Rhythm: the definition, the vital features, the rhythm of poetry. Graphons.

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