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Вопрос 5 Old e. Dialects. Oe written record.

Германцы образовали семь королевств; это были Нортумбрия, Мерсия, Восточ­ная Англия, Эссекс, Суссекс и Уэссекс и Кент. Эти семь государств объединились в четыре основных королевства - Нортумбрию, Мерсию, Уэссекс и Кент, в гра­ницах которых образовались четыре диалекта: нортумбрийский, мер­сийский, уэссекский и кентский.

Old English developed into four major dialects: Northumbrian, Mercian; Kentish, and West Saxon.

Old English written records – The 1st was runic alphabet consist of 24 sighs, contain only vertical and inclined lines. After 1st 6 letter this alphabet is called FUTHARK. It is found only two best known runi inscription:(the Ruthwell Cross). And the 2nd Frank Casket. The total number of inscriptions is 40. Monuments of writing share on prosaic and poetic. Уэссекский диалект. «Англосаксонская хроника». Она су­ществует в виде ряда параллельных chronicls, начиная с 7 в. Наиболее важной является так называемая «Паркеровская хроника», которая велась до конца 9 в.на уэссекском диалекте. К 9 в. относятся переводы, сделанные королем Альфредом: 1) «Сurа Pastoralis» («Забота пастыря») -произведение папы Gregory I. К 10 в. относятся the works priest Эльфрика (проповеди, пере­вод «Искусства грамматики» и др.); к 11 в.- the Homilies of Wulstan. Мерсийский диалект. The translations of Psalter (IX в.), glosses (8 в.) и church гимны. Нортумбрийский диалект. 2 runic inscriptions, опи­санные выше; The Gospel was translated by latin, Bede’s HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA GENTIS ANGLORUM (written in Latin in the 8th c.) contains and English fragment of five lines known as “Bede’s Death Song” and a religious poem of nine lines, “Cadmon’s Hymn”.Написана на латинском и в IX в. она была переведена на древнеан­глийский переводчиками школы короля Альфреда. Поэтические памятники. The greatest poem of that time was BEOWULF, an epic of the 7th or 8th c. автор которой не­известен; The poems of monc Кюневульфа - «Helen», « Juliana», «Andrew»; Main Peculiarities of OE poetry1.Old Germanic alliterative verse.2. The Sines are not rhymed.3. The number of the syllables to a line is free, but the number of stressed syllables is fixed.4. Each line is divided intoo 2 halves and each half begins with one and the same sound.5. There are at least 2 stressed syllables in a line, one in each half.6. Metaphorical phrases.

Вопрос 6 Chronological division in the Hof E lang. Traditional periodization divides E into 3 periods: OE, ME, NE. OE begins with Germanic setlments of Britaine(5th c)or with the beginning of writtin(7) and ends with Norman Conquest.(1066). ME –with Norman Conquest and ends on the introduction of printing (1475). So then start NE and lasts to the present day. Some authors called them – early, classixal and late. The 1st period, which may be termed Early Old English. It is the stage of the tribal dialects of the West Germanic invaders, which were gradually losing contacts with the related continental tongues. The tribal dialects were used for oral communication, there being no written form of English. The 2ndperiod OE/Anglo-Saxon extends from the 8th c. till the end of the 11th. The tribal dialects gradually changed into local or regional dialects. The language of this period is usually described synchronically and is treated as a more or less stable system. The 3rd period, known as Early Middle English, starts after 1066, the year of the Norman Conquest, and covers the 12th, 13th and half of the 14th c. It was the stage of the greatest dialectal divergence caused by the feudal system and by foreign influences – Scandinavian and French. Under Norman rule the official language in England was French, or rather its variety called Anglo-French or Anglo-Norman; it was also the dominant language of literature. (from syntactic into analytic). The 4th period – from the later 14th c. till the end of the 15th – known the age of Chaucer, Classical ME. It was the time of literary flourishing. The main dialect used in writing and literature was the mixed dialect of London. H. Sweet called this period” leveled endings”, because most of inflections in the nominal system had fallen together. The 5th period is called Early New English, lasted from the introduction of printing to the age of Shakespeare. The first printed book in English was published by William Caxton in 1475. This period was also a time of sweeping changes at all levels, in the first place lexical and phonetic. The 6th period extends from the mid-17th c. to the close of the 18th c. In the history of the language it is often called “the age of normalization and correctness. The 18th c. has been called the period of “fixing the pronunciation”. The great sound shifts were over and pronunciation was being stabilized. Word usage and grammatical construction were subjected to restriction and normalization. The 7th period in the history of English. It is called Late New English or Modern English. The 20th c. witnessed considerable intermixture of dialects. The local dialects were retreated and displaced by Standard English. The English vocabulary has grown.

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