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4. The grammatical or formal level of equivalence.

См. тетрадь, тема types of equivalence, можно добавить к грамматической:

On this level, the most possible semantic semilarity between the source and target sentences is found: Every mother loves her children. – Каждая мать любит своих детей. I will write you every week. – Я буду писать тебе каждую неделю. As a matter of fact, this is a word for word translation where each word and the whole structure retains its lexical and grammatical meaning, the situation designated by the sentences is identical, and the communicative function of the utterances is the same. Every form of the target sentence is equal, with no variations, to that of the source language sentence.47 Therefore, this level might be called the level of formal equivalence.

8. Word level of analysis in translation.

См. тетрадь, тема words and levels of translation

12. Kinds of translation: Intersemiotic translation.

См. тетрадь

16. Translation and Interpreting.

См. тетрадь

20. Communicative interpreting and its functions.

См. тетрадь в теме translation and interpreting

24. Translation as communication across cultures.

См. Тетрадь. Сразу после Human and machine tr-ion

28. Equivalent and identical texts. What is the difference?

Тут попытаюсь своими словами сказать, надеюсь я правильно поняла))

The TT can be called equivalent if it preserves the functions that have the original text. The equivalent text conveys the same message to the recipients, but it can’t be identical to the original. In order to achieve equivalent, right translations some changes (lexical, grammatical, stylistic, structural) can be obligatory, while identical texts remain the same on these levels (lex.,gram.,..)

В общем, наверно как-то так)) будем надеяться, что этот вопрос не попадется)

32. Text-normative equivalence.

См. тетрадь, equivalence in translation

36. The category of field.

См. тетрадь

40. The category of genre.

См. тетрадь

44. The concept of a cultural filter.

См. тетрадь, после analyses of equivalence.

48. Various types of arguments in connection with Whorfian Hypothesis.

Думаю, тут то же самое, что и в Whorfian h. И упомянуть про translatability principle.

52. The so called «metalanguage» and the problem of untranslatability.

См. тетрадь, в конце темы Whorfian hypothesis

56. Classification of translation transformations according to techniques of translation

In the process of translation a SLT as a whole or its segments may undergo varied modifications that are known in the theory and practice of translation as translation transformations.

Translation transformations are defined by L.S. Barkhudarov as numerous and varied in their quality inter-lingual changes which are made to achieve adequacy in translation in spite of discrepancies in the formal and semantic systems of a SL and a TL.

We can distinguish 3 classifications by Retzker, Barchudarov and Komissarov.


1. Lexical T.




Sense development

General transformation

Antonymic translation


2. Grammatical T.




1. Substitutions

a)Lexical (concretization, generalization, antonymic translation, compensation)

b)Grammatical (substitution of word-forms, parts of speech, parts of sentence)

2. Transpositions

3. Addition

4. Omission


1. Lexical T. (Transcription/transliteration, calque)

2. Lexico-semantic (concretizing, generalization, modulation)

3. Lexico-grammatical (antonymic translation, compensation, description)

4. Grammatical (Word for word translation, sentence integration, sentence fragmentation)

5. Grammatical substitutions (of parts of speech, parts of sentence, sentences of a certain type, grammatical category)

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