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Топики для студентов института права бгу автор-составитель мингазетдинов Аскар Асхатович republic of bashkortostan

The Republic of Bashkortostan - a sovereign republic within the Russian Federation - is located along the South Urals and the adjacent plains. Its territory is 143,600 square kilometers and the population is over 4 million people. In terms of population, Bashkortostan ranks seventh among Russia's republics, territories and regions. About a hundred nationalities inhabit the Republic. The indigenous population is Bashkirs.

From the point of view of natural conditions Bashkortostan can be divided into three parts - western, mountainous and Bashkir Trans-Urals. The western part is located upon the Russian Plains. It is most favourable for life and business activities. It is here that the majority of the population lives. Highland Bashkortostan encompasses the South Ural Mountains, least auspicious to farming and manufacturing and thus least developed. Bashkir Trans-Urals forms a narrow strip to the east of the Ural Mountains along the Republic's eastern border merging with the West Siberian Plains.

Bashkortostan's climate is continental with moderately warm, sometimes hot, summers and cold winters.

More than 600 rivers and 800 lakes trim the beauty of the Republic's nature. Many of the rivers, including the largest - the Ural and the Aghidel - belong to the Caspian Sea basin.

Bashkortostan is rich in forests, the predominant species being birch-tree, conifers, lime-tree, oak and maple. About 6 million cubic meters of timber are annually procured and more than half of these are subsequently processed. The Republic accounts for nearly a third of all lime-tree forests of Russia. It is the lime-tree that makes Bashkir honey world-famous. The latter's taste and bouquet, as well as the superb quality of the famous healing koumiss(fermented mare's milk) are contributed to by a rare combination of the vegetation growing in Bashkortostan.

The mineral riches of Bashkortostan include iron ore, copper, gold, zinc, aluminum, chromium, brown coal, natural gas, salt, manganese, gypsum, lime-stone and many other deposits numbering well over three thousand.

Oil is the main mineral resource of the land. Oil-related industries - power generation, oil refining, chemical, gas and petrochemical - have become most prominent.

Diverse natural riches, a favourable pattern of population distribution, and a convenient geographical location promote the development of manufacturing and agribusiness. Bashkortostan ranks second in the Urals region as regards its manufacturing potential, and outstrips Russia's republics and many of the CIS countries in terms of national income.

Being the focal point of the major cargo traffic between the European and Asian parts of the country, the Republic of Bashkortostan offers extensive facilities for exports and imports of raw materials, fuel and manufactured items, maintaining trade and business ties with both the West and the East.

The BAL (Bashkir Airlines) carrier connects Ufa with the largest cities in Russia, the post-Soviet republics and abroad.

The length of railways is 2,900 km, and that of navigable river routes is 960 km.

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Adoption on October 11, 1990, of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Bashkortostan opened up a new phase in the evolution of our Republic as a sovereign state within the Russian Federation, a state possessing an immense economic and spiritual potential. The Republic has established itself as a reliable, economically and politically stable region, which is prepared to co-operate and interact on an equal footing with all regions of Russia, with the federal authorities, and foreign partners.

Sovereignty has given to the Republic an opportunity to independently determine its economic policy, to rationally manage its natural riches, production capability and earnings in the best interest and for the benefit of the people.

The State Assembly - Kurultai of the Republic of Bashkortostan is the supreme representative and the single legislative body of the Republic. It consists of the two Houses - the House of Representatives and the Legislative Chamber. As distinct from the Federal Assembly and the legislative bodies of other subjects of the Russian Federation, the structure of Bashkortostani Parliament has certain features of its own. On the one hand, it is a bicameral, on the other hand - it is a unitary body. As per the requirement of the Constitution, the joint session of both Houses elects Chairperson of the State Assembly, as well as his or her Deputy who performs his or her functions without being released from the principal job. The Chairpersons of each individual House are elected at separate sittings. In accordance with the law provisions, they concurrently serve as Deputies to the Chairperson of the State Assembly. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, only the State Assembly is entitled to adopt a Constitution, Codes, Laws, and any amendments thereto; it determines, jointly with the President, the domestic and foreign policies of the Republic, endorses the State Budget, supervises its execution; gives its consent to the President's nomination of a Prime Minister; passes a decision to hold elections of the President, deputies of the State Assembly and local authorities; elects the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court of Arbitration; appoints the Procurator and the Commissioner of the Republic of Bashkortostan for Human Rights. At least once a year the Parliament shall hear and discuss the President's message on the main guidelines of the home and foreign policies. The State Assembly wields many other powers and authority as well.

The competence of the Houses, matters related to the internal set-up of their activities are spelled out in the Law on the State Assembly and its Unified Regulations.

The Legislative Chamber functions on a continuous professional basis. It is exactly this house that makes Codes and Laws. The House of Representatives does not operate full-time, but takes an active part in the law-making process, approves or rejects Codes, Laws or other acts adopted by the Legislative Chamber, introduces amendments or supplements thereto as may be required.

Each House comprises seven equally named, "replica" committees, which work in parallel, each having its own specific tasks in the law-making process.

The House of Representatives comprises 150 Deputies, whereas the Legislative Chamber numbers 40.

The State Assembly is elected for the term of four years.

A Secretariat is formed to maintain its activities.

The republican legislative base will have to eliminate imperfections and conflicts existing with federal laws, to create a comprehensive system for legal regulation of the economy conforming to up-to-date conditions and requirements of the reforms. Streamlining is required for the legislation on investment activities (including those involving foreign capital), on consumer and manufacturing co-operatives, on finance-industrial groups, and on registration by the state of real estate and on transactions therewith.

Against the background of political tension in many of the country's regions Bashkortostan stands out for stability and peaceful atmosphere.

The Republic numbers 20 cities, the largest being Ufa, Sterlitamak, Salavat, Neftekamsk, Oktyabrski.


Over the 400-odd years of its existence, the capital of sovereign Bashkortostan has developed from a small fortress in the outskirts of Russia into a major manufacturing, scientific and cultural centre of the nation.

Ufa was founded by a detachment of Russian streltsi (archers) as a fortress in 1574. In 1588 Ufa was granted a town status and became Bashkiria's administrative centre. Gradually it developed into a trade mediator between European and Siberian towns and cities.

In 1922 Ufa became the capital of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Federation.

The history of Ufa has absorbed centuries-old traditions of its inhabitants - representatives of over 80 nations and nationalities, who harmoniously complement and enrich each other's cultures.

About 40 percent of the Republic's industrial capacity is concentrated in Ufa. The city's oil refineries and petrochemical facilities annually consume more than 35 million tons of crude. The engineering industry, accounting for more than 25 percent of the capital's industrial output, fabricates a wide range of produce including aerospace applications and household appliances. There are considerable capacities of the building materials industry; timber-processing, light and food industries are being developed.

Ufa ranks high in Russia as regards the production of diesel fuel, car petrol, petrochemicals, herbicides, "Moskvich" car engines, agricultural machinery, consumer goods, medicines.

The capital boasts 11 higher educational establishments with five universities among them; active research is being conducted by the Ufa Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and by the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

More than one hundred writers and poets live and work in Ufa. The writings of Mustai Karim, Nazar Nadzhmi, Anver Bikchentayev are acclaimed not only in Bashkortostan and Russia, but well beyond.

It is exactly at Ufa medrese that the famous writers G.Ibraghimov, S.Kudash, Kh.Tufan were schooled.

The renowned virtuoso Rudolf Nureyev started his dazzling dancing career in Ufa, his talent being a source of inspiration for the Bashkir school of ballet dancing. Ufa occupies a significant place in creative work of many distinguished writers, painters, musicians - S.T.Aksakov, M.V.Nesterov, F.I.Chaliapin.

The Aksakov and Chaliapin cultural events that are staged in Ufa on a regular basis draw guests and participants from many countries of the world. The city also hosts the M.Glinka International Music Contest, Turkic-speaking Theatre Festivals, international sporting events.

Thanks to its vibrant cultural life, the activities of many institutions of culture and arts, the existence of historical and literature shrines, as well as to a goodwill shown by the Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa is emerging as an increasingly attractive place for many countries.

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