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Text 3. Evolution of the Payments System

We can obtain a better picture of the functions of money and the forms it has taken over time by looking at the evolution of the payments system, the method of conducting transactions in the economy.

Commodity money. For any object to function as money, it must be universally acceptable; everyone must be willing to take it in payment for goods and services. An object that clearly has value to everyone is a likely candidate to serve as money, and a natural choice is a precious metal such as gold or silver. Money made up of precious metals or another valuable commodity is called commodity money, and from ancient times until several hundred years ago, commodity money functioned as the medium of exchange in all but the most primitive societies. The problem with a payments system based exclusively on precious metals is that such a form of money is very heavy and is hard to transport from one place to another.

Fiat money. The next development in the payments system was paper currency (pieces of paper that function as a medium of exchange). Initially, paper currency carried a guarantee that it was convertible into coins or into a quantity of precious metal. However, currency has evolved into fiat money, paper currency decreed by governments as legal tender (meaning that legally it must be accepted as payment for debts) but not convertible into coins or precious metal. Paper currency has the advantage of being much lighter than coins or precious metal, but it can be accepted as a medium of exchange only if there is some trust in the authorities who issue it and if printing has reached a sufficiently advanced stage that counterfeiting is extremely difficult.

Major drawbacks of paper currency and coins are that they are easily stolen and can be expensive to transport in large amounts because of their bulk. To combat this problem, another step in the evolution of the payments system occurred with the development of modern banking: the invention of cheques. A cheque is an instruction from you to your bank to transfer money from your account to someone else’s account when he deposits the cheque. Cheques allow transactions to take place without the need to carry around large amounts of currency. Payments that cancel each other can be settled by canceling the cheques, and no currency need be moved.

The use of cheques thus reduces the transportation costs associated with the payments system and improves economic efficiency. Another advantage of cheques is that they can be written for any amount up to the balance in the account, making transactions for large amounts much easier. Cheques are also advantageous in that loss from theft is greatly reduced, and because they provide convenient receipts for purchases. There are, however, two problems with a payments system based on cheques. First, it takes time to get cheques from one place to another, a particularly serious problem if you are paying someone in a different location who needs to be paid quickly. In addition, if you have a checking account, it usually takes several business days before a bank will allow you to make use of the funds from a cheque you have deposited. If your need for cash is urgent, this feature of paying by cheque can be frustrating. Second, all the paper shuffling required to process cheques is costly.

Electronic payment. The development of inexpensive computers and the spread of the Internet now make it cheap to pay bills electronically. In the past, you had to pay your bills by mailing a cheque, but now banks provide a website in which you just log on, make a few clicks, and thereby transmit your payment electronically. Not only do you save the cost of the stamp, but paying bills becomes (almost) a pleasure, requiring little effort.

E-money. Electronic payments technology can not only substitute for cheques, but can substitute for cash, as well, in the form of electronic money (or e-money), money that exists only in electronic form. The first form of e-money was the debit card. Debit cards, which look like credit cards, enable consumers to purchase goods and services by electronically transferring funds directly from their bank accounts to a merchant’s account. Debit cards are used in many of the same places that accept credit cards and are now often becoming faster to use than cash. At most supermarkets you can swipe your debit card through the card reader at the checkout station, press a button, and the amount of your purchases is deducted from your bank account. Most banks and companies such as Visa and MasterCard issue debit cards.

A more advanced form of e-money is the stored-value card. The simplest form of stored value card is purchased for a preset dollar amount that the consumer pays up front, like a prepaid phone card. The more sophisticated stored-value card is known as a smart card. It contains a computer chip that allows it to be loaded with digital cash from the owner’s bank account whenever needed. Smart cards can be loaded from ATM machines, personal computers with a smart card reader, or specially equipped telephones.

A third form of electronic money is often referred to as e-cash, which is used on the Internet to purchase goods or services. A consumer gets e-cash by setting up an account with a bank that has links to the Internet and then has the e-cash transferred to his PC. When one wants to buy something with e-cash, he surfs to a store on the Web and clicks the “buy” option for a particular item, whereupon the e-cash is automatically transferred from his computer to the merchant’s computer. The merchant can then have the funds transferred from the consumer’s bank account to his before the goods are shipped.

Exercise 20. Translate into English.

Система розрахунків, загальноприйнятий, товарні гроші, дорогоцінні метали, паперові гроші, ухвалюватися урядом як законний засіб платежу, довіра органам влади, підробка, головні недоліки, переводити гроші з рахунку, зменшувати витрати на перевезення, термінова потреба в готівці, замінити, торговець, сума покупок, електронні гроші.

Exercise 21 .Complete the sentences according to text 3.

    1. The payments system is ….2. For any object to function as money, it must … 3. Commodity money is money made up of… 4. Paper currency can be accepted as a medium of exchange only if … 5. A cheque is an instruction … 6. The use of cheques reduces … 7. …make it cheap to pay bills electronically. 8. Debit cards enable consumers to … 9. A smart card contains … 10. A consumer gets e-cash by …

Exercise 22. Complete the table.

Form of money

Advantages

Disadvantages

Commodity money

Fiat money

Cheques

Electronic payments

E-money

Exercise 23. Answer the questions.

  1. What qualities should any object have to function as money? 2. What is the problem with a payments system based exclusively on precious metals? 3. Why was the introduction of paper money important? 4. What are the drawbacks of paper currency? 5. Why was the introduction of cheques the major advance? 6. What are the two problems with a payments system based on cheques? 7. Why is it convenient to use electronic payment? 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of electronic money? 9. Would you be willing to give up your chequebook/cash and instead use an electronic means of payment if it were made available? Why? Why not?

Exercise 24. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Гроші, які зроблені з дорогоцінних металів або іншого цінного товару, називаються товарними грошима. 2. Паперові гроші ухвалені державою як законний засіб платежу, тобто вони мають прийматися для сплати боргів. 3. Паперові гроші можуть використовуватися, лише якщо ви довіряєте органам влади, що їх випускають. 4. Друк грошей має бути на найвищому рівні, коли підробити їх надзвичайно важко. 5. Чек - це Ваше доручення банку перевести гроші з Вашого рахунку на чужий рахунок, коли клієнт надасть відповідний чек. 6. Створення недорогих комп’ютерів і поширення інтернету дозволяють дешево сплачувати електронні рахунки. 7. Дебетні картки надають можливість споживачам купувати товари та послуги, переказуючи гроші зі своїх банківських рахунків на рахунок торгівельного закладу.

Exercise 25 .Complete the text using the words from the box.

cost

income

purchasing

differentials

inequality

rent

distribution

profits

salary

earn

progressive

standard

Money paid, usually weekly and often in cash, to a worker for work done is called a wage (or wages). A 1) … is a regular payment made to an employee, usually by a bank transfer or cheque at the end of the month. A real wage is an actual wage deflated (divided) by the consumer price index; this gives the 2) … power of an hour's work. Skilled work is usually rewarded by higher pay than unskilled work. Skills, knowledge and expertise acquired in education or special training are also known as human capital, and are usually remunerated. On the contrary, compensating 3) … are often paid to persuade unskilled people to take dangerous, dirty, inconvenient or tedious jobs.

Subsistence wages are the minimum amount needed to support a person's life. Fortunately, most people in industrial and post-industrial countries 4) … rather more than this. If higher wages tempt people to work longer hours, this is known as the substitution effect. But after a certain point, higher wages mean that workers can afford to work fewer hours; this is the 5) … effect.

The 6) … of living is defined as the level of prosperity in terms of material or social benefits (which are related to income and wealth). The 7) … of living is the amount of money that must be paid for food, housing, clothing, and so on.

In economics, unlike in marketing, 8) … concerns the allocation of factors of production - land, which earns 9) … , labour, which earns wages, and capital, which earns interest and/or profits - and their market prices. Income is the flow of money earned or collected during a given period, including wages and salaries, interest payments, rental income, and 10) … from business. 11) … or redistributive taxation can reduce income 12) … . Wealth is the net stock of tangible and financial assets owned at any particular time.

Exercise 26. Learn the following words and word combinations.

money supply

    • грошова маса (в обігу)

property

    • майно, нерухомість

to draw a cheque

    • виписувати чек

high-powered

    • активний, діяльний

interest rate

    • відсоткова ставка

Exercise 27. Read, translate and give the gist of text 4.

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