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  1. What are the strategies in translating proper names, geographical names, names of the companies?

Proper Name Translation

Before any translation of proper names, it is necessary to specify them in relevant reference materials:Encyclopedia, reference books, geographical atlas and etc.

In a case of impossibility of verifying the translation of the proper names in the reference materials, a translator can deal with the following ways:

• Accurate meaning conveyance

• Pronunciation conveyance

• Combined method

Method 1. Accurate meaning conveyance

According to this method a literal (word by word translation) is applied, with final phrase being composed. One of the main difficulties a translator may come across is the absence of semantic equivalence of source words in a target language.

Method 2. Pronunciation conveyance

According to this method proper names are translated based on the rules of transliteration and transcription.The disadvantage of this method is impossibility to convey the meaning of source words.

Method 3. Combined method.

Today this method which combines the first two methods is proved to be one of the most widely-spread. When applying this method, a translator tries to convey the meaning of the words in rather long names, and when it is impossible to convey the pronunciation of the words.

Rules for Translation of Geographical Names

In translating of geographical names a translator must follow the following rules:

1. Find conventional translation in geographical reference books

2. Literal translation

3. Transliteration.

4. Apply both literal translation and transliteration.

Translation of Company Names

The translation of companies’ manes can cause troubles for translators because of the absence of any possibility of finding an appropriate variant of translation in reference books. It is done by the following two methods:

• transliteration

• literal (word by word translation).

The first method is applied for translation of different commercial organizations and companies. The second one is applied for translations of names of non-commercial and state organizations.

Special attention should be paid to the translation of legal organizational form (type of business) of foreign companies. A translator should remember that the same legal organization forms can have different legal functions, structures and so on.. a translator can follow two ways:

• application of the term of a target country

• source name transcription.

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