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  1. What are the main written translation varieties? Specify summary (gist translation)

According to physical parameters translation is divided into written (or simply translation) and oral (or interpretation). Written technical translation is subdivided into full (total) translation, summary translation, annotated translation, patent translation.

Summary or Gist Translation

As a full translation is one of the main and complete types of technical translation, other types are considered to be its short versions. One of such variants is so-called summary translation.

The purpose of summary translation is to create a short summary of the key points or messages of the source document in the target language (the translation of the selected parts of the source text).

Summary translation consists of the following 4 stages:

1. Scanning: a translator looks through the whole source text consulting special literature or reference books in order to grasp the main idea of the text and clear the meaning of its terminology.

2. Selection: a translator marks the text choosing the parts for translation and neglecting those which have no importance.

3. Reading: it is essential to read the selected parts of the source text to eliminate possible disproportion and incoherence.

4. Full translation: full translation of the selected parts is performed in accordance with the logics and structure of the whole original text.

  1. What are the main written translation varieties? Specify annotated translation

According to physical parameters translation is divided into written (or simply translation) and oral (or interpretation). Written technical translation is subdivided into full (total) translation, summary translation, annotated translation, patent translation.

Annotated translation

The main purpose of annotated translation is to annotate the source text in a target language. Annotation means a critical or explanatory note; a commentary.

Two types of annotations are distinguished:

1. Annotation of a book

2. Annotation of a foreign patent

The main purpose of book or article annotation is to provide the characteristics of the source text. It should be done in the following way. A translator should read the whole source text (an article or a book), then make its plan, specify its main issues or describe its structure and content. Only after this a translator can make an annotation which should not be more than 500 words regardless the length of the source text and should describe the text.

  1. Patent translation: main problems and pitfalls. Describe patent internal organization. Enumerate main linguistic difficulties in patent translation?

A patent is defined as a right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention throughout the country. A patent is both a technical and a legal document.

The internal organization of any patent is quite difficult. It contains a lot of elements and each of them has their own features. Certain elements are mandatory, such as the specification, one or more claims, and the abstract. Some elements are just technical, other are legal. For example: technical - complete, summary description, abstract; legal - claims, broadening paragraphs.

The patent translation has its own unbreakable rules from the legal side, such as isn't allow to delete some words or word combinations, to delete some structural elements from the patent; there are special words that should be used in the text (eg. therein, thereof); structure starts from more broad and tend to more concrete.

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