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  1. What are the main oral translation varieties?

According to physical parameters translation is divided into written (or simply translation) and oral (or interpretation). Interpretation is divided into consecutive interpretation and simultaneous interpretation. Chuchotage and at-sight interpretation are commonly regarded as alternatives of consecutive interpretation despite minor differences in physical procedures.

In consecutive interpretation the interpretation follows the source utterance, whereas simultaneous interpretation is performed simultaneously with the original speech. In a similar way almost zero time lag of the interpreter during simultaneous interpretation is critical for the choice of translation devices and approaches. Without special equipment simultaneous interpretation is impossible.

Consecutive interpreter generally prefers denotative approach since it is virtually impossible to memorize the entirety of the long text passages being translated and translate close to the source text. Consecutive interpretations can be performed by two different ways. At the first case an interpreter translates a phrase by phrase or paragraph by paragraph. This method is widely applied in interpreting lectures or reports. The required pauses are made at the end of meaningful concepts so that an interpreter is able to grasp the main idea of the phrase or paragraph.

The second way is to interpret the whole speech (report, or lecture) when it is over. An interpreter has to memorize all presented information and only when it is over he or she can interpret what he/she has heard. The most difficult thing here is to memorize all necessary information to convey. Because of existing limits of human memory, the only thing an interpreter can do is to make notes.

Chuchotage and at-sight interpretation are two specific alternatives of consecutive interpretation proper. During chuchotage the interpreter speaks in low voice, almost whispers so that only the interpretation user can hear.

At-sight interpretation is another variety of consecutive interpretation. The difference is that the interpreter reads a written text in a source language rather than listening to the speaker as in ordinary consecutive interpretation.It is stylistical discrepancy between the written document and its oral interpretation.

  1. What are the main written translation varieties? Specify full (total) translation.

According to physical parameters translation is divided into written (or simply translation) and oral (or interpretation). Written technical translation is subdivided into full (total) translation, summary translation, annotated translation, patent translation.

1.Full (total) translation

Full total translation is a main type of technical translation. All technical and scientific materials are conveyed from one language to another due to this kind of translation. It consists of four important stages and violation of its sequence can significantly influence the translation quality.

Stage 1

At the first stage a translator should look through the text up to the very end. Sometimes it is necessary to read the whole text twice or three times in order to clarify the context he has to work within and to grasp the main idea of the original.

Stage 2

At the second stage a translator makes a draft copy of the translation through successive work with the source text parts which can be logically detached (paragraph, sentences, parts).

Firstly, a translator must detach or specify logically complete part of a source text he is to work with. The length of a source text part is defined by three factors: conceptual completeness, text complexity, and translator’s memory.

Then a chosen part of the source text is translated without consulting the original. When a chosen part (or sentence) is translated it is verified against the source part in order to fulfill the missed information.

Stage 3

At the third stage a translator finally edits the whole text, reading it aloud or to oneself in order to check the adequacy of the language, style, quality of a target text and its uniformity.

Stage 4

Only at this stage a translator is to translate the title of the source text.

When four stages are completed the translated text must go through edition and proofreading which is done by a definite person who did not translate this text.

Editing: At this stage, the task of an editor is revising the text, segment by segment, that the translator has really made accurate translation and has fully understood the text and has not missed any of the information. An editor must first of all read it up to the end without looking at the original. While reading first time, an editor underlines the fragments which are seemed to be unclear or sound strange from the point of target language. When suspected fragments are defined an editor can take an original to verify them.

Correction (Proofreading): In this stage, the translation and editing of the text have been done previously, and it is not necessary, in principle, to refer to the original text. This final review focuses primarily on the idea that the translated text sounds natural in the target language.

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