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149 Must, to be to, to have to

Exercise 12

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the verb MUST.

  1. 'No, Basil, you must tell me,' insisted Dorian Gray. 'I have a right to know'.

  2. Dorian shook his head. 'You must not ask me about that, Basil'.

  3. I must part with you for my whole life and I must begin a new existence amongst strange faces and strange scenes.

  4. Since I haven't seen anything, the vision you had must have been unreal.

  5. That woman was — must have been Grace Poole.

  6. I always have a warm corner for Roberta. I must try and find her before I go abroad.

  7. 'When does Mr. Johnson come back?'

'Next month'.

'You must be missing him terribly then'.

  1. Mrs. Cromwell took us around her yacht. There was no doubt that it must have cost her a fortune.

  2. 'Pull yourself together,' I said. 'You must be imagining all this'.

  1. This house must have been pretty a long time ago.

  2. Once a professional, one always must be a professional.

  1. I haven't seen her for ages. She must have changed since then. I am sure I won't recognize her.

  2. It must have been the golden hair that penetrated her with a sort of glowing and made her look like a fairy.

Exercise 13

Supply the correct form of the infinitive with the modal verb MUST.

  1. His mind turned to the accident. It was the kind of thing which must (not to occur) again.

  2. It is lovely to have you home again. We must (to have) a party to celebrate your arrival.

  3. 'I must (to get) old,' she said, 'to be talking like that'.

'Nowadays big hotels must (to do) tremendous business,' thought old Jolyon.


  1. 'You must (to be) right. I am not going to argue with you since I share your point of view.

  2. But at last he rose realizing dully that he had work which he must (to do).

  3. I must (to sit) there for a quarter of an hour waiting and thinking about it before I saw the letter.

  4. He had said that he himself was an admirer of French philosophers. This must (to influence) him in making his decision.

  5. At half past eight came Lucy, wet to the skin. She must (to wait) for Sid since the rain had started.

  1. Someone of us two must (to go away) to prevent a disaster. We definitely can't work together.

  2. The old lady must (to be) a beauty оnсе. Susy wished to see Mrs. Durley's picture to find out if she was right.

  3. Bring me that cigarette-case. It must (to lie) on the salver in the hall.

  4. Nick brought the repaired bicycle. He must (to work) since early morning today to finish in time.

Exercise 14

Make up your own questions and give affirmative and negative answers according to the pattern.

> Pattern: Must I read this article too?

  • Yes, you must.

  • No, you needn't.

Exercise 15

Make up situations to justify the use of the modal verb MUST. For pattern see Exercise 6.

1. He must be working.

He must have worked.

He must have been working.

2. He must never have been poor.

He must have failed to come in time.

He must have misunderstood you.


Exercise 16


Paraphrase the following sentences using MUST to express supposition. Try to avoid using the negative particle NOT.

1. I am perfectly certain that he did not manage to catch the train.

  1. I am sorry! Now I see that I did not recognize you.

  2. I am sure that he was not noticed by anyone of us.

  3. She definitely did not understand this rule.

  4. He obviously did not know that he was awkward.

  5. He evidently did not answer his mother's message.

  6. He evidently wasn't worrying about anything.

  1. He is sure to be not very careful to have broken your favourite vase.

  1. I am sure the information they have given us is not perfectly correct.

  1. He was certain he had not a fair chance of winning: he wasn't in good form for recently he had gone through a serious trauma.

  2. He did not seem to be conscious of having said the wrong thing.

  3. I am sure they did not do anything about their report. I don't see any changes.

  4. She did not seem to be experienced in swimming though she said she was.


Translate into English paying attention to the way you render supposition in the future and in negative sentences.

  1. Он, должно быть, не осознавал, что вёл себя бестактно.

  2. Они, должно быть, ничего не заметили и поэтому не стали волноваться.

  3. Я, должно быть, не так произнесла Вашу фамилию! Извините!

  4. Вы, должно быть, не осознали важности происходящего.


  1. Вас, скорее всего, никто не заметил. Не будьте так трусливы.

  2. Собака залаяла. Должно быть, не признала своего хозяина.

  3. Наверняка всё еще уладится в вашу пользу.

  4. Скорее всего, он вам напишет уже из Австралии.

  5. Должно быть, он позвонит вам вечером. Не отходите от телефона.

  1. Скорее всего, он ничего так и не узнает.

  2. Наверняка они придут всей семьей на юбилей тётушки.

  3. Скорее всего, он решит это дело в вашу пользу.

  4. Должно быть, она не будет страдать из-за этой встречи. Но вы всё-таки её навестите.

Exercise 17

Ask tag-questions to the following sentences.

  1. He could be right though I doubt it.

  2. You can have been mistaken. Ask him once again.

  3. He must be reading in the library.

  4. He must have talked to her already. She knows what has happened.

  5. They may be still in the mountains.

  6. They may have moved house. They don't answer my letters.

  7. They must have been walking in the rain. They are wet to the skin.

  8. They may be still staying at their aunt's. Otherwise they would be already here.

  9. She cannot have failed to recognize yew. She has known you for 15 years!

  1. They cannot have forgotten about their mother's birthday. It's not like them.

  2. Don't get upset. You could have misunderstood him.

  3. They may have been doing well since they do not ask for help.

  4. It must be raining outside, do you hear the noise?


Exercise 18

Paraphrase the following sentences using the modal verbs MUST, CAN, MAY to express supposition, doubt, astonishment, surprise or incredulity.

  1. I do not believe that he is as stupid as he is said to be.

  2. I doubt that they said that. They are too well-bred.

  3. I am sure that the person who telephoned me was Allan.

  4. Is it true that Michael has divorced Alice?

  5. He is probably at the theatre now enjoying Swan Lake.

  6. He is sure to have forgotten about his promise .to arrive on Thursday.

  7. It is possible that they have already arrived. But why then is there no message from them?

  8. Is it true that he has decided to move house and go to Spain?

  9. I am sure he has a university degree: he is a well-educated man.

  1. Probably he will enter the University, or, perhaps, the Polytechnical Institute in Manchester.

  2. Is it really true that they built their cottage in a month?

  3. I do not believe that he has been invited to the party: last time he did not behave properly.

  4. It is impossible that you saw him on Wednesday evening in the opera house.

  5. You must not get upset: everything will probably turn out all right.

  6. Perhaps, they have telephoned while you were out.

  7. I am perfectly certain that he is speaking on the telephone now: the line is busy.

  8. Is it true that they are still translating this article? It is one of the easiest tasks I could think of.

  9. People were folding wet umbrellas as they were entering the metro station. And I thought that it was raining outside.

  10. It is quite possible that they have already woken up: it is nine o'clock and you can ring them up.

  11. Perhaps he will come next week and bring you a very nice doll or a box of chocolates.

  12. It is impossible that he has failed the exam: he was so well-prepared and he knows nearly everything.


Exercise 19

Translate into English using the modal verbs MUST, CAN and MAY.

  1. Он должен много читать вслух, чтобы улучшить своё произношение.

  2. Он, должно быть, много читает вслух, у него хорошее произношение.

  3. Не может быть, чтобы он много читал вслух, он совсем не улучшил своё произношение.

  4. Вероятно, он ещё не закончил читать эту книгу.

  5. –Неужели они никогда не видели снега?

— Конечно, нет. Они же из Бразилии.

  1. Неужели вашей собаке уже пять лет?

  2. Наверное, ваш брат станет знаменитым историком: он так увлечён наукой.

  3. Вы можете и не высказывать своё мнение вслух. Я его отлично знаю.

  4. Наверное, он не пожалеет времени и средств для того, чтобы иметь информацию обо всём.

  1. Может быть, вы и не хотите, чтобы ваше имя попало в газеты, но этого, я думаю, уже не избежать.

  2. Вы должны исполнить только то, что в ваших силах. Никто не требует от вас большего.

  3. Нужно проверить его слова: он, возможно, прав, а, возможно, и нет.

  4. Не может быть, чтобы летом шел снег, а зимой — стояла жара. Так же невероятно и то, что ты мне только что сообщил.

  5. Должно быть, он никогда не испытывал нужду и не знает, как живут небогатые люди.

  6. Он последнее время довеем к нам не ходит: он, вероятно, не знает, что мы уже приехали.

  7. Он поспешил уйти. Скорее всего не захотел, чтобы его заметили.

  8. Неужели вы ещё не были в Париже? Вам обязательно нужно там побывать — это удивительный город.

  9. Скорее всего, он уже не появится: слишком поздно и пора расходиться.

  1. Вероятно, я тоже буду в Москве на будущей неделе.

20. Вы можете оказать мне небольшую услугу? Позвоните моей сестре и помиритесь с ней.


  1. Ничего уже не поделать! Вы больше не будете друзьями.

  2. Он не мог не рассмеяться, когда увидел уснувшего за телефонной беседой отца.

  3. Очевидно, он, наконец встретился с Сарой, поэтому он и был вчера таким веселым.

Exercise 20

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the modal verbs TO BE TO and TO HAVE TO.

  1. The picture had to be concealed: there was no help to it.

  2. The very first thing we have to do is to reduce the overheads in this business.

  3. I've had to give a lot of thought recently to my feelings toward you.

  4. Now will you please show me the office where I am to work.

  5. He was to have had a board meeting on Tuesday but was suddenly summoned to the summit in New York.

  6. He looked around for his car but it was nowhere to be seen.

  7. You are not to utter a word in the presence of the Royal Family otherwise you'll be punished.

  8. Now I've had to listen to a lot of lying. And I never watch faces.

  9. I had to feel my way down the stairs as there was no light.

  1. I found myself in an unknown town and had to have someone show me the way from the station.

  2. If you don't pay for the parcel you are sending, the recepient will have to pay for it.

  3. 'What are the arrangements for the conference?'

'We are to be there to be present at the plenary meeting.’

  1. I don't have to attend all the lectures on history: last year I took a special course in history under the supervision of the same professor.

  2. You don't have to be in a hurry: the flight was delayed until twelve so you will not miss the plane.

  3. You did not have to copy this article: I had some spare copies so I could share them with you.


  1. This medicine is to be taken three times a day before meals.

  2. They left for France and they were never to come back. But then they could not predict that.

Exercise 21

Make the following sentences: — negative;

— interrogative.

  1. You have to stay in bed until your cold is over.

  2. You have to pass examinations twice a year.

  3. You had to read this book by Friday.

  4. They had to build the shop by last summer.

  5. He will have to telephone his tutor and ask for advice.

  6. You will have to join us later.

  7. She had to work hard to make both ends meet.

Exercise 22

Define whether the verb TO HAVE is modal, auxiliary or notional.

  1. I have been calling her up all day and I haven't recieved any answer as yet.

  2. Have you any relatives living permanently in Egypt?

  3. What are we having for dinner tonight?

  4. You don't have to be there at all: I am going there and will settle everything for you.

  5. It is superb! Have you done it yourself?

  6. The weather is awful but I still have to go out. My doctor says I need exercise.

  7. Have a look at these fantastic engravings. Aren't they absolutely amazing?

  8. Where have you been all this time? I have been worrying!

9. I have to telephone my parents and tell them I have already arrived: they'll be happy.

  1. Have another cup of coffee. Help yourself to it.

  2. She never had to work: she was very rich.

  3. She had never worked in her life, for she was immensely rich.


  1. Do you have any complaints? Is everything all right? If you need anything just ask your servant.

  2. What have I done to make her so unhappy?

15. You don't have to spend so much time studying chemistry. Natural science is a wide field and there are so many interesting aspects.

Exercise 23

Fill in the blanks using the modal verbs TO BE TO, TO HAVE TO or IUST.

  1. Uncle Nick's things ... to be moved out of his room so that it could be redecorated.

  2. For the next few weeks I ... to stay in bed. Everyone came to visit me and I... (not) to do the cooking.

3. The chief engineer who ... to work for General Motors had not arrived yet.

4. They went to see Mabel's new house. Mabel said that only the last touches ... to be added and she ... to move into it quite soon.

  1. That day I had my agent waiting to see me after his business trip to Italy and I... to cut my visitor short.

  2. Both sisters... have been ashamed of having spoken as they had in front of a third person.

  3. But at last he rose realizing dully that there was work which he ... to do.

  4. a) He looks very tired. He ... have been working since breakfast.

b) He... to work hard to earn at least something to provide for his family.

9. You... take the dog away, I won't have it here any longer.

  1. At this boarding school the discipline is rather strict: the children ... to go to bed at 8 o'clock.

  2. My mother says that I ... (not) to hurry home because she herself is out playing bridge.

  3. a) My car is being repaired now and I... to walk here this morning.

b) My car was being repaired and I... to collect it that afternoon.

  1. a) He ... to stay the night with us because I won't let him go out in such stormy weather.


b) He ... to stay the night with us, for he has missed the train.

14. 'I told my husband that he ... (not) to smoke in the sitting-room.'

'I... (not) to do so: my husband is a born gentleman and he never does it.

  1. In March I... to be in Manchester: I am invited as the best man to my best Friend's wedding and according to his plans I ... (not) to come back until early in April.

  2. The new Governor ... to arrive in May. By then everything... to be ready to organize a fabulous meeting.

Exercise 24

Translate Into English.

  1. Эндрю должен был встретиться с Майком за ланчем на следующий день, но он не видел причины рассказывать об этом своему адвокату.

  2. На следующий день Гринам показали Прадо, а вечером они должны были ужинать в Савое.

  3. В это время Флору уже было обычно не застать в её кабинете.

  4. По радио объявили, что вечером должен выступать президент.

  5. Ночью корабль зашел в порт, где они должны были заправиться топливом и пополнить запасы пресной воды.

  6. Он должен был привстать со своего места, чтобы увидеть, что происходило на трибуне.

  7. В этот момент вошел Кларк, которого мне совсем не нужно было представлять гостям: он был слишком известен.

  8. Мне нужно было всё ещё раз хорошенько обдумать, и вот я здесь и готов нести ответственность за всё.

  9. Романа пригласили шафером на свадьбу. После венчания они должны были поехать в ресторан, и Роман должен был договориться с менеджером ресторана.

  10. Книге, на которую он потратил половину своей жизни, не суждено было появиться на свет до его смерти.


  1. Они жили долго и счастливо, и им суждено было умереть в один день.

  2. — Ты ведь никогда не говорил мне, что встречал Мориса.

— В этом не было необходимости, да и ты не спрашивал.

13. Электричество и газ были отключены из-за разбушевавшегося шторма, и им пришлось готовить пищу на огне.

14. Он любил спать на улице, но в ту ночь поднялась буря, и ему пришлось перебраться в дом.

15. — Ты чем-то расстроен?

— Мы с Фишером договорились встретиться в шесть часов у входа в Институт, но он так и не пришёл.

16. В это время, как обычно, Монику можно было видеть через распахнутое окно. Она играла на рояле один из вальсов Шопена (Chopin).

17. Тебе уже не нужно решать с ним производственные проблемы. Знаешь, он теперь должен стать главой департамента занятости (employment department).

18. Мне необходимо было найти кого-либо, кто бы хорошо говорил по-голландски, чтобы позвонить в Голландию.

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