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§ 6. Semi-complex sentences of adverbial complication are derived from two base sentences one of which, the insert

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sentence, is predicatively reduced and embedded in an adverbial position of the other one, the matrix sentence. E.g.:

The task was completed. + The task seemed a very easy one. → The task, when completed, seemed a very easy one. The windows were closed.-\-She did not hear the noise in the street. —» The windows being closed, she did not hear the noise in the street.

The subject of the insert sentence may be either identical with that of the matrix sentence (the first of the above examples) or not identical with it (the second example). This feature serves as the first fundamental basis for classifying the semi-complex sentences in question, since in the derived adverbial semi-clause the identical subject is dropped out and the non-identical subject is preserved. It will be reasonable to call the adverbial semi-clause of the first type (i.e. referring to the subject of the dominant clause) the "conjoint" semi-clause. The adverbial complicator expansion of the second type (i.e. having its own subject) is known under the name of the "absolute construction" (it will further be referred to as "absolutive").

The given classification may be formulated for practical purposes as the "rule of the subject", which will run as follows: by adverbialising scmi-complexing the subject of the insert sentence is deleted if it is identical with the subject of the matrix sentence,

The other classificational division of adverbial semi-clauses concerns the representation of the predicate position. This position is only partially predicative, the role of the partial predicate being performed by the participle, either present or past. The participle is derived from the finite verb of the insert sentence; in other words, the predicate of the insert sentence is participialised in the semi-clause. Now, the participle-predicate of the adverbial semi-clause may be dropped out if the insert sentence, presents a nominal or existential construction (the finite verb be). Thus, in accord with this feature of their outer structure, adverbial semi-clauses are divided into participial and non-participial. E.g.:

One day Kitty had an accident. + She was swinging in the garden. → One day Kitty had an accident while swinging in the garden. (The participle is not to be deleted, being of an actional character.) He is very young.+ He is quite competent in this field. —» Though being very young, he is

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quite competent in this field. → Though very young, he is quite competent in this field. (The participle can be deleted, being of a linking nature.) She spoke as if being in a dream. → She spoke as if in a dream. (The predicate can be deleted, since It is expressed by the existential be.)

The two predicate types of adverbial semi-clauses, similar to the two subject types, can be briefly presented by the "rule of the predicate" as follows: by adverbialising semi-complexing the verb-predicate of the insert sentence is participialised, and may be deleted if it is expressed by be.

Conjoint adverbial semi-clauses are either introduced by adverbial subordinated conjunctions or joined to the dominant clause asyndetically. The adverbial semantics expressed is temporal, broader local, causal, conditional, comparative. Cf. syndetic introduction of adverbial semi-clauses:

He was silent as if not having heard the call. → ...as if he had not heard the call. Read on unless told otherwise. → ... unless you are told otherwise. Although kept out of the press, the event is widely known in the diplomatic circles. → Although it is kept out of the press... When in London, the tourists travelled in double-deckers. → When they were in London...

Asyndetic introduction of adverbial semi-clauses is characteristic of temporal and causal constructions. Cf.:

Working on the book, the writer travelled much about the country. → When working on the book... Dialling her number, she made a mistake. → While dialling her number... Being tired, I could not accept the invitation. → As I was tired...

As for the absolutive adverbial semi-clauses, they are joined to the dominant clause either asyndetically, or, mostly for the purpose of emphasis, by the conjunction with. The adverbial semantics of the absolutive complicator expansion is temporal, causal, and attendant-circumstantial. E.g.:

Everything being settled, Moyra felt relieved. → As everything was settled... Two days having elapsed, the travellers set out on their way. —» When two days had elapsed...With all this work waiting for me, I can't afford to join their Sunday outing. → As all this work is waiting for me... • "

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The rule of the predicate is observed in absolulive complicators the same as in conjoint adverbial complicators. Its only restriction concerns impersonal sentences where the link-verb is not to be deleted. Cf.:

The long luncheon over, the business friend would bow and go his way. → When the long luncheon was over... It being very hot, the children gladly ran down to the lake. → As it was very hot...

§ 7. Semi-complex sentences of nominal phrase complication are derived from two base sentences one of which, the insert sentence, is partially norninalised (changed into a verbid phrase of infinitival or gerundial type) and embedded in one of the nominal and prepositional adverbial positions of the other sentence serving as the matrix. The nominal verbid constructions meet the demands both of economy and expressiveness, and they are widely used in all the functional orders of speech. The gerundial phrase is of a more substantive semantic character, the infinitival phrase, correspondingly, of a more processual semantic character. The gerundial nominalisalion involves the optional change of the noun subject into the possessive, while the infinitival nominalisation involves the use of the preposition for before the subject. E.g.

Tom's coming late annoyed his mother. → The fact that Tom came late annoyed his mother. For him to come so late was unusual. → It was unusual that he came so late.

The rule of the subject exposed in connection with the adverbial semi-complexing (see above) applies also to the process of partial nominalisation and is especially important here. It concerns the two types of subject deletion; first, its contextual identification; second, its referring to a general (indefinite) person. Thus, the rule can be formulated in this way: the subject of the verbid phrase is deleted when it is either identified from the context (usually, but not necessarily, from the matrix sentence) or denotes an indefinite person. Cf. the contextual identification of the subject:

We are definite about it. → Our being definite about it. → Let's postpone being definite about it. Mary has recovered so soon. —» For Mary to have recovered so soon —» Mary is happy to have recovered so soon.

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Cf. the indefinite person identification of the subject:

One avoids quarrels with strangers. —» One's avoiding quarrels with strangers. → Avoiding quarrels with strangers is always a wise policy. One loves spring. —» For one to love spring.→It's but natural to love spring.

A characteristic function of the infinitive phrase is its use with subordinative conjunctions in nominal semi-clauses. The infinitive in these cases implies modal meanings of obligation, admonition, possibility, etc. E.g.:

I wondered where to go. —» I wondered where I was to go. The question is, what to do next. → The question is, what we should do next.

In contrast with nominal uses of infinitive phrases, gerundial phrases are widely employed as adverbial semi-clauses introduced by prepositions. Semi-clauses in question are naturally related to the corresponding adverbial pleni-clauses. Cf.:

In writing the letter he dated it wrong. → White he was writing the letter he dated it wrong. She went away without looking back. → As she went away she didn't look back. I cleaned my breast by telling you everything. → I cleaned my breast because I told you everything.

The prepositional use of gerundial adverbial phrases is in full accord with the substantival syntactic nature of the gerund, and this feature differentiates in principle the gerundial adverbial phrase from the participial adverbial phrase as a positional constituent of the semi-complex sentence.

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