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41

5.The spark of life which produces an acorn is found in the roots of an

oak.

6.The sumach has male and female flowers on the same plants.

7.The alder and the oak have both male and female flowers on the same tree but in different clusters.

8.The pollen gives the seed its spark of life.

9.Naturalists use various names for different types of seeds and coats.

5.13. Пользуясь фразами для выделения главной мысли, обсудите в парах следующие проблемы:

Factors that are necessary for seed germination

Ways of preventing seed germination

Conditions under which it would be desirable to prevent germination

Plants and their parts which are used as inspiration for artwork, examples of this kind of art

Фразы для выделения главной мысли:

It should be said that

It is interesting to note that

I'd like to draw your attention to

Special attention should be paid to Firstly / Secondly

It should be kept in mind that

Следует сказать, что Интересно отметить, что

Я хотел бы привлечь Ваше внимание к Особое внимание следует уделить

Во-первых / Во-вторых Не следует забывать, что

5.14. Расположите пункты плана в логической последовательности на основании содержания текста (упр. 5.3):

1.How a seed appears

2.Growth of plants is a miracle

3.Different forms and coats of seeds

5.15.Восстановите недостающие пункты плана, предложенного

вупр. 5.14.

5.16.Пользуясь планом, полученным в упр. 5.15, подготовьте краткий пересказ текста (упр. 5.3).

5.17.Подготовьте рассказ на предложенную тему:

Find some information and speak about a tree species which is in danger

42

of extinction. Present information on:

the place where it grows,

amount of trees that grew formerly,

amount of trees growing at present,

cause of extinction,

possible ways of protecting the species.

Figure 2.1. Air pollution in south-

43

CHAPTER 2

FORESTS

UNIT 6

6.1. Прочитайте интернациональные слова и определите их значение:

taiga, monoculture, ecosystem, distance, transportation, vanadium, economic, commission, continent, critical, centre, region, maximum, fundamental, radically, chemical, phenomenon, concentration, climatic, composition, factor, metal, scheme, extreme

6.2. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Forest Health

The tree species in the boreal coniferous forest (taiga) are species that afforest open ground and that are adapted to climatic fluctuations and forest fires. They withstand disturbance from both nature itself and people rather well.

The boreal coniferous forest and its natural propensity for regeneration are not threatened by the appearance of treeless areas, erosion, monocultures, or impoverishment of the ecosystem when the forests are managed properly. However, studies on the state of the environment indicate that air pollutants are adversely affecting forests all over Europe. In Finland, the forests in the southern part of the country in particular are exposed to loading by precipitation due to long distance transportation both from abroad and from Finland. Effects of air pollution 1999-2000 in southern Finland are shown in figure 2.1. Darker colour indicates detection of stronger effects on vegetation. The following bioparametres have been used in the determination of the zones: sulphur and nitrogen content of needles, needle defoliation, number of needle age classes, needle damage, diversity of lichen on pine trunks, discernible lichen damage as well as lead and vanadium content in moss.

Pan-European concern1 for the state of health of the forests on the European continent led to the UN's2 European Economic Commission and the European

1Pan-European – relating to all Europe

2UN – United Nations

44

Union setting up a continuous monitoring programme in the mid-1980s. This involves especially monitoring the condition of the canopy and tree foliage, as well as the soil.

Despite harmful sulphur and nitrogen precipitation exceeding the so called critical load in forests close to Finland's urban centres, no acidification of the soil has been detected in studies in the regions dedicated to forestry. The critical load means the maximum possible load which over the long term does not have any harmful effects on fundamental ecosystem characteris-tics. However, it has been predicted that soil acidification will advance unless acidifying emissions and precipitation are not

brought radically under control. In forest management, the progress of acidification can be hindered by prescribed burning and by increasing broadleaf growth.

According to the report, published in 1998, a steady growth in the incidence of needle and leaf loss has been observed over large parts of Europe, for which air pollutants and long periods of dryness are in one way or another responsible, particularly in southern Europe. By contrast, recently the state of tree crowns has improved in areas where the amount of air pollution has declined, or where weather conditions have been more favourable. The chemical composition of the soil leads us to believe that around 20 per cent of the sample plots may become affected by the adverse acidifying effect of nitrogen, sulphur and heavy metal precipitation from the atmosphere. It is also apparent from the state of the tree crowns that in a comparatively large number of plots the sulphur concentration is low, whereas the nitrogen concentration is high, as it is presented in figure 2.2.

Both national and international monitoring schemes indicate that air impurities constitute a stress factor to forests growing in Finland's extreme climatic conditions and on infertile soils. So far, the overall health of Finnish forests has been good. The main reason for uncertainty in regard to the future is the development in the amount of emissions.

45

Figure 2.2. Emissions into the air at Voikkaa (southern Finland)

In Finland, there were a few incidences of local forest damage during the latter half of the 1980s. A thorough study was launched into the reasons for this and monitoring of the development of the phenomenon began. Monitoring by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) has indicated that the main cause of the damage were abnormal weather conditions at that time.

Needle and leaf loss can occur among trees as a result of air impurities or other factors impairing the biological functioning of the trees. Trees are considered to be suffering from acute needle loss when they have lost more than 20% of their needles or leaves in this connection. According to the Finnish Forest Research Institute's study on the state of the health of the forests, the incidence of acute needle loss in Finland is among Europe's lowest. It is a fact, however, that signs of poor health exist in some forests in the vicinity of urban centres in southern Finland. In such places lichens, which have poor resistance to air impurities, have decreased and a degree of needle loss has occurred among the trees.

6.3. Запомните слова и выражения:

boreal coniferous forest

северный хвойный лес

to afforest

засадить лесом, облесить

fluctuation

флуктуация

to withstand disturbance

противостоять вмешательству

propensity for regeneration

склонность к восстановлению

to be threatened by

быть под угрозой ч.-л.

impoverishment of the ecosys-

истощение экосистемы

tem

 

air pollutant (impurity)

вещество, загрязняющее воздух

to affect adversely

влиять неблагоприятно

 

46

to be exposed to loading

 

подвергаться нагрузке

 

precipitation

 

осадки, выпадение осадков

sulphur and nitrogen content

 

содержание серы и азота

needle defoliation

 

опадение хвои

lichen

 

лишайник

trunk

 

ствол (дерева)

lead and vanadium content

 

содержание свинца и ванадия

canopy

 

лесной полог

tree foliage

 

листва деревьев

critical load

 

критическая нагрузка

soil acidification

 

окисление почвы

acidifying emission

 

кислотный выброс

to bring under control

 

взять под контроль

prescribed burning

 

предписанное горение (сжигание)

crown

 

крона

to decline

 

уменьшаться, спадать, приходить в

 

 

упадок

sample plot

 

пробная площадка

to constitute a stress factor

 

составлять фактор напряжения

to impair

 

вредить

to decrease

 

убывать, сокращать(ся)

6.4. Переведите имена прилагательные, обращая внимание на префиксы in-, il-, im-, ir-, un- и суффиксы -less, -ful:

1.infertile, inaccurate, incorrect;

2.illogical, illegal, illegible, illimitable;

3.immovable, immaterial, immoral, immortal;

4.irrational, irregular, irrelative, irrelevant, irresponsible;

5.unhealthy, unknown, unsound, unimportant, unusual, uncomfortable, unconscious, uncertain

6.treeless, lifeless, hopeless, helpless, colourless, shapeless, defectless, weightless, motionless, countless;

7.harmful, hopeful, helpful, careful, skilful, successful, useful

6.5. Переведите фразы, опираясь на содержание текста (упр. 6.2):

appearance of treeless areas, impoverishment of the ecosystem, long distance transportation, fundamental ecosystem characteristics, forest management, increasing broadleaf growth, tree crown, air pollution, weather conditions, heavy metal precipitation, development in the amount of emissions, local

47

forest damage, needle and leaf loss

6.6. Найдите в тексте (упр.6.2) синонимы для следующих слов и словосочетаний:

kinds of trees, to supervise, rainfall or snowfall, leaves, to find, to increase, to prevent, number, poor soils, to do harm, close to, reason

6.7. Измените предложения по образцу, используя Past и Future Simple и соответствующие обстоятельства времени. Переведите полученные предложения:

Образец: A tulip grows from the tulip bulb. −

A tulip grew from the tulip bulb last summer.

A tulip will grow from the tulip bulb next summer.

1.A new potato plant grows from the potato eye.

2.A tiny pine seed develops into a giant tree.

3.The stem carries water and minerals to the leaves.

4.Cells in a bud begin to divide rapidly during the growing season.

5.Tall and straight trunks of coniferous trees make valuable lumber.

6.The stems of many dicot trees divide into several large branches.

7.Strawberries send out aboveground stems – runners – that grow along the ground.

8.Buds on the runners develop roots and form new plants.

9.A tree grows in height by means of cell divisions at the very tips of its trunk and branches.

10.Bark protects the growing part of the tree from the weather, animals and other injuries.

6.8. Задайте различные типы вопросов к предложениям:

Oбразец: The stem transports food between the leaves and the roots. Does the stem transport food between the leaves and the roots?

Does the stem transport food or store it? What does the stem transport?

Which organ of a plant transports food?

The stem transports food between the leaves and the roots, doesn't it? The stem doesn't store food, does it?

1.The stem supports the aboveground parts of a plant.

2.The new plant developed from a piece of the original plant.

3.Cell division will occur in the shoot apex.

48

4.In some plants more growth occurs at the terminal bud than at the lateral bud.

5.A terminal bud will develop before other buds form.

6.Larches at the tree line in the taiga grow much more slowly than other conifers.

7.In the end of the nineteenth century the former American plantations became great forests of pine.

6.9. Замените модальные глаголы can, may и must эквивалентами to be able to, to have to, to be to, should, to be allowed to:

1.The roots of the cypress tree can absorb water and minerals from the rocky soil.

2.You must ask for the permission of the forestry officer if you want to visit this area.

3.This tree looks mysterious. May I come closer to it?

4.Some vascular sporophytes can attain very large sizes because vascular tissues supply water to the uppermost parts of the plants.

5.You may not stay in the national park if you don't have a special permission.

6.These ancient trees can not evolve further on such poor soils, they must find another ecological niche.

7.Forest workers must not be mistaken when they use chemicals in forestry operations.

8.Some of bryophytes can survive periods of dryness by becoming dormant – or inactive.

9.The researchers must finish the experiment on new man-made propagation methods by the end of the month.

10.The students may watch the growth of evergreen plants in the University's greenhouse, if they like.

6.10. Укажите, являются ли данные утверждения истинными или ложными в соответствии с содержанием текста (упр. 6.2):

1.Air pollutants are adversely affecting forests.

2.In Finland forests are mainly exposed to loading by precipitation due to a large amount of chemical enterprises.

3.A continuous monitoring programme considering the state of forest health on the European continent was launched in the 1990s.

4.No acidification of the soil in forests close to Finland's urban centres has been detected.

5.The progress of acidification can be accelerated by prescribed burning and by increasing broadleaf growth.

49

6.Air pollutants and long periods of dryness have caused a steady growth in the incidence of needle and leaf loss over large parts of Europe.

7.Recently the state of tree crowns has improved in areas where the amount of air pollution has increased.

8.Approximately 20% of the sample plots are affected by nitrogen, sulphur and heavy metal precipitation from the atmosphere.

9.Air impurities don't affect Finnish forests.

10.Trees are considered to be suffering from acute needle loss when they have lost more than 10% of their needles or leaves.

6.11. Закончите предложения, пользуясь информацией текста

(упр. 6.2):

1.The tree species in the boreal coniferous forest are species that …

2.The boreal coniferous forest is not threatened when …

3.The Programme set up by the European Union in the mid-1980s involves …

4.The critical load means …

5.Taking into account the state of tree crowns, one may say that in a large number of plots the sulphur concentration is …

6.Air impurities constitute a stress factor to forests growing in …

7.There were a few incidences of local forest damage in the latter half of the 1980s due to …

8.Needle and leaf loss can occur because of…

9.Signs of poor health exist in some forests in the vicinity of …

6.12. Подберите к данным прилагательным существительные из текста (упр. 6.2) и употребите их в собственных предложениях:

coniferous, harmful, urban, critical, steady, infertile, thorough, abnormal, acute, poor

6.13. Подготовьте диалог на предложенную тему:

Your friend has just come from Finland, where he (she) studied boreal coniferous forest. Ask him (her) about his (her) impressions, using the following phrases:

Where did you go? – I went …

What did you do there? – I studied … What places did you visit? – I visited … What did you see? – I saw …

What did you learn? – I learnt …

50

6.14. Расположите пункты плана в логической последовательности на основании содержания текста (упр. 6.2):

1.State of forest health in Finland

2.State of forest soil

3.Impact of air pollutants on the forest ecosystem

6.15.Восстановите недостающие пункты плана, предложенного

вупр. 6.14.

6.16.Пользуясь планом, полученным в упр. 6.15, подготовьте краткий пересказ текста (упр. 6.2).

6.17.Найдите необходимую информацию и подготовьте минидоклад на одну из предложенных тем:

Boreal coniferous forest: its vegetation and distinctive features

Air pollution is a threat to the forest health

Signs of poor health in boreal forests

UNIT 7

7.1. Прочитайте интернациональные слова и определите их значение:

mosaic, operation, comment, modification, director, ministry, ecological, process, basis, landscape, individual, programme, specific, practice, national, methodological, inventory, focus, sector, criterion (pl. criteria), fauna, flora, guarantee, combine

7.2. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Old-growth Forests in Finland

The Malahvia forest has been protected as a part of the European Natura 2000 network. Its total area is about 2,400 ha3 and it is not an intact oldgrowth forest (OGF) area but a mosaic of managed and unmanaged forests. There will be, however, no forestry operations in that area. The management

3 ha – hectare

Figure 2.3. Old-growth forest

51

and land use plan for the area was sent out for comments in the end of 2002. A lot of new and valuable information was received and that led to many alterations and modifications of the plan.

According to Ilkka Heikkinen, Director of Nature Conservation of the Ministry of Environment, the present network of protected areas in Northern Finland supported by the Landscape Ecological Planning (LEP) of Metsahallitus is sufficient to safeguard biodiversity in the region. The process to protect the old-growth forests in Finland has been very comprehensive and with good scientific basis, but there are dozens of different stakeholder groups in

Finland and there is no such a solution that everyone is totally happy.

The Natura 2000 programme in Finland comprises of 1,804 individual areas covering 4.9 million ha of forests, peatlands and waters. The land area of the programme is 3.6 million ha. The areas proposed for the Natura 2000 programme mainly consist of existing conservation areas, wilderness areas, and sites covered by protection programmes. The Natura 2000 net-

work covers c.4 12 % of Finland's land area.

In Finland, nature conservation areas have been established since the 1930s. The first were national parks and strict nature reserves which were intended to preserve specific natural and landscape values. Following the recognition that modern land use practices threaten biodiversity, various national programmes were initiated to protect the main ecosystem types. These programmes were based on large-scale methodological inventories and covered both state owned and private land. Although the latest programmes in the 1990s focused on protecting old-growth forests, the previous programmes also included considerable areas of old-growth forests.

The old-growth forests of Finland (figure 2.3) were protected through a national process undertaken between 1991-1996. The protection proposals were implemented as part of a democratic process where all relevant interests were represented in a working group. The interests included research, EN-

4 c. (circa) – approximately

52

GOs5, state forests, environmental authorities, forest industry, private forest sector and forest authorities. The OGF-working group agreed upon criteria for valuable old-growth forests. The criteria were initially defined by researchers of Finnish Environment Institute. The criteria were unanimously approved by the OGF-working group. The OGF protection process created 345,000 ha of protected old-growth forest of which c. 202,000 ha is productive forest land. This was further reinforced by the LEP of

Figure 2.4. Wilderness area Metsahallitus, the state enterprise responsible for

management of state forests and protected areas.

The Metsahallitus LEP process has protected 130,000 ha of valuable natural habitats. Some 80,000 ha of these forests are more than 80 years of age. According to the third inventory of red listed fauna and flora conducted in 2000, there are 564 forest dependent threatened species in Finland. It is estimated that 144 of these threatened species depend on old-growth forests. The survival of these species is guaranteed by the combined area of 345,000 ha of protected old-growth forest supported by 80,000 ha of mature forests protected through the Metsahallitus LEP process.

In addition there are remarkable protected old-growth forest areas in the national parks, nature reserves, protected mire areas, wilderness areas (figure 2.4) and in the new Natura 2000 areas. The Red List Report made in 2000 states that old-growth forest protection in North Finland makes a significant impact on the survival of threatened species dependent on old-growth forest habitat because the area of protected forests has doubled.

7.3. Запомните слова и выражения:

old-growth forest

перестойный лес

intact

нетронутый, неповрежденный

5 ENGO – European Non-governmental Organization

 

53

 

 

 

 

forestry operations

 

лесохозяйственные работы

 

 

 

nature conservation

 

охрана природы

 

 

to protect

 

защищать, охранять,

 

 

to safeguard biodiversity (biolo-

 

сохранить

 

биологическую

вари-

gical diversity)

 

ативность

 

 

 

 

stakeholder

 

совладелец, заинтересованная сто-

 

 

рона

 

 

 

 

to comprise (of)

 

включать, содержать, составлять

conservation area

 

заповедная зона

 

 

peatland

 

торфяник

 

 

 

 

to consist of

 

состоять из ч.-л.

 

 

wilderness area

 

девственная местность

 

site

 

участок

 

 

 

 

nature reserve

 

природная

 

охраняемая

терри-

 

 

тория, заповедник

 

 

to preserve values

 

оберегать ценности

 

 

to initiate

 

начинать, вводить

 

 

large-scale methodological in-

 

крупномасштабные

регулярные

ventories

 

инвентаризации

 

 

to undertake

 

предпринимать

 

 

to implement

 

претворять,

выполнять,

осу-

 

 

ществлять

 

 

 

 

research

 

(научное) исследование, изуче-ние

 

 

 

 

 

environmental authorities

 

органы

охраны

окружающей

 

 

среды

 

 

 

 

to approve unanimously

 

единогласно одобрить

 

to reinforce

 

усиливать, укреплять

 

 

natural habitat

 

естественная среда обитания

to guarantee a survival

 

обеспечить выживание

 

mire

 

болото

 

 

 

 

to make a significant impact on

 

оказывать

 

существенное

воздей-

 

 

ствие на ч.-л.

 

 

7.4. Найдите в тексте (упр. 7.2) эквиваленты следующих выражений:

нетронутая область перестойного леса, мозаика управляемых и неуправляемых лесов, лесохозяйственные работы, план управления и землепользования, различные группы совладельцев, экологическое планирование ландшафта, особые природные и ландшафтные ценности, ос-

54

новные типы экосистемы, органы охраны окружающей среды, программа охраны, современная практика землепользования, сектор частного владения лесом, занесенные в красную книгу животные и растения, находящиеся под угрозой лесные виды, охраняемые болотистые местности

7.5. Составьте смысловые пары из глаголов (a) и предлогов (b) и употребите их в собственных предложениях:

a

b

lead

of

 

 

comprise

on

 

 

consist

on

base

to

focus

of

 

 

agree

upon

 

 

7.6. Измените предложения по образцу, используя Past и Future Progressive и соответствующие обстоятельства времени или придаточные предложения. Переведите полученные предложения:

Образец: Redwood seeds are getting mature now.

Redwood seeds were getting mature when the weather changed for the worse.

Redwood seeds will be getting mature at this time next year.

1.Mosses and liverworts are growing rapidly for it is a season of high moisture now.

2.Winter is approaching, deciduous trees are shedding their leaves.

3.The tree is aging and its bark is becoming ridged and cracked.

4.With a microscope, you can see how water and minerals are moving through the veins into the green cells of the leaf.

5.The sun is warming a spring air, a small sprout is coming out of the

ground.

6.Buds are opening, flowers are arising.

7.Naturalists are collecting leaves of widely spread trees at the mo-

ment.

8.The students are observing plants from different habitats.

9.At present researchers are trying to crossbreed North American chestnuts with an Asian variety.

55

7.7. Задайте различные типы вопросов к предложениям:

Oбразец: A pine seed is slowly germinating through the rocky soil.

1.Is a pine seed germinating through the rocky soil?

2.Is a pine seed germinating through the rocky or loose soil?

3.Where is a pine seed germinating?

4.What is germinating through the rocky soil?

5.A pine seed is slowly germinating through the rocky soil, isn't it?

6.A pine seed is not germinating through the loose soil, is it?

7.The Austrian forests and countryside are becoming more important as a recreation area for people from all over Europe.

8.The forest cover is undoubtedly shrinking.

9.The roots are still growing from the corn stem and spreading out through the soil.

10.The roots of the old oak were holding the tree firmly in the ground.

11.Due to the nature conservation programme the wooded area was steadily increasing between 1990 and 2000.

12.In spring new branches, leaves and flowers will be developing from buds for several weeks.

13.The forests will definitely be expanding in the developed countries in spite of acid rain, forest fires and extensive construction.

7.8.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в необходимой форме

иобразуя придаточные предложения времени и условия:

Образец: If an acorn (to drop) to the ground today it (to be) a massive tree thirty years later. − If an acorn drops to the ground today it will be a massive tree thirty years later.

1.If a gardener (to water) a tree close to the trunk, little of the water (to feed) the tree.

2.As soon as a seed (to get) into the soil the plant (to start) growing.

3.When the pistil (to receive) the pollen it (to pass) it down the long green tube to the place where the seed is born.

4.The seed (to appear) after the pistil (to whither) and (to fall off).

5.Persimmon seeds (to be) protected by a bitter acid until the seeds (to be) mature enough to carry on the spark of life.

6.Soil acidification (to advance) unless acidifying emissions and precipitation (not to be) brought radically under control.

7.The maples and beeches (to continue) to predominate in this locale and climate until some unusual event (to force) a dramatic change.

8.When the spores (to be) mature, they (to be) released into the air.

56

9.If a spore (to land) in a suitable place, it (to germinate and form) a small, heart-shaped gametophyte.

10.When a bee (to visit) the flower, pollen grains (to become) attached to the bee's body.

7.9. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту (упр. 7.2):

1.What kind of forest is the Malahvia forest?

2.Will the management and land use plan for the area remain the same as it is now?

3.What do the areas proposed for the Natura 2000 programme in Finland consist of?

4.What were the first nature conservation areas in Finland?

5.Why were the programmes for protecting the main ecosystem types initiated?

6.What were these programmes based on?

7.How many fauna and flora threatened species depend on old-growth forests in Finland?

8.What is the survival of these species guaranteed by?

7.10. Укажите, являются ли данные утверждения истинными или ложными в соответствии с содержанием текста (упр. 7.2):

1.The present network of protected areas in Northern Finland is sufficient to safeguard biodiversity in the region.

2.The Natura 2000 programme in Finland covers almost 5 million ha of forests, peatlands and waters.

3.Nature conservation areas have been established in Finland since the

1950s.

4.The major goal of the first national parks and strict nature reserves was to preserve specific natural and landscape values.

5.The programmes initiated to protect the main ecosystem types in Finland covered only state owned land.

6.The old-growth forests of Finland were protected through a national process undertaken between 1991-1996.

7.The OGF protection process was further reinforced by the state enterprise responsible for management of state forests and protected areas.

8.About 80,000 ha of the forests protected by the Metsahallitus LEP process are older than 800 years.

Figure 2.5. Russian forest

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7.11. Объясните, что означают следующие названия. Дайте краткое описание перечисленных реалий:

Malahvia

Natura 2000

Metsahallitus LEP

7.12.Составьте план текста (упр. 7.2), озаглавив каждый абзац.

7.13.Пользуясь планом, полученным в упр. 7.12, подготовьте краткий пересказ текста (упр. 7.2).

7.14.Найдите необходимую информацию и подготовьте минидоклад на одну из предложенных тем:

Major functions of national parks and nature reserves

Old-growth forests in Europe and their protection

7.15. Обсудите в группах:

Management of оld-growth forests

Old-growth forests should be managed properly. Some portion of these forests must be protected and no forestry operations may be allowed there. However, the protection process can't comprise of all old-growth forests. Some of them should be cut down. Are old-growth forests worth protecting?

Read the pros and cons given below. Think of some more which are important in your opinion.

Old-growth forests should be

Old-growth forests should be cut down

protected

 

Old-growth forests help to

Old-growth forests should be replaced by

safeguard biodiversity

new forests

Old-growth forests are valua-

Industry needs new sources of raw mate-

ble natural habitats

rial

It is cheaper to preserve old-

The process of removing old-growth for-

growth forests than to grow

ests is not time-consuming and it does

new forests

not require highly qualified workers

Discuss the problem in groups of 3-4 students and make a decision.

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UNIT 8

8.1. Прочитайте интернациональные слова и определите их значение:

global, arctic, steppe, reptile, amphibian, expansion, cultivate, fragment, complex, proportion, systematic, intensive, potential, technological, demonstrate, debate, category

8.2. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Forestry in Russia

Russia occupies one eighth of the global land area and most of nontropical Eurasia. Its territory presents landscapes of 8 natural zones, passing from arctic deserts and tundra all the way through the taiga zones to broadleaved forests and steppe areas. Over 11,000 species of vascular plants, 320 mammals, about 730 birds, 75 reptiles, about 30 amphibians and 270 fresh-

water fish species may be found in Russia.

In spite of a long history of economic development, the lands of Northern Eurasia are relatively little disturbed, especially in Siberia and the Far East. Industrial and agricultural expansion into these regions has been difficult due to permafrost, the cold climate and the land which is difficult to cultivate. Almost 90% of tundra, up to 70-75% of taiga

forests and 20-30% of Asian steppes have remained close to their natural state.

Somewhat more than half of the forests are young forests greatly altered by man, whereas less than 15% can still be classified as frontier forests (large virgin forests). The other forests consist of fragments of old-growth and other mature forests and areas dominated by marsh-bog complexes.

Compared with similar vegetation zones in Scandinavia, for instance, the Russian zones are found to still have a relatively high proportion of patches close to their natural state. Natural restoration of forest is much quicker in the south than in the north. It is also evident that the species diversity is much

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higher here. The Russian zones, although not totally untouched, are of the highest quality that exists, and there is no doubt about the value of these sites.

Many species in the Red Data Books for Sweden and Finland still exist in viable populations in the Northwest of Russia. The main reason is that the forests, although intensively used or disturbed in many places, have not been the subject to the systematic and intensive forestry methods applied in the neighbouring Finland and Sweden.

The annual growth of the Russian forests (figure 2.5) is nearly 1000 million m3. However, much of this potential cannot be used by the forest industry due to environmental constraints, the remoteness of forests from domestic and international markets, absence of a transportation network and technological limitations.

It has been estimated that the economically exploitable forests comprise 55% of the forested areas under state forest management. Mortality amounts to 49% of the gross growth. This is an extremely high figure compared with most other countries. This is due to the fact, that there are still huge areas in Russia with unexploited old-growth forests, as well as a significant amount of forest fires, insect outbreaks, etc. The high figure for mortality demonstrates a special feature of Russian forests, namely that large areas are still unmanaged and thus to environmentalists appear undamaged by man. Similar, sizeable areas have nearly disappeared from Scandinavia, where "ecological forest management" has now been developed to restore some of the original features of the forests.

The vast majority of the old-growth forests remaining in Europe are located in the Northern Russia. These Russian forests have seemed like an endless source of cheap raw material for the West-European forest industry. Consequently, the Russian forests have received much emphasis in the debate on conservation of the biodiversity of boreal forests.

At present, Russia has 99 state zapovedniks, i.e. strict scientific nature reserves with the total area of 33.2 million ha and 34 national parks with the total area of 6.8 million ha. There are plans to establish some 40 additional zapovedniks and parks. Practically all the national parks are located in forest fund areas and are managed by the state forestry authorities. The total protected area is about 5% of the forest resource area in Russia, but only about 2% is strictly protected.

The Russian forests have been divided into three categories with respect to their economic and ecological characteristics. The first category comprises forests with a protective function, e.g. forests along watersheds. However, these forests, comprising some 20% of the forested land, are certainly not strictly protected. According to Greenpeace in Russia, intensive intermediate

60

and sanitary tree fellings are practised in 95% of these forests, and even clear -cutting (maximum size 10 hectares) is allowed in 50% of the area. The second category includes forests in populated areas and forests with low timber production, comprising 5.5% of the total area. The vast majority of forests, 74.5%, is included in category three, industrially exploitable forests, where clear-cutting (maximum size 50 ha) is the main forestry practice.

8.3. Запомните слова и выражения:

desert

пустыня

broad-leaved forest

лиственный лес, чернолесье

mammal

млекопитающее

permafrost

вечная мерзлота

frontier forest

пограничный лес

virgin forest

девственный (первобытный) лес

marsh-bog complex

болотистая местность

to dominate

преобладать, доминировать

vegetation zone

растительная зона

patch

небольшой участок, просека

natural restoration

естественное восстановление

viable population

жизнеспособная популяция

annual growth

годичный прирост

gross growth

общий прирост

environmental constraints

ограничения, накладываемые ок-

 

ружающими условиями

remoteness from

отдаленность от ч.-л.

exploitable forest

эксплуатируемый лес

mortality

летальность, отпад

to amount to

доходить до, равняться

unexploited forest

неосвоенный лес

insect outbreak

нашествие насекомых

to receive much emphasis

получить большое внимание

watershed

водораздел, бассейн реки

intermediate felling

промежуточная рубка

sanitary felling

санитарная рубка

clear-cutting

сплошная рубка

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