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Введение в специальность СТ_doc

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дов специальные избы, называемые столовые. Часто дома украшались резьбой.

Вбогатых домах резьбу покрывали золотом и красками.

В1681 году было приказано строить в Москве, а именно в Кремле, Ки- тай-городе и Белом городе, только из камня и для этого выдавали хозяевам на постройку кирпич по цене полтора рубля за тысячу с рассрочкой на десять лет. Тот, кто был слишком беден для этого и не мог позволить себе каменный дом, должен был построить хотя бы каменный забор.

Module II Vocabulary List

amusement park

military engineering



civil engineering


















Module III. Modern Trends in Construction Technologies

Through all these centuries there evolved a variety of materials used for building purposes. The applications of these materials, natural as well as manufactured by man, have itself been subject to wide variations and innovations. Research and development has never stopped, but has ever continued to evolve newer materials and better techniques to apply them to the needs of the construction activities.

Pre-reading task: Think and answer

1) What building materials do you know? What are their advantages and disadvantages?

Building materials











2) What meaning of the word ‘smart’ do you know? What does it mean in the following sentences? Think of the synonyms.

a.He wore a smart suit to the meeting.

b.She’s the smartest girl in her class.

c.They stayed in a smart hotel in New York.

3) Read the title of text A. Do you think the materials are clever, fashionable or formal?

Read text Aand check, then do the tasks following it.


1.The greatest innovation in materials science is the creation of “smart” materials, designed on biological models. Smart materials are systems that monitor themselves, self-adjust and self-repair, learn to do things the easy way, and know when to quit. They contain strength elements (bones), sensors (nerves), computational network (brains), and actuators (muscles).

2.For civil engineering applications, smart materials offer a radical change of practice: designing, not for the “worst-case” scenario, but for the “birth-to- retirement” scenario. Birth-to-retirement means using sensors in the manufacturing process to acquire accurate knowledge of the materials used in a structure in order to monitor and, if possible, actively adjust for overloading in the completed structure, automatically repair any small weakness before it threatens the structure as a whole. They would inform users and occupants of dangerous conditions and owners when it is appropriate to decommission a structure. In smart structures efficiency of design would replace redundancy. Each building would not only be a miracle of visual lightness but would have increased safety and reduced overall cost.


3.Many uses for smart materials have been imagined. Windows and membranes could change their reflectivity as sun conditions change. Bridges could say when they should close temporarily or traffic should be slowed when their adjustable poststressing actuators were at their limit, and when material fatigue required the building of a new bridge. Smart materials could be vibration-control mechanisms that selectively interfere with noise-producing vibration, alleviating one of the most oppressive qualities of the built environment. Shape memory alloys are already used as actuators in smart systems, especially nickel titanium.

4.Engineering is changing. We will soon have the opportunity to ask structures during their life how they are feeling, where they hurt and so on. Such intimate cooperation between structures and engineer will make the current brute-force methods seem wasteful and barbaric. As with every other materials revolution in history, smart materials will liberate designers of spaces in ways too marvelous to imagine now.

I. Are these statements

a) true

b) false

c) there is no information in the text

1) Smart materials are complex systems that can deal with problems on their


2)The response time of shape memory alloys is not as fast as that of other ma-


3)Actuators could monitor and counteract fatigue.

4)Engineers see no purport of designing new intelligent materials.

II. Find the paragraphs (1-4) to which the following ideas correspond:

1.Sensing functions are critical to smart materials.

2.A number of practical applications have been suggested.

III. Choose the answer to the question: What could these systems inform engineers of?

a)Their mood and feelings.

b)Diseases and treatment.

c)Environment composition.

d)Harmful conditions.


a. building or installation which is built, supplied, or installed complete and ready for operation

IV. What is the main idea of the text? Choose from the following as the title of the text:

a)Ambitious uses of smart materials.

b)Current research holds promise for intelligent materials.

c)Pseudo-biological systems are like robots.

d)There is a wide range of smart building materials.

Vocabulary Section

I. Match the following words and phrases with their definitions.

1. feasibility study

2. site investigation

b. activities carried out after the


project to ensure problems are solved



3. maintenance

c. detailed plan of proposed





4. soil mechanics

d. dimensions and measurements



5. specifications

e. extensive investigation to


evaluate the load bearing qualities and


stability of the ground



6. technical drawings

f. investigation to assess both


financial and engineering aspects of a





7. commission a project

g. offer of a bid for an


engineering contract



8. costing system

h. procedure to monitor the costs


of a project so that management can get


information on development



9. tender

i. study of the proposed location


to assess geology of the area



10. turnkey project

j. to order a plan tobe carried out

II. Put the following tasks into the appropriate phase of construction. consulting engineer communications with client * extensive site

investigation *consulting engineer contact with contactors * feasibility study *


detailed design maintenance * employment of consulting engineer * preliminary site investigation



Before construction

During construction

After construction

III. The following extract is from the letter written by a qualified civil engineer in response to a job advertisement. Complete the extract by unscrambling the letter in brackets.

I am writing in connection with a job advertisement for a civil (a) _____

(renigeen), which appeared in today’s Civil Engineering.

I have a degree in (b) _____ (rnlutiasid) engineering. After graduation, I worked for four years at Locke Engineers in the field of (c) _____ (onscotutitrn) consulting. During my time there, I specialized in (d) _____ (ilamsc) preparations and construction (e) _____ (ehdnsgulic). I am particularly interested in the opportunities to further develop my skills, especially in the following areas:

-developing of (f) _____ (tdfar) work plans

-(g) _____ (etis) investigations

-preparation of (h) _____ (nictel) comunications.

IV. Complete the text by putting a word or a number in each space.

half * -5°C * -40°C * 88% * Hundreds * 200 * 14,000 * 1989 * 4000 * 5000 m²



The JUKKASJARVI ICE HOTEL in Sweden is an interesting and cold place for a holiday. It started life as an igloo (a small house made of snow) at an art exhibition in (1) _____.

(2) _____ of people visited the exhibition and some even slept there, so the builders decided to make it a hotel.

The Icehotel is open for less than (3) _____ of the year. Every May it melts and every November it is rebuilt. It now measures (4) _____ and it needs (5) _____ tons of ice and 30,000 tons of snow to build it. This actually means that it is more than (6)

_____ snow.

The temperature inside the hotel is usually about (7) _____. Outside in Jukkasjarvi itself the temperature can be much lower even s low as (8) _____.

Last year more than (9) _____ visitors travelled (10) _____ km north of the Arctic Circle to sleep in thermal sleeping bags. They got a cool reception!

Pre-reading task: Think and answer.

1)Name some famous skyscrapers. What cities (countries) are they in?

2)Arrange some of the components of a skyscraper from the top to the bottom: a. concrete base

b. cladding

c. floors below the ground d. steel columns

e. horizontal I-shaped girders

f. steel piles

3) Work in small groups and put these stages in the construction of a skyscraper inthe correct order.

a _____ Metal decking called floor formers are laid between the beams to form a shallow pan.

b _____ Outer walls, called cladding, are lifted into position by crane.

c _____ Girders are bolted to the columns to form thefloors of the building.


d ____1 The foundations are laid.

e _____ Liquid concreteispoured ontothe formers.

f _____ Ducts are installed beneath each floor to carry cables and pipes.

I _____ The vertical steel columns that form the base of the building's main frame are fixed to thefoundations.

h _____The process is repeated floor by floor until the skyscraper is completed.

Read text B and check your answers

Text B: Skyscraper construction

Skyscrapers start with a very large hole in the ground which will contain the foundations, several floors, and possibly even a metro or subway station. The type of foundations depends on the nature of the ground. Usually they are made by drilling narrow, deep holes and filling them with reinforced concrete to form piles.

Another method is to drive steel piles, as much as twenty metres in length, into the ground. A thick raft of concreteis laid on top of the piles.

Vertical steel columns are bolted to the foundations. Each column rests on a platform of steel to spread the load. Steel girders are fixed horizontally from column to column by Steel Erectors to form a strong framework. Metal decking is laid across the girders and filled with lightweight liquid concrete which is pumped up from the ground. When it sets, it forms the floors.

Ducts are installed below the floors to carry all services: electricity, water, drains. All exposed metalwork is fireproofed. If a fire happens, it is important that the structure can withstand high temperatures withoutbuckling.

The same process is repeated as the building rises. In some construction methods, entire floors are built at ground level and hoisted into position by cranes.

The outside of the building is covered in cladding. This consists of prefabricated panels of materials such as stainless steel, aluminium, and glass.

Listening Section: It’s my Job

Listen to Leon Peters,a Steel Erector, and answer the questions.

1.How big is Leon’s gang?

2.How long is a contract?

3.What kind of buildings has he worked on?

4.What word does he use to describe components which are cut and drilled


5.Howlong is atypical shift?


Listen again and find the reasons why

1.contractsvaryin length

2.bonuses are paid

3.you need goodground people

4.you don't come down fortea-breaks

5.moving girders is dangerous.

Pre-reading task: Think and answer

Is construction industry in Russia profitable or not? Why do you think so?

Read text C and find the reasons to prove or disprove your opinion. Translate the text into Russian.

Text C: Construction Industry in Russia: Key opportunities

The growth of the Russian construction industry is attributed not only to increasedprivate investment in commercial, industrial, infrastructural and residential construction projects, but also to a series of upcoming events during which Russia will play host to the world.

Moscow Expansion

The Moscow city government has announced an ambitious plan to annex 144,000 hectaresto the city's current territoryand build 60 million square meters of housing and 45 million square meters of commercial real estate on new lands in the next 20 years. In effect, the Moscow area will more than double its size. The Moscow authorities will seek international expertise in order to develop a scheme for the first major expansion of the Russian capital in 50 years.

Skolkovo Innovation Centre

In 2010 the Russian Government announced its plans to establish the Skolkovo Innovation Centre – the modern centre for research and development. The plan is to develop the Russian Silicone Valley for 25,000-30,000 people on the territory of 380 hectares. The construction is planned to conform to international green-construction standards making it a flagship for Russia. The project paves way for both energyefficient building designs and a "green" waste-processing programme. The cost of construction of the Skolkovo innovation city is estimated at £2 - 2.4bn by 2015.


Russia will host the XXII Olympic and XI Paralympics Winter Games in February – March 2014 in Sochi. The official delivery plan records some 218 projects to be constructed in Sochi. More than £ 20 bn will be spent on the preparation for the


2014 Winter Olympic Games. There has been particular interest identified in the world companies offering innovative products and services in the area of architectural design, civil engineering and construction. While the construction of sport facilities is nearing completion ample opportunities for construction companies still exist in the hospitality sector.

World Cup 2018

Russia’s FIFA World Cup 2018 will generate large opportunities for the business in the sector of construction. The plan suggests construction of 13 new stadiums in cities across the country, as well as renovation of three existing ones. The Russia’s federal budget will provide over £6 bn of funding for the FIFA World Cup 2018 sports infrastructure. The biggest spending is planned after the year 2013.

Pre-reading task: Think and answer

1)What is a white elephant? Read the introduction and find it out.

2)Why do people sometimes create white elephants?

Read text D, translate one of the description of such projects into Russian.

Can you think of some more example of such projects?

Text D: Construction Projects That Broke the Bank

We live in an era in which practically anything that can be imagined can be built: artificial islands, floating hotels, skyscrapers that cause passersby to strain their necks just looking up at them, massive underwater tunnels and bridges spanning once-unthinkable lengths. But with these great construction projects come complications, including cost overruns, accidents and even utter disaster. For every great success, such as Dubai's super-swank, self-proclaimed seven-star Burj Al Arab hotel, there's a project like North Korea's Ryugyong Hotel, mired in controversy, uninhabitable and looming over the Pyongyang skyline.

In this article, we're going to take a look at some construction projects that broke the bank. In making up our list, we looked at a variety of criteria: overall cost, cost overrun, size, ambition and general notoriety. Some of these projects took decades to plan and construct; a couple aren't finished and may never be. Several can be called white elephants -- eyesores or constructions infamous for their cost or general uselessness. Others fulfill their expected purposes, perhaps even serving as gems of


modern engineering, but they remain controversial or well known for the costs and challenges they incurred.

The MOSE Project

Some projects never seem to finish. This one can't get started. The MOSE Project named after the biblical Moses and the acronym Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico (or experimental electro mechanic module for non-Italian speakers) is the result of 30 years of negotiations first begun after Venice experienced a catastrophic flood in 1966.

The project hopes to stem flooding and save the city from sinking deeper into the lagoon on which it's located. In the last century, Venice has sunk about 28 centimeters. And whereas in the early 20th century, Venice experienced flooding about seven times a year, it now happens around 100 times a year.

MOSE calls for 78 hinged metal gates to be placed along three channels in the Venice lagoon. The gates could be as large as 20 meters wide, 5 meters thick and 28 meters long. The 300-ton (272-metric ton) gates mostly will be on the seafloor. But when water levels reach a certain level, the barriers will automatically fill with air, rising within 30 minutes and creating a dam 1.5 kilometers long. When the waters recede, the gates can descend back to the seafloor in 15 minutes.

Like many projects of its type, cost estimates vary wildly - from $5.5 billion to $10.4 billion.

Construction finally began in May 2003 and should be finished in 2012, but environmental groups and maritime-related businesses have raised concerns about the project, so the work is far from done.

Montreal-Mirabel Airport

One of the world's largest airports sits practically empty and unused. Montreal-Mirabel Airport is a $1 billion airport located 64 kilometers from Montreal,Canada. The airport opened in 1975 during a time when Montreal was experiencing a building boom in preparation for the Olympics.

Montreal-Mirabel was supposed to be one of the world's major airports, taking in 50 million passengers a year with six runways and six terminals. It didn't even manage to crack 3 million, and the last passenger flight took off on Oct. 31, 2004.

The airport's failure can be attributed in part to bureaucratic and political struggles, particularly relating to groups lobbying for Quebec's independence, which pre-