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UNIT 2

COMMUNICATION: FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS

Surprise

Expressing surprise when people say surprising things.

A

I've just won £1000.

got married.

swum the Channel.

given up my job.

bought a yacht.

spoken to the Queen.

I think England has the best climate in the world.

English food is the best in the world.

I prefer English food to foreign food

winter to summer.

work to play.

I love walking in the rain.

foggy weather.

going to work.

the sound of traffic.

the smell of petrol.

В (No!) ….

Practice

1. Tell someone:

you've just been sacked/ robbed/ proposed to;

you like hard work/cold weather/frozen food;

you prefer rain to sunshine/water to wine;

you think English is easy/driving a car is difficult. Не/She will express surprise at your statements.

2. Learn the dialogue and make substitutions.

A: Do you know who's just got married? Old Macdonald.

B: Never! He's over eighty, isn't he? (No)

A: He's nearly ninety.

B: Good gracious! Are you sure? (Good heavens)

A: I am. What's more his wife is eighty-four.

B: She isn 't, is she? (Is she really?)

A: Yes, she is. And guess what! He's her sixth husband.

B: Really? Quite a woman, isn't she? (Get away!)

3. Tell someone surprising things:

  • you've just done

  • you like / hate

  • you prefer

Не/She will express surprise.

GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS-DEDUCTION: MUST

You haven't, have you?

You don't, do you?

Really?

Have/Do you really?

Never!

What?

Good heavens!

Good gracious!

Get away!

You can't be serious.

  • 58 —

Practice

1. Rephrase the following sentences. Use must instead of modal words.

> Surely they have left already. They must have left already.

1. Surely the boy recognized you at once. 2. Her shoes evidently pinch her, she can hardly walk. 3. It was undoubtedly raining when you left. 4. She is probably good at chemistry. 5. They were probably having

— 59 —

dinner when I phoned them. 6. Surely she has finished typing by this time. 7. Surely he is looking for his glasses again. 8. No doubt, you are run down, you look pale. 9. Surely she is still typing. 10. She is probably in her office now. 11. Probably I left my textbook in the classroom. 12. Probably Mike forgot to call me. 13. Surely Mother took my umbrel­la. 13. Probably Tom and Nick are playing football. 14. They are at the seaside. Surely they are having a good time. 15. No doubt, she knew what she was going to do. 16. I'm sure she is fond of the child. 17. Prob­ably he was taken there by car. 18. He is very old. I think he is nearly eighty. 19. Evidently the meeting was cancelled. 20. Probably they have changed the school programme. 21. The town was probably founded about six hundred years ago. 22. You have probably heard the story before. 23. We feel sure she likes her new job. 24. He probably post­poned his visit to the relatives. 25. I'm sure you've seen the film. 26. I'm certain they have changed the programme. 27. No doubt, you are tired of my talking.

2. Complete the following sentences using must expressing deduction.

> Is he British?' 'Yes, he...' 'Yes, he must be British.'

1. 'Are they married?' 'Yes, they...' 2. 'Were they in a hurry?' 'Yes they...' 3. 'Does Ann know a lot of people?' 'Yes, she...'4. 'Did Tom know about the plan?' 'Yes, he...' 5. 'Are they waiting for somebody?' 'Yes, they...' 6. 'Have they been waiting long?' 'Yes, they...' 7. 'Have they seen Mary?' 'Yes, they...' 8. 'Is Mary still working?' 'Yes, she...' 9. 'Has Brian come?' 'Yes, he...'

3. Supply the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.

1. 'I must (get) old,' she said, 'to be talking like that.' 2. 'You must (be) right. I am not going to argue with you since I share your point of view.' 3.1 must (sit) there for a quarter of an hour waiting and thinking about it before I saw the letter. 4. Nick brought the repaired bicycle. He must (work) since early morning today to finish in time. 5. Bring me that ciga­rette-case. It must (lie) on the salver in the hall. 6. What a shower! The water is streaming down the street. It must (rain) for some hours. 7. There's light in the window. They must (be) at home. 8. He must (take) a lot of photos when he was on the islands. 9. You haven't eaten for hours. You must (be) hungry. 10. The old lady must (be) a beauty once. Susy wished to see Mrs Durley's picture to find out if she was right.

— 60 —

4. Translate into English.

A. 1. Вероятно, он уже вернулся с юга. 2. Должно быть, он сейчас работает над этой проблемой. 3. Наверное, я потерял свой ключ. 4. Должно быть, они уже закончили свою работу. 5. Должно быть, она все приготовила заранее. 6. Ваш друг, должно быть, очень сдер­ жанный человек. 7. Должно быть, все вопросы уже решены. 8. Оче­ видно, этот молодой человек частый гость (посетитель) в вашем доме. 9. Должно быть, они все еще обсуждают этот вопрос. 10. Ту­ ристы, должно быть, проходят сейчас таможенный досмотр. 11. "Джон женился!" "Ты, должно быть, шутишь!" 12. Я слышал, что у тебя экзамены на следующей неделе. Ты, должно быть, мно­ го занимаешься сейчас. 13. Телефон звонил, но я не слышал его. Я, вероятно, спал. 14. Я наделал много шуму, когда вернулся домой. Ты, наверное, слышал меня. 15. Я давно не вижу Джима. Он, ско­ рее всего, уехал. 16. Письмо, наверное, доставили утром. 11. Судя по книгам и бумагам на его письменном столе, он, похоже, работал несколько часов.

B. 1. Вы, должно быть, не узнали меня. 2. Ему, наверное, не сказали, когда начнется собрание. 3. Там, должно быть, никого нет. 4. Она, на­ верное, не помнит, что обещала принести нам кассеты. 5. Вы, по всей вероятности, не знали, что они переехали в один из пригородов Лон­ дона. 6. Она, наверное, оставила дверь незапертой. 7. Вы, наверное, не встречали такого забавного мальчишки, как наш Тим. 8. Вам, дол­ жно быть, нелегко этому поверить, 9. Дети, должно быть, не замети­ ли, что уже стемнело. 10. Она, наверняка, ничего об этом не знает.

11. Она, наверное, совсем неопытна в переводе медицинских статей с английского на русский. 12. Он, должно быть, не узнал вас в толпе.

  1. Вероятно, они не попали на поезд, так как вышли из дома поздно.

  2. Они, наверное, тебя не видели.

C. 1. Вероятно, дождя завтра не будет. 2. Он, наверняка, сдаст экза­ мен. 3. Он вряд ли закончит работу к пятнице. 4. Она обязательно поможет тебе. 5. Вероятно, директор не примет ее завтра. 6. Вряд ли она возьмет ребенка с собой. 7. Очевидно, она не придет. 8. Оче­ видно, сегодня будет дождь. 9. Вряд ли наша команда выиграет матч. 10. Навряд ли я увижусь с Мэри. 11. Я, наверное, буду занят утром.

12. Меня, вероятно, не будет в Лондоне летом.

— 61 —

TOPIC: FAMILY MATTERS.

LOVE AND MARRIAGE

Listen, read and practise.

Home

(after Somerset Maugham)

George Meadows, the master of a prosperous farm, was now a man of fifty, and his wife was a year or two younger. Their tliree daughters were lovely and their two sons were handsome and strong. They were merry, industrious and kindly. They were happy and deserved their happiness. But the real master of the house was not George, it was his mother. She was about 70, tall, with grey hair and though her face was wrinkled, her eyes were dark, bright and shrewd.

I knew the story of George's mother and his uncle, whose name was also George. About fifty years ago uncle George and his younger broth­er Tom had courted Mrs Meadows when she was Emily Green. George was a good-looking fellow, but not so steady as his brother, that's why Emily chose Tom. George had gone away to sea. For twenty years now and then he sent them presents. Then there was no news of him. When Tom died Mrs Meadows wrote George about it but they never got an answer and decided that he must be dead...

Some days ago to their greatest surprise they got a letter, which informed them that George Meadows, who was ill and felt that he had not much longer to live wanted to see the house in which he had been born. I was invited to come and see him. It goes without saying that I accepted the invitation. I found the whole family in the kitchen. I was amused to see that Mrs Meadows wore her best silk dress. I was intro­duced to the old captain. He was very thin and his skin hung on his bones like an old suit that was too large for him. He had lost nearly all his teeth. It was strange to see those two old people and to think that half a century ago he had loved her and she had loved another.

'Have you ever been married, Captain Meadows?' I asked. — 'Not me,' he said and added, T said I would never marry anyone but you, Emily, and I never have.' There was some satisfaction in his voice.

'Well, you might have regretted if you had,' Mrs Meadows said smiling. I talked a little with the old man about China.

"There's not a port in China that I don't know better than you know your coat pocket. Where a ship can go I've been. I could keep you sit-

— 62 —

ting here all day for six months and not tell you half the things I've seen in my day.'

'Well, there's one thing you've not done, George,' said Mrs Meadows, the smile still in her blue eyes,' and that's to make a fortune.'

'I'm not the man to save money. But one thing I can say for myself: if I had a chance to go through my life again I'd take it. And not many men can say that.'

'No, indeed,' I said.

I looked at him with admiration and respect. He was a toothless, pen­niless old man, but he had made a success of his life, for he had enjoyed it.

When I came to see him the next day I learned that Captain Mead­ows had died in his sleep. Mrs Meadows told me that he had talked about all the things that had happened to him in his long life. He was happy to be back and boasted he would live another twenty years. But death had put the full stop in the right place.

'Well I'm glad he came back,' said Mrs Meadows with a faint smile, 'after I married Tom and George went to sea I was never sure that I had married the right man.'

A. Questions.

1. How old were George Meadows and his wife? 2. How many children did they have? 3. What were they like? 4. Was the farm prosperous? 5. Who was the real master of the farm? 6. What did Mrs Meadows look like? 7. What was the story of George's mother and his uncle? 8. Why did Emily choose Tom? 9. What did George do? 10. When and why did he come back? 11. Did the writer see George Meadows? 12. What was he like? 13. Had he ever been married? 14. Was the Captain satisfied with his life? 15. Why was Mrs Meadows glad that George had come back?

B. Retell the text.

C. Practice.

1. Join each pair of sentences using who for people and that for things.

> That's the woman. She works in the post office. That's the woman who works in the post office.

1. He is the man. He painted my house. 2. What is the name of the boy? He telephoned you. 3. What's happened to the money? It was on my desk. 4. They're the people. They offered Sue a job. 5. The car has now

63 —

been found. It was stolen. 6. She's the person. She gives me a lift to work every day. 7. The lock has now been repaired. It was broken. 8. Most of the people are very nice. They work in Peter's office.

2. Complete the sentences using who for people and that for things; if it is possible to leave out who or that, write (who) or (that) in brackets.

Note. We often leave out who, that or which when they are the ob­jects in defining relative clauses.

I can't find the envelopes (that) I bought this morning. Have you seen the film that is on TV tonight?

1. John Murray is the man ... owns the Grand hotel. 2. The man ... we spoke to wasn't very nice. 3. This is the sweater... I bought on Saturday. 4. What is the name of the company ... you work for? 5. A bilingual person is someone ... can speak two languages equally well. 6. Who's that boy ... Sally is dancing with? 7. Are these all the letters ... came in this morning's post? 8. Have you found the money ... you lost? 9. The people ... used to live in that house have moved. 10.1 don't like films ... are very violent.

3. Join each pair of sentences using whose.

>- I know someone. His mother is an opera singer. I know someone whose mother is an opera singer.

1. She's the woman. Her husband teaches at Annie's school. 2. He's the man. His flat was broken into. 3. They're the couple. Their children were injured in the accident. 4. That's the girl. Her friend lent me the money. 5. I'm the person. My credit cards were stolen. 6. Are you the one? Your mother phoned the police.

4. Complete the sentences using where, when or why.

>- This is the church where Ken and Kate were married.

1. Did they tell you the reason... they wanted you to do that? 2.What's the name of the restaurant... you had lunch? 3.1 can remember a time ... there was no television. 4. Is that the hospital... you had your operation? 5.1 don't understand the reason... he was late. 6. Do you remember the time... your car broke down on the motorway?

5. Complete the sentences using who, that or which, but only where necessary leave a blank if possible.

1. Is that the song ... we heard yesterday? 2. Maria,... has only been in Britain for a few weeks, speaks excellent English. 3. Who was the girl... you were speaking to just now? 4. My sister,... wasn't feeling very hungry, didn't want to go to the restaurant. 5. I've lost all the money... you gave me.

6. This is the letter... came in today's post. 7. Mr and Mrs Woods,... live next door to us, have gone on holiday. 8. Brighton,... is a tourist centre on the south coast of England, is about 85 kilometres from London.

6. Join each pair of sentences without using who, whom or which.

>- The restaurant was in West Street. We went to it. The restaurant we went to was in West Street.

1, The woman is a good friend of mine. I borrowed the money from her.

2. The man is Sue's husband. I introduced you to him. 3. The hotel over­ looked the sea. We stayed at it. 4. The shop is closed. I bought the shoes from it. 5. The people like him very much. He works with them.

7. Join each pair of sentences using (i) who or which, and (ii) a prep­osition + whom or which, as in the example.

> Mr Jones is a teacher at Annie's school. I was talking to him a moment ago.

(i) Mr Jones, who I was talking to a moment ago, is a teacher at Annie's school.

(ii)Mr Jones, to whom I was talking a moment ago, is a teacher at Annie's school.

1. Peter's party is next Saturday evening. We are all invited to it. 2. Mr Mason apologized for the mistake. We complained to him. 3. The film 'Family Life' is showing next week. I've heard good reports about it.

8. Express unreal present or future condition. Put the verbs into the correct forms.

>* Sarah would like to write to her friend, Alan, but she has lost Alan's address. She says, 'If I knew his address, I would write to him.'

1. Simon would like to buy some new clothes, but he hasn't got much money. He says, 'If I (have) more money, I (buy) some new clothes.'

— 64 —

3 Зак. 2342

— 65

2. You would like to buy some shoes, but you think they are too expen­sive. You say, T (buy) them if they (not be) so expensive.' 3. Peter is thinking of buying a new record. Sally thinks the record isn't very good. She says, 'I (not buy) it if I (be) you.' 4. Andrew's elder brother, Simon, still lives at home. Andrew says, 'If I (be) Simon's age, I (not live) at home.' 5. Mike lives in London, but he doesn't like living there. You ask him, 'Where (you/live) if you (can) live anywhere?'

9. Read the situation. Then make a sentence with if. Express unreal past condition.

I was tired. I didn't go to the party.

If I hadn't been tired, I would have gone to the party.

1. She was ill. She didn't go to work. 2. It rained all morning. We didn't go out. 3. She didn't have enough money. She couldn't buy the shoes. 4.1 wasn't hungry. I didn't have breakfast. 5. The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly. 6.1 didn't wake George up be­cause I didn't know he wanted to get up early. 7.1 was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money. 8. She wasn't injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat-belt. 9. You're hungry now because you didn't have breakfast. 10. She didn't come because nobody had told her.

10. Complete the sentences with said, told or talked.

1. Jack... me that he was enjoying his new job. 2. Tom... that it was a nice restaurant but I didn't like it much. 3. The doctor... that I would have to rest for at least a week. 4. Mrs Taylor... us she wouldn't be able to come to the next meeting. 5. Ann ... Tom that she was going away. 6. George couldn't help me. He ... to ask Jack. 7. At the meeting the chairman ... about the problems facing the company. 8. Jill... us all about her holiday in Australia. 9. When we last met he ... a lot about his son.

11. Make up sentences using

a) the conjunction 'for'

> We rarely stay at hotels for we can't afford it.

b) the word combination 'that's why'

> We were tired, that's why we didn't go out.

c) the word combination 'It goes without saying'.

> She asked me to help her move to her new house. It goes with­out saying that I agreed (to).

—- 66 —

Nuclear Family. Extended Family.

In the Far, Middle and Near East and in parts of Africa, South Ame­rica and Europe, the first thing most Western people notice is the re­spect everyone has for the old. Older men and women live with their married children and are important members of the family. They look after the children, help with the cooking, give advice and often rule family life. Living in an extended family has advantages for everyone. A small child, for example, knows many people from the very be­ginning, not just his mother and father. When his mother goes out, it doesn't matter. He'll stay with someone who loves him — an aunt or sister or grandmother.

For a young mother and father there are also advantages. They can go out to work and grandmother will look after the house and the children.

This is especially important in farming communities, where both men and women work in the fields.

And the older woman, for example, has something important to do. She sees her children and grandchildren grow up. She is needed and loved. The nuclear family is the product of the West. The typical family consists of mother, father and two children. If the mother goes out to work, she must leave them with a stranger — someone who looks after them as a job, for money. If there is a divorce or separation the child's life will change completely.

As for the old, too many older people live alone — in special flats or homes. They hardly ever see their children and grandchildren. They have nothing important to do. They are often poor and lonely. In the winter many old people die of cold or from falls in the house — because there is no one to look after them. Nobody cares.

In the USA many old people go to Florida when they retire and live in large parks. Often these parks are for old people only. Neither child­ren nor pets can live there.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak on nuclear and extended families.

Changes in the American Family

In the nineteenth century in the United States, it was not unusual for extended families of uncles, aunts, cousins, and grandparents to live together in the same home. Then, in this century, nuclear families be-

— 67 —

came popular. Only the parents and their children lived together. Re­cently, in the United States, many parents and children have begun liv­ing with grandparents again. Often, parents and children don't want to send their parents and grandparents to a special nursing home for older people. They think it is better to take care of the elderly person at home.

Of course, there can be problems when people of three genera­tions live in the same house. Grandparents are often more permis­sive than parents, and they let children do what they want. But most American parents feel that it is better to be strict; they feel that chil­dren should follow rules. Parents think that grandparents who don't make children mind (=obey) will spoil them. Then the children won't obey anyone as they are growing up.

But having grandparents in the home can also be fun. For example, everyone enjoys the stories the older people tell and the interesting things that they can teach the other family members. Americans are learning that having elderly people in the home can be a wonderful experience.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak on the changes in the American family.

C. Speak on the advantages and disadvantages of living with parents and grandparents.

D. Do you think these statements about family life are true or false? Decide in pairs, then compare your answers with other pairs.

  1. Old people should live with their children.

  2. Old people should live in special places (nursing homes) with other old people.

  3. Everyone can learn a lot from older people.

  4. Young couples must live away from their parents.

Marriage in the United States

Many single people in the United States have trouble finding a marriage partner. Tn the past, sometimes friends would help by becoming matchmak­ers. They would introduce a man and woman, and sometimes the man and woman would fall in love and get married.

But today, many people pay companies called dating services to help them find partners. And even if the dating service does not always find them someone to marry, it at least finds them someone to date.

Getting married has changed in some ways. In the past, the man pro­posed to the woman. But now sometimes the woman asks the man to many her. After the couple decides to marry, the man gives the woman a ring. She wears it on her left hand to show that they are engaged. Some­times the man and woman elope. When they run away and get married privately, their parents are often disappointed because they wanted their children to have a big wedding.

When they are married, both newlyweds often work because they need two paychecks to pay their bills. But sometimes they still have money problems. And sometimes the parents find that they just aren't compatible. So, for many people, marriage ends in divorce. Yet, some people stay together long enough to celebrate their fiftieth or se­venty-fifth wedding anniversary.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak about marriage in the United States.

C. 1. Do people become engaged in your country? 2. Do you give rings in your country? 3. Have you got dating services in your country? 4. Do many marriages end in divorce in your country? 5. Do many women work after marriage?

Love and Marriage in Britain

Young people in Britain may have several girlfriends or boyfriends from their teens onwards. They go to the cinema, go dancing, play sports or eat out together and do not necessarily intend to get married. However, each year about 350,000 British couples become husband and wife. Marriage is legal from the age of sixteen but most people wait until their mid to late twenties. Of those who get married, about seventy per cent prefer a tradi­tional church wedding to a registry office wedding. However, by the age of forty, one woman in twenty and one man in eleven will still be single.

One in four children are bom outside of marriage but these are not all in single-parent families; sixty per cent of unmarried parents have stable rela­tionships. Thirty-seven per cent of marriages end in divorce and cost the country more than £ 1.4 billion a year. Although over thirty per cent of women depend financially on their husbands, women ask for seventy per cent of all divorces. Three out often divorced women married as teenagers.

Marriage does seem to be more popular now than could be imagined thirty years ago. Is it since research has shown that married people gen­erally live longer than the single?

— 68 —

— 69 —

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak about marriage in Britain.

C. 1. What do you think is the best age to get married? 2. Children should have married parents. Discuss.

D. Did you use to fight with your brothers and sisters when you were young? How do you get on with them now?

Discuss which THREE of the following are the most harmful to children.

  • having a favourite child

  • wanting children to do well at school

  • wanting them to be attractive/or popular

  • not giving enough discipline

  • not spending enough time with them

  • being too protective

Now write three paragraphs giving your opinion. The phrases below may be useful.

I think/don't think having a favourite child is ...

I think it's quite natural for parents to ...

To give you an example, when I was a little child...

Social Trends

When Adrian Hutton and Carla Leene get married they will move into a new house that they have bought. But what sort of life will they have? What can they expect in modern Britain? Every year the British govern­ment publishes statistics about social trends. Their findings show defi­nite patterns in the British way of life.

In most marriages there are some marked differences between hus­bands and wives. Working wives, for example, sleep (on average) one hour more a day than working husbands. Housewives, on the other hand, sleep only about three hours more every week than their work­ing husbands. And what about housework? The government survey showed that only 1% of men do the household chores — like cleaning and ironing. But they do usually keep household accounts and it is always men who do repairs or improvements in the house. 30% of all marriages end in divorce. The government survey also looked at lei­sure activities. They found that the two most popular leisure activities

in Britain are watching television (the average family spends 20 hours a week in front of the TV set) and going for walks. Swimming is an especially popular activity among British women.

Carla and Adrian's life, though, will probably be different from the average marriage. In the first place Carla has always kept her own ac­counts and Adrian has always done his own housework. Neither of them like watching television very much and they both like swimming.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak on social trends in the British way of life.

Those Lazy Husbands

Men are lazy in the home, according to an official survey published today. They have about six hours'a week more free time than wives, but play very little part in cooking, cleaning, washing, and ironing, according to the Social Trends Survey by the Central Statistical Office.

Nearly three quarters of married women claimed to do all or most of the housework, and among married men the proportion who admitted that their wives did all or most of the housework was only slightly lower.

The survey showed that washing and ironing was the least popular task among men, with only one per cent performing this duty, compared with 89 per cent of women, and 10 per cent sharing equally. Only 5 per cent of men prepare the evening meal, 3 per cent carry out household cleaning duties, 5 per cent household shopping, and 17 per cent wash the evening dishes.

But when household gadgets break down, repairs are carried out by 82 per cent of husbands.

The survey says that, despite economic problems, the majority of Britons are substantially better than a decade ago. We're healthier, too — eating healthier foods and smoking less.

The average Briton, not surprisingly, is more widely travelled than a decade ago. Most people are going abroad for holidays, with Spain the favourite destination.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak on the Social Trends Survey by the Central Statistical Office.

C. Do you agree with these statements?

1. Fathers should feed children and change their nappies.

— 70 —

  1. Men should do more work about the house.

  2. Mothers with young children should not work.

D. What are the results of the Social Trends Survey in your country? Perhaps you've got some information on this problem. Tell your friends what you've read or heard.

Focus on phrasal verbs.

Family Matters

Two points of view on a family relationship

There is a feature in a magazine in which members of the same

family describe their relationship.

You will read about James Mitford, an actor, and his daughter

Amy.

My Daughter

James Mitford: My wife and I only had the one child. It might have been nice to have a son, but we didn't plan a family, we just had Amy.

I see her as my best friend. I think she'd always come to me first if she had a problem. We have the same sense of humour, and share inter­ests. I don't mind animals, but she's completely obsessed with them, and she has always had dogs, cats, horses, and goldfish in her life.

We were closest when she was about four, which I think is a lovely age for a child. They know the parents best, and don't have the outside con­tacts. She must have grown up suddenly when she went to school, be­cause I remember her growing away from her family slightly. Any father who has a teenage daughter comes across an extraordinary collection of people, and there seemed to be an endless stream of strange young men coming through our house. By the time I'd learned their names they'd gone away and I had to start learning a new lot. I remember I told her off once in front of her friends and she didn't talk to me for days afterwards.

I wanted more than anything else for her to be happy in what she was doing, and I was prepared to pull strings to help her on her way. She went to a good school, but that didn't work out. She must have upset somebody. When she left she decided she wanted to become an actress so I got her into drama school. It wasn't to her liking so she joined a

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theatre group and began doing bits and pieces in films. She was doing well, but then gave it up. She probably found it boring. Then she took up social work, and finally went to work for a designer and he became her husband. And that's really the story of her life. She must be happy with him — they're always together.

We have the same tastes in books and music, but it takes me a while to get used to new pop songs. I used to take her to see the opera, which is my big passion, but I don't think she likes it very much, she doesn't come with me any more.

I don't think she's a big television watcher. She knows when I'm on, and she might watch, but I don't know. It's not the kind of thing she tells me.

We're very grateful for Amy. She's a good daughter as daughters go. We're looking forward to being grandparents. I'm sure she'll have a son.

My Father

Amy Mitford: I don't really know my father. He isn't easy to get on with. He's quite self-centred, and a little bit vain, I think, and in some ways quite unapproachable. The public must think he's very easy-go­ing, but at home he keeps himself to himself.

He can't have been at home much when I was a child, because I don't remember much about him. He's always been slightly out of touch with family life. His work always came first, and he was always off somewhere acting or rehearsing. He loves being asked for his autograph, he loves to be recognized. He has won several awards, and he's very proud of that. He was given the Member of the British Empire, and we had to go to Buckingham Palace to get the medal. It was incredibly boring — there were hundreds of other people getting the same thing, and you had to sit there for hours. He shows off his awards to whoever comes to the house.

I went to public school, and because of my total lack of interest and non-attendance I was asked to leave. I didn't want to go there in the first place. I was taken away from all my friends. He must have been very pleased to get me into the school, but in the end it was a complete waste of money. I let him down quite badly, I suppose. I tried several jobs but I couldn't settle down in them. They just weren't challenging enough. Then I realized that what I really wanted to do was live in the country and look after animals, so that's what I now do.

As a family, we're not that close, either emotionally or geographi­cally. We don't see much of each other these days. My father and I are totally different, like chalk and cheese. My interests have always been

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the country, but he's into books, music and above all, opera, which I hate. If they do come to see us, they're in completely the wrong clothes for the country — mink coats, nice little leather shoes, not exactly ideal for long walks across the fields.

He was totally opposed to me getting married. He was hoping we would break up. Gerald's too humble, I suppose. He must have wanted me to marry someone famous, but I didn't, and that's all there is to it. We don't want children, but my father keeps on and on talking about wanting grandchildren. You can't make someone have children just be­cause you want grandchildren.

I never watch him on television. I'm not that interested, and anyway he usually forgets to tell me when he's on.

A. Questions.

In questions 1-3, there is not necessarily one correct answer only.

1. How would you describe their relationship?

a. It was closer when Amy was a child.

b. They get on well, and agree on most things.

c. Не has more respect for her than she does for him.

d. They don't have very much in common.

2. How would you describe James Mitford?

a. He has done all that a father can for his daughter.

b. He isn't very aware of how she really feels.

с He's more interested in himself than his family.

3. How would you describe Amy?

a. She is selfish and spoilt.

b. It took her a long time to decide what she wanted to do in life, с She found happiness in marriage that she didn't have in child­ hood.

  1. What did he think of her friends when she was a teenager?

  2. Why did she leave school?

  3. Why did she give up her jobs?

  4. What does lie think of her husband?

  5. Is she interested in his career?

  6. Is she going to have children?

10. How often do they see each other?

What do you think?

Who has the more realistic view of the relationship?

Why?

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B. Practice.

The verb get is very common in spoken English, and it has many differ­ent meanings.

1. In the following sentences replace the word get by one of the verbs in the box.

fetch earn receive arrive

catch buy become have

  1. We got home after midnight. 2. While you're at the shops, could you get something for supper? 3. Can we stop for a while? I'm getting tired. 4. I'm getting the ten o'clock train. 5. She gets three hundred pounds a week. 6. Could you get my slippers for me? They're upstairs. 7. We can get something to eat on the train. 8. Did you get my last letter?

  2. Replace the words in italics in the following sentences with a multi­word verb from the texts.

1. He started playing golf because he needed the exercise. 2. I unex­pectedly met an old school friend last week. 3. Have you heard? Jane and Andrew have separated"? 4. What sort of relationship do you have with your parents? 5.1 can't stand her. She's always boasting about her wonderful children. 6. Are you beginning to get established in your new flat? 7. Tennis was taking up too much of my time, so I stopped doing it. 8. Don't disappoint me. I'm relying on you to help me. 9. She was rep­rimanded for getting her new clothes dirty. 10. It was a good plan in theory but it wasn't successful in practice.

3. Make up sentences with the following multi-word verbs:

to work out; to let down; to tell off; to break up; to take up; to come across; to get on (with); to show off; to settle down; to give up; to keep on; to look forward to.

4. Translate into English.

1. Он намерен заняться медициной после окончания школы (after school). 2. Вы можете положиться на него, он вас не подведет. 3. Это была любовь с первого взгляда. Они поженились, но вскоре разошлись. Они совершенно разные люди. 4. Я вчера случайно нашел несколько старых писем. 5. Он хотел похвалиться своей новой машиной. 6. Она бросила работу, чтобы ухаживать за своей больной матерью. 6. Отец отчитал (отругал) меня, так как я вернулась домой поздно и не предупредила его. 7. План оказался удачным. 8. Он в

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хороших отношениях со своей тещей. 9. В твоем возрасте пора уже взяться за ум. 10. Я с нетерпением жду поездки в Париж. 11. Он все время задает глупые вопросы.

С. Divide into two groups, those with children and those without. Dis­cuss the following questions.

Group A People with children

  1. Who do your children look like? Who do they take after in char­acter?

  2. Have you brought up your children similarly to the way your parents brought you up? Are you more (less strict? More) less indulgent?

  3. In what ways do you hope your children's life will be better than yours?

Group В People without children

  1. Who do you most take after, your mother or your father? Who do you look like? Who are you like in character?

  2. How much of a generation gap is there / was there between you and your parents?

  3. Would you want to bring up your children similarly to the way your parents brought you up?

Conversation Practice

Focus on phrasal werbs.

Family Relationship

Interview with 16-year-old daughter Helen

Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?

Helen: I think I get on with them very well really. We don't

always see eye to eye on some things, like boyfriends — they don't always approve of them — but on the whole they're very understanding. If I had a personal prob­lem, I think I could confide in them, and if I was ever in trouble I know I could rely on them to help me.

Interviewer: How strict are your parents?

Helen: Well, my Dad's quite strict about staying out late at night, but I can usually get round him. If I'm nice to him, he

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lets me come home a bit later. My Mum's always tell­ing me to tidy up my bedroom and put things away af­ter I use them, and I have to do some of the housework. But if I compare them with other parents I know, they aren't very strict.

Interviewer: And who are you most like in your family?

Helen: Oh, I think I take after my mother. Everybody says we're

both very independent and strong-willed. I like to have my own way a lot of the time, but I'm not spoilt. I don't always get my own way. And my parents always tell me. off 'if 1 do anything wrong.

Interview with 17-year old son David

Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?

David: I look up to them because I know they've worked hard

to bring us up propery.

Interviewer: How strict are your parents?

David: They can very strict at times. I told my Dad I wanted a

motorbike, but he said it was out of the question — it was too dangerous. My mother is strict about keeping things tidy. I can't get out of doing the washing up and things like that, unless I'm very busy.

Interviewer: How do you get on with your sister?

David: I never agree with what she says, so we are always ar-

guing. We've never been very close, but I get on all right with her. I think I'm much closer to my mother.

Interview with mother

Interviewer: What's it like being a parent?

Mother: Bringing up children is very difficult. You always wor­ry about them. You have to be very patient and put up with a lot — like noise and even criticism. And you can't always get through to them — sometimes they just won't listen. But the advantages of being a parent outweigh the disadvantages. The main thing is to enjoy your children while they are young because they grow up so quickly nowadays.

77 —

Interviewer: Mother:

How strict are you with your children? I suppose I'm reasonably strict. They can't do what they like and get away with it and I tell them off when they do something wrong.

Interviewer: Mother:

And what is the secret of being a good parent? I think you have to give them confidence and let them know you love them. And you have to set a good exam­ple through your own behaviour, otherwise they won't look up to you.

Interviewer: Mother:

A. Questions.

And what do you want for your children in the future? I want them to be happy, and I want them to look back on their childhood as a very happy time in their lives.

  1. What kind of relationship do the children have with their parents?

  2. Are the parents strict? 3. According to the mother, what is it like being a parent and what is a good parent?

B. Practice.

  1. Match the verbs in A with the definitions in B.

А

  1. to get round someone

  2. to take after someone

  3. to tell someone off (for doing something)

  4. to look up to someone

  5. to bring someone up

  6. to get out of doing something

  7. to get through to someone

В

    1. to respect and admire someone, to have a very good opinion of someone

    2. to escape being punished for something

    3. to think about something that happened in the past

    4. to reprimand, to speak severely to someone because they have done something wrong

    5. to persuade someone to let you do or have something, usually by flattering them

    6. to raise a child, to look after a child until it is adult and try to give it particular beliefs and attitudes

    7. to resemble a member of your family in appearance or character

78

  1. to grow up

  2. to look back (on something)

  3. to get away with something

    1. to avoid having to do something

    2. to succeed in making someone understand the meaning of what one is saying

    3. to become more adult and mature

2. Read the sentences. Then say the sentences again, using the multi­ word verb prompts. The first one has been done for you.

1.1 have always admired and respected my father. {look up to) 1 have always looked up to my father.

2. The little boy said he wanted to be a train driver when he was older.

(grow up)

3. She's very similar to her mother — they are both very intelligent. {take after)

4.1 often think about my childhood.

{look back on) 5.1 can't make her listen to me or understand what I'm trying to say.

{get through to)

  1. When her mother died, she was raised by her aunt. {bring up)

  2. How can we avoid going to my brother's party? {get out of)

  3. He was not punished for using bad language at home. {get away with)

  4. At first her father wouldn't let her go to the all-night party, but in the end she persuaded him to let her go.

(get round)

10. She reprimanded him for breaking the window. {tell off)

3. Translate into English.

1. Я смог легко убедить его. 2. Она похожа на свою мать. 3. Отец отчитал ее за то, что она пришла домой поздно. 4. Удивительно, что все его уважают. 5. Она воспитала пятерых детей. 6. Ей уда­лось отвертеться от уборки квартиры. 7. Она выросла в деревне. 8. Ему не удастся избежать наказания. 9. Он так упрям, я просто не могу до него достучаться.

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С. Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions.

B. Practice.

What kind of relationship do you have with the people in your family?

  • In what ways are you similar to or different from other people in your family?

  • Did you have a strict upbringing?

  • When were you reprimanded as a child/teenager?

  • Were you able to do what you wanted all the time?

-— Do you think parents should be strict or easy-going?

  • Should boys and girls be brought up in the same way?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of being an only child?

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