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Unit 9

Read the text and do the tasks.

METHODS OF IRRIGATION (PART 1)

The methods by which irrigation is applied to the land should depend, under ideal conditions, on individual land features such a

s

the slope of the land, the crops to be irrigated, the nature of the water-supply and the ability of the soil to absorb and hold water.

There are four general methods of applying water: 1) by flooding, thus wetting all the land surface; 2) by furrows, thus wetting only part of the ground surface; 3) by. sprinkling, in which the soil is wetted with a spray; 4) by subirrigation, in which the soil is wetted only a little if at all, but in which the subsoil is saturated. The first three methods come under the general heading of surface irrigation.

Flood irrigation generally requires large streams or canals, gentle topography (ground slopes should usually be no greater than three per cent) and careful levelling of the land. In theory, it should be possible to ensure that every part of the area to be irrigated absorbs the predetermined amount of water: but in practice, although all parts usually receive an adequate amount, some receive too much. For this reason, flood irrigation is more suited to close-growing crops like -rice.

Furrow irrigation is a method by which water is run in furrows, normally made by cultivating between crop rows. The earth is thrown up into ridges between the furrows and the seeds are planted in the centre of the ridges. Furrow irrigation is very common because it is adaptable to a great variety of land slopes and soil textures and can be used with either large or small streams of irrigation water.

Difficulties may arise with the use of furrow irrigation on unsuitable soils. If the soil is very pervious, the water running along the furrows may sink vertically into the soil without ever reaching the centre of the ridges where the seeds are sown. On the other hand, the soil may be so impervious that the water does not reach the centre of the ridge and the seeds do not germinate anyhow. A more general disadvantage of furrow irrigation is that to ensure that the whole of the irrigation area receives enough water, it is always necessary to overwater some parts.

TASKS

  1. Translate the following words into. Be sure of their pronunciation.

  1. ideal, individual, general, large, gentle, careful, possible, adequate, adaptable, unsuitable, pervious, impervious.

  2. generally, usually, thus, a little, although, much, normally, vertically, anyhow, enough.

  3. to apply, to depend, to be irrigated, to absorb, to hold, to wet, to sprinkle, to saturate, to require, to level, to ensure, to irrigate, to receive, to suit, to throw, to plant, to arise, may, to sink, to reach, to sow, to germinate, to ensure.

  4. condition, feature, slope, crops, the ability, surface, furrow, a spray; subirrigation, the subsoil, streams, levelling, rice, earth, ridge, seeds, disadvantage.

  1. Sav to what parts of speech the words from task № 1 under letters А. В. C, D refer. Rewrite suffixes and prefixes typical to these parts of speech,

  2. Write out ail the predicates from the sentences. Sav in what tense and voice they are. Translate the sentences into Russian.

I. There are four general methods of applying water. 2. The first three methods come under the general heading of surface irrigation. 3. Flood irrigation is more suited to close-growing crops like rice. 4. Difficulties may arise with the use of furrow irrigation on unsuitable soils. 5, Flood irrigation generally requires large streams or canals, gentle topography (ground slopes should usually be no greater than three per cent) and careful levelling of the land.

  1. Put all types of questions (general, special, alternative, disjunctive) to the sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Flood irrigation is more suited to close-growing crops like -rice. 2. Furrow irrigation is a method by which water is run in furrows, normally made by cultivating between crop rows. 3. Furrow irrigation is very common because it is adaptable to a great variety of land slopes and soil textures and can be used with either large or small streams of irrigation water. 4. If the soil is very pervious, the water running along the furrows may sink vertically into the soil without ever reaching the centre of the ridges where the seeds are sown. 5. A more general disadvantage of furrow irrigation is that to ensure that the whole of the irrigation area receives enough water, it is always necessary to overwater some parts.

' -J'

  1. Translate into English.

1. Текст, который я только что прочитал, называется «Методы орошения». 2. В нем рассказывается, что существует четыре основных способа орошения: орошение затоплением, полив по бороздам, орошение дождеванием, внутрипочвенное орошение. 3. Первые три способа относятся к поверхностному орошению. 4. При орошении затоплением увлажняется вся поверхность земли. 5. Оно требует крупных протоков или каналов, отлогий рельеф местности и выровненной земли. 6. Оно более подходит для культур сплошного посева. 7. Полив по бороздам - это орошение только части поверхности, т.к. вода течет по бороздам. 8. Полив по бороздам очень распространен, но имеет свои трудности и недостатки. 9. Существуют проблемы при использовании полива по бороздам на неподходящих землях, таких как проницаемые или непроницаемее и т.д. 10. В заключение я бы хотел сказать, что очень важно выбрать правильный способ орошения, чтобы он был подходящим и эффективным.

  1. Translate the text in the written form.

  2. Make up a plan of it.

  3. Retell the text according to your plan.

  1. Learn the following words by heart.1. flooding = flood irrigation

орошение затоплением

2. close-growing crops

культуры сплошного посева

3. furrow

борозда

4. furrow irrigation

полив по бороздам

5. gentle topography

отлогий рельеф местности

6. levelling

нивелирование, выравнивание

7. pervious / impervious

проницаемый, проходимый/

непроницаемый

8. ridge

гряда, гребень, борозда

9. slope of the land

уклон поверхности земли

10.spray

струя распыла, опрыскивание

11. sprinkling = sprinkler

орошение дождеванием

irrigation

12. subirrgation

лод-/внутрипочвенное орошение

13. subsoil

подпочва, подпахотный слой

14. surface irrigation

поверхностное орошение

15. apply

использоваться, применяться

16. ensure

обеспечивать, гарантировать

17. germinate '1

прорастать

18. over water

избыточно поливать

19. saturate

насыщать, пропитывать

20. wetting

увлажнение, орошение, полив

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