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Для работы дома / Меркулова Т.К / Physical Geography –Student’s Book (2013-2014) - Kharkiv.docx
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  1. This constellation is visible throughout the year in most of the northern hemisphere. It is certainly one of the most famous; it includes the Big Dipper (the Britsh call it the Plow, the Wain or the Wagon; in German it is known as the "Große Wagen"). It is an excellent staring point to explore the night sky.

  2. The group of stars, which form this constellation is often called the Little Dipper for its form strongly reminds of an old-fashioned cream ladle or gravy spoon.

  3. It is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It looks like a large rectangle high in winter's south-eastern sky. According to the Ancient Greek mythology, _______ was a handsome giant gifted with the ability to walk on water by his father Poseidon. He was a hunting companion of the goddess Artemis. After he had boasted that he would hunt down all the beasts of the earth, Mother Earth sent up a giant scorpion to kill him.

  4. In the Ancient Greek mythology, this constellation is associated with the twins Castor and Pollux. The two brightest stars represent the heads of the twins, while fainter stars outline the two bodies.

  5. This constellation is commonly represented as a centaur (half human, half horse) drawing a bow. The Ancient Greek legends say that the Centaur Chiron changed himself into a horse to escape his jealous wife, Rhea.

  6. It is a constellation in the northern sky, named after the vain queen in Greek mythology, who boasted about her unrivalled beauty. It is easily recognizable due to its distinctive 'W' shape, formed by five bright stars. It is bordered by Andromeda to the south, Perseus to the southeast, and Cepheus to the north. She is opposite the Big Dipper, and from northern latitudes can be seen at her clearest in early November.

  7. It is relatively small among the other constellations, and its stars are rather faint. It lies between Gemini to the west and Leo to the east, Lynx to the north and Canis Minor and Hydra to the south. Greek mythology connects this creature with one of the Twelve Labors of Hercules, where it managed to grab Hercules' toe with its claws. The Greek Goddess Hera, grateful for its heroic effort, gave it a place in the sky

  8. Located north of the celestial equator, it is named after the daughter of Cassiopeia who was chained to a rock to be eaten by the sea monster Cetus. This constellation is most prominent during autumn evenings in the Northern Hemisphere. Because of its northern declination, it is only visible north of 40° south latitude; for observers farther south it lies below the horizon. It is one of the largest constellations, and it is over 1,400 times the size of the full moon, 55% of the size of the largest constellation, Hydra, and over 10 times the size of the smallest constellation, Crux.

  9. It is a constellation situated between Capricornus and Pisces. Its name in Latin means ‘water-carrier’. Despite its large size, this constellation has no particularly bright stars. However, recent research has shown that there are several stars lying within its borders that possess planetary systems.

  10. Its name in Latin means "bull". In this constellation, there are two groups of stars that are visible to the naked eye. At first magnitude, the red giant Aldebaran is the brightest star in the constellation.

  11. This constellation becomes visible in the Northern Hemisphere around the spring equinox and is easily identifiable through May. It lies between Cancer to the west and Virgo to the east. This constellation contains many bright stars. The Ancient Greeks named it after a huge wild beast killed by Hercules in one of his Twelve Labours.

  12. This constellation has intrigued people for centuries, not only for its distinctive shape, but also because it is one of the brightest constellations in the sky. It lies between Libra to the west and Sagittarius to the east. It is located in the southern hemisphere near the centre of the Milky Way. It has many bright stars, including Antares, which is a red supergiant, and the 16th brightest star known to astronomers so far.

  1. TASK 22. Decide whether statements below are true or false. Correct the false ones. In case of doubt, find out the information you need in the Internet.

  1. Our galaxy is called the Milky Bar. 

  2. Our solar system has nine principal planets.

  3. The Earth is thought to have the highest density of all the planets.

  4. A constellation is another word for star.

  5. A meteor is sometimes known as a shooting star.

  6. Meteorites can be bigger than meteors.

  7. Asteroids are orbiting rocks found between Mars and Jupiter.

  8. Halley’s Comet was expected to appear in the 1990’s.

  9. UFO stands for unknown flying object.

  10. Pluto was first discovered during the twentieth century. 

  11. Saturn is further from the Sun than Uranus.

  12. Mercury is the hottest planet.

  13. Neptune is the nearest planet to the Sun.

  14. A light year is nearly six million miles. 

  1. TASK 23. Study some information about the use of articles with geographical names and do the tasks after it.

  2. Nota Bene:

  • A descriptive attribute is used to describe an object or to give some additional information about it.

  • A limiting attribute is used to single out an object from all the other objects of the same class.

  1. Zero Article

  1. Indefinite Article

  1. Definite Article

  1. 1

  1. Continents

  1. general use

  • Europe;

  • Asia;

  • Antarctica

  • modified by some descriptive attributes in pre-position:

    1. northern, southern, eastern, western, central, minor, south-west (etc), Latin, ancient, old, new, industrial, medieval, modern

    • North America

    • Central Asia

    1. -

    1. With limiting attributes

    • It was the Europe of 1600s.

    • The Asia John saw this time was different from the one he knew.

    1. 2

    1. Countries

    1. with names that consist of one word

    1. Ukraine; England; Poland

    2. 2. modified by some descriptive attributes in pre-position (see above),

    • Ancient Rome

    • modern London

    1. indicates some unusual qualities or mood in the given situation

    2. It was a new Italy Marko did not recognize.

    1. with names that consist of more than one word

    • the United States of America

    • the United Emirates

    • the United Kingdom

  • traditional use

    • the Argentine (but Argentina)

    • the Netherlands

    • (the) Lebanon;

    • (the) Congo;

    • (the) Senegal;

    • (the) Cameroon;

    • (the) Sudan

    1. 3

    1. Regions and provinces

    1. Kharkiv Region

    1. -

    1. indicates traditional use

    • the Lake District

    • the Caucasus;

    • the Crimea

    • the Ruhr;

    • the Tyrol;

    • the Riviera;

    • the Transvaal;

    • the Saar

    1. 4

    1. Cities, towns, villages

    • London (city)

    • Broadstairs (town)

    • Middlemead (village)

    1. shows some unusual qualities or mood in the given situation

    2. It was a different Paris unknown to Sam.

    1. with a limiting attribute

    • It was not the France of his youth.

    1. with an ‘of-phrase’,

    • the city of Chester;

    • the village of Amberley

    1. an only exception:

    1. the Hague

    1. 5

    1. Mountains, mountain passes and islands

    1. separate mountains, peaks and islands

    • Snowdon

    • Mount Everest

    • Cyprus

    1. -

    1. mountain chains and groups of islands

    • the Rocky Mountains

    • the Bahamas

    • the Saint Gotthard Pass

    • the Isle of Man

    1. 6

    1. Lakes

    1. with the word ‘lake’

    2. Lake Michigan;

    3. Silver Lake

    1. -

    1. without the word ‘lake’

    2. the Michigan,

    3. the Windermere

    1. 7

    1. Oceans,

    2. seas,

    3. rivers, straights, channels, canals, waterfalls, bays,

    4. gulfs

    1. -

    1. -

    • the Indian Ocean

    • the North Sea

    • the Trent (in England)

    • the Magellan Straits = the Strait of Magellan

    • the English Channel

    • the Panama Canal

    • the Niagara Falls

    • the North Bay

    • the San Francisco Bay

    • the Gulf of Mexico

    1. 8

    1. Peninsulas and capes

    1. without the word ‘peninsula’

    • Hindustan

    • Labrador

    • Cape Horn

    • Cape Province

    1. with the word ‘peninsula’

    • the Hindustan Peninsula

    • the Labrador Peninsula

    1. with ‘of – phrase’ (traditional use)

    • the Cape of Good Hope

    1. 9

    1. Deserts

    1. -

    1. -

    1. the Sahara Desert

    1. 10

    1. Names traditionally used in the plural

    1. -

    1. -

    • the Midlands

    • the Netherlands

    • the Yorkshire Forests

    1. 11

    1. Streets, squares,

    2. parks

    • Baker Street

    • Drury Lane

    • Brown Close

    • Sunset Boulevard

    • Piccadilly Circus

    • Hyde Park

    1. traditional use

    • the Strand (in London)

    • the High Street

    • The Main Street

    • the Mall

    • the Plaza San Marco (in foreign names)