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Для работы дома / Меркулова Т.К / Physical Geography –Student’s Book (2013-2014) - Kharkiv.docx
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  1. England is a land of exquisite waterways and the lush vegetation that surround its rivers and streams. In addition to their natural beauty, however, the country’s rivers play an extremely important role in industry and commerce. Although there are hundreds of rivers that meander across England’s landscape, some of them are bigger and more important than others.

  2. The River Thames is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, behind the River Severn. Its source is in Gloucestershire [ʹglɔstəʃıə], and it flows out into the North Sea. The Thames flows through the southern England counties of Wiltshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Surrey, Essex, Kent and Greater London. At 346 kilometres, it is an impressive icon of England, known the world over for its extent and usage. The Thames’ basin measures 12,935 square kilometres. The Port of London, once the largest port in the world, is currently the United Kingdom's second largest port, after Grimsby & Immingham. 

  3. The Thames River is tidal in places, particularly in the area of London, where its levels can rise and fall by up to about seven metres. That was the reason why a female whale was discovered swimming in the River Thames in central London on Friday 20 January 2006. According to the BBC, she was five metres long and weighed about seven tonnes. The whale appeared to have been lost, as her normal habitat would have been around the coasts of the far north of Scotland and Northern Ireland, and in the seas around the Arctic Ocean. It was the first time the species had been seen in the Thames since records began in 1913.

  4. The river is fed by more than 20 smaller tributaries, and is home to over 80 individual islands. Because it has areas of both sea water and fresh water, the Thames is home to a wide range of fauna and flora. In addition, this major waterway has supported human life for millennia. Water is essential to survival, and the Thames’ ample supply has provided ancient and modern cultures with a source of food and power. 

  5. The Mersey River flows in North West England. It is around 113 km long, stretching from Stockport in Greater Manchester to Liverpool Bay on the Irish Sea. For centuries, it formed part of the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. Its basin measures 4,680 square kilometres and the river is made up of three major tributaries: the rivers Goyt, Etherow and Tame. 

  6. Although it had a history of pollution and severe damage to its water quality, the Mersey is now known as one of the cleanest rivers in all of England, due to extensive efforts that were made in this regard. It even supports marine life now and its salmon population is of particular interest to locals and tourists alike. 

  7. Two great cities stand on the banks of this river. One of them is Manchester, which is situated in the south-central part of North West England, fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south and the Pennines to the north and east. The inhabitants of Manchester are referred to as Mancunians [mæŋkˈjuːnɪənz/] or colloquially as Mancs [ˈmæŋks].

  8. Manchester is the place where scientists first split the atom and developed the first stored-programme computer (компьютер с хранимой программой). 

  9. The other city, which stretches along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, is Liverpool The inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians [ˌlɪvə'pʌdlɪənz], but are also colloquially known as "Scousers"['skausəz], in reference to the local dish known as "scouse", a form of stew. The word "Scouse" has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Liverpool's status as a port city has contributed to its diverse population, who, historically, came from a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, particularly those from Ireland. But definitely, the four most famous citizens of Liverpool are ‘The Beatles’.

  10. The River Tyne stretches out to over 100 kilometres (62 miles) in length and is formed by the confluence of two rivers, the North Tyne and the South Tyne. They converge in Haxham in Northumberland and finally flow into the North Sea.

  11. Beginning with the 13th century, the Tyne had been used as a main pathway for the export of coal up the river until the coalfields declined in the late 20th century. Although not used today, there still lies some of the original structures that were used to load coal onto transporting ships.

  12. The city also grew as an important centre for the wool trade, and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.

  13. In the firth half of the 20th century, the River Tyne was well known for its thriving fish life, and trout were regularly caught in their droves. It was very common for trout to be caught that weighed over 1.4lb’s, some weighing up to 4lb (= 453,6 grams). Once the word got out that fish of this size were being caught, people travelled from far to try to catch a big fish for themselves, and many competitions took place on the waters.

  14. Newcastle upon Tyne (usually known to learners of English thanks to the idiom ‘to bring coal to Newcastle’, which describes a foolhardy or pointless action) is one of the largest cities in England located on the River Tyne. Newcastle used to be known as the county town of Northumberland. There are many sites to see in the city of Newcastle such as the Tyne Bridge, the Discovery Museum and the famous football ground - ‘St James Park’.

  15. Much of the Tyne basin, including the first section of the Roman Hadrian’s Wall (the ancient Roman defensive barrier, built in 128 AD, that guarded the north-western frontier of the province of Britain from barbarian invaders), lies within the Northumberland National Park.

  16. The River Severn is the longest river in the United Kingdom, at about 354 kilometres, and the second longest in the British Isles, behind the River Shannon. It rises at an altitude of 610 metres in the Cambrian Mountains in Wales. It then flows through the counties of Shropshire, Worcestershire  and Gloucestershire. The river estuary forms a physical boundary between England and Wales. The Severn is the greatest river in terms of water flow in England and Wales. The river discharges into the Bristol Channel, which in turn discharges into the Celtic Sea and the wider Atlantic Ocean.

  17. The River is known by two names, the Afon Hefren in Welsh and the River Severn in English, but before these names become commonplace, the Romans had named the river Sabrina after a mythical, water nymph.

  18. The course of the river is mostly rural, but it does flow through four English cathedral cities of Bristol, Gloucester, Shrewsbury and Worcester, as well as the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, home to the world's first ever cast iron bridge and the River Severn's second oldest surviving bridge.

  19. Questions

  1. The length of this river exceeds all the other rivers in Great Britain. __

  2. The main port on this river used to be the largest in the world. __

  3. The nickname of the inhabitants of the city, which stands on the banks of this river, takes its name from a vegetable dish. __

  4. This river has more tributaries than all the others mentioned in the text. __

  5. This river separates one English county from another. __ and _ _

  6. The source of this river is in England and it flows into the North Sea. __

  7. One of the places situated on the banks of this river was home to famous artists. __

  8. A giant sea mammal was once sighted in this river. __

  9. This river can boast of the first bridge made of iron. __

  10. This river is made up by two smaller rives that come together. __

  11. This river flows mainly through the countryside. __

  12. This river used to be popular among anglers. __

  13. This river flows into the North Sea. __ and __

  14. Thanks to certain environmental measures taken by the government, this river does not suffer from pollution. __

  15. This river used to be an important way to transport one kind of natural resources. __

  16. The basin of this river was used by foreign invaders as a building site for military fortifications. __

  17. This river has three names. __

  1. TASK 18. Presentation of one river - to add

  2. TASK 18. Listening Activities for the video clip ‘Geography of Asia’

  3. Step 1. Watch the video clip ‘Geography of Asia’ on the site http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-LFOkGfyZM&feature=related

  4. Step 2. Fill in the table with the names of the geographical features you can hear and see in the video clip. Make sure that you pronounce all the words correctly.

  5. Note: The numbers in the table match the numbers of the geographical names mentioned in the clip.

    1. Geographical feature

    1. Name

    1. 1

    1. oceans

    1. 2

    1. seas

    1. 3

    1. rivers

    1. 4

    1. mountains

    1. 5

    1. continents

    1. 6

    1. regions

    1. 7

    1. countries

    1. 8

    1. plateaus

    1. 9

    1. deserts

    1. 10

    1. peninsulas

    1. 1. …

  6. Step 3. Match the epithets to the geographical features they describe in the video clip. Do not be confused by repetitions.

  7. Part 1

    1. Epithets

    1. Geographical features

    1. 1

    1. vast

    1. a

    1. Gobi Desert

    1. 2

    1. river

    1. b

    1. rainforests

    1. 3

    1. ragged

    1. c

    1. peaks

    1. 4

    1. endless

    1. d

    1. Himalayas

    1. 5

    1. towering

    1. e

    1. mountains

    1. 6

    1. the vast

    1. f

    1. deserts

    1. 7

    1. the mighty

    1. g

    1. treeless plains

    1. 8

    1. lush

    1. h

    1. valleys

  8. Part 2

    1. 9

    1. numerous

    1. i

    1. south

    1. 10

    1. tropical island

    1. j

    1. volcanoes

    1. 11

    1. the scorching

    1. k

    1. group

    1. 12

    1. impassible

    1. l

    1. deserts

    1. 13

    1. dense

    1. m

    1. north

    1. 14

    1. a frozen

    1. n

    1. deserts

    1. 15

    1. a steamy

    1. o

    1. archipelagos

    1. 16

    1. unstable

    1. p

    1. forests

    1. 17

    1. endless

    1. q

    1. mountains

  9. Step 4. Watch and listen to the clip again and fill in the gaps in the sentences below.

  1. Europe and Asia occupy the same ___________, but they are considered separate ___________.

  2. The vast ___________ ___________ and the ___________ ___________ dominate continental ___________ ___________.

  3. ___________ ___________ includes the ___________ ___________ and extends into the ___________ ___________.

  4. The island of ___________ ___________ and the tropical islands of ___________, ___________ and ___________ extend far into the ___________ ___________.