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Темы для обсуждения Теханова.doc
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Read Text a and fulfill the tasks which follow. Text a The United States of America

The United States of America is a federal republic. It is situated in North America and consists of 50 states and the District of Columbia, the seat of the national government. The capital of the USA is Washington. The total area is about 9.4 million square kilometers. The population is over 260,000. Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, the USA borders on Canada in the North and on Mexico in the South.

The USA has a favorable geographic position. It is rich in natural resources. Its territory possesses over 100 kinds of various minerals. It abounds in oil, coal, non-ferrous metals, iron-ore, timber. Vast areas of fertile land allow the country to develop its agricultural production.

A vital role in the formation of the population of the United States was played by the immigration. The USA is inhabited by people of numerous nationalities. Whites constitute about 84 per cent, blacks about 12 per cent, Asians – 3 per cent, Hispanics – 9 per cent and Native Americans about 1 per cent.

The United States has three separate branches of government: the legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative power is concentrated in the Congress. The executive power is represented by the President. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and a system of federal courts.

The two major political parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.

As a result of the creativity, initiative and hard work which free enterprise has encouraged, the USA has become one of the most affluent nations in the world.

Post-reading activities

1.  Match the words on the left to those on the right. Make 10 word partnerships and translate them into Russian.

  1. executive a. court

  2. vast b. position

  3. fertile c. power

  4. service d. enterprise

  5. national e. nation

  6. free f. areas

  7. affluent g. Americans

  8. native h. government

  9. supreme i. industry

  10. favourable j. land

2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian collocations.

1. общая площадь; 2. граничит на севере с Канадой; 3. законодательная, исполнительная и судебная власть; 4. благоприятное географическое положение; 5. населены людьми разных национальностей; 6. коренные американцы составляют менее 1%; 7. обширные площади плодородных земель; 8. свободное предпринимательство; 9. в результате творчества и инициативы; 10. одна из самых богатых стран

3. Choose the best alternative to complete the sentence.

  1. The … power in the USA is concentrated in Congress.

a) judicial b) executive c) legislative d) political

  1. The USA possesses vast areas of … land.

a) favourable b) fertile c) native d) vulnerable

  1. The USA …in iron-ore.

a) abounds b) concentrates c) enriches d) possesses

  1. Free enterprise … initiative and creativity.

a) obtains b) vests c) offsets d) encourages

  1. Whites … about 84% of the population of the US.

a) consist b) constitute c) create d)contribute

4. Complete the sentences.

  1. The District of Columbia is ….

  2. The USA abounds in ….

  3. … is represented by the President.

  4. The judicial power is vested in ….

  5. The USA is inhabited by ….

  6. The USA has become one of the most affluent nations in the world due to ….

5. Say whether the following statements are true or false.

  1. The USA is situated in South America.

  2. The legislative power is concentrated in the Supreme Court.

  3. The executive power is represented by the President.

  4. Blacks constitute about 1 per cent of the population.

  5. The USA abounds in iron-ore and non-ferrous metals.

  6. The USA has a favorable geographic position.

6. Answer the following questions.

  1. What countries does the USA border on?

  2. What is the population of the USA?

  3. Who does the legislative power belong to?

  4. The judicial power is vested in the Congress, isn’t it?

  5. What are the two major political parties?

  6. What is the USA rich in?

  7. Is the District of Columbia a separate state?

7. Get ready to discuss the following.

The USA is often called ‘the melting pot’, ‘the salad bowl’ and ‘the pizza’. How do you understand the meaning of these metaphors?

Read Text B using the dictionary and do the following tasks.

  1. Think of the title to the text.

  2. Make up 5-6 questions of different types.

  3. Give a short summary of the text.

Text B

The United States of America was originally peopled by Indians and was opened to European colonization by the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The United States has often been called a nation of immigrants. There are two good reasons for it.

First, the country was settled, built and developed by generations of immigrants and their children. Secondly, even today America continues to take in more immigrants than any other country in the world. Many different cultural traditions, ethnic sympathies, national origins, racial groups and religious affiliations make up “the nation”.

Among the Americans there are many who (or whose ancestors) originally came from Africa, Ireland, Germany and so on. But in fact, 94 per cent of all Americans today were born in the United States.

The USA is one of the few countries that has no “official” national language or languages. English is the common language by use, but it is not the national language by law. About 30 million Americans speak a language other than English at home.