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III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений.

1.If the consignor shipped tobacco he might have used the same tactics.

2.Ann will be sorry If Helen doesn’t come.

3.If I were you I would tell him the truth.

IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст.


1.Most barristers are professional advocates earning their living by the presentation of civil and criminal cases in court. A barrister must be capable of prosecuting in a criminal case one day, and defending an accused person the next, or of preparing the pleadings and taking the case for a plaintiff in a civil action one day, and doing the same for a defendant the next. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the law. They are called in to advise on really difficult points.

2.A would-be barrister1 must first register as a student member of one of the four Inns of Court2. A student must pass a group of examina-

tions to obtain a law degree and then proceed to a vocational course, the passing of which result in his being called to the Bar3.

3.All practicing barristers are junior counsels unless they have been designated Queen’s Counsels (QC)4. QC is expected to appear only in the most important cases.

4.If a person has a legal problem he will go and see a solicitor. There is no end to the variety of matters which a solicitor deals with. He does legal work involved in buying a house, he writes legal letters for you and carries on legal arguments Court, he prepares the case and the evidence. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is solicitor.

5.In a civil action solicitors have a right to speak in the County Court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some debts, and they deal with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in Magistrates Courts, the lowest Courts.

6.To become a solicitor a young man joins a solicitor as a «clerk» and works for him while studying part time for the Law Society exams. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you may apply to the Law


Society5 to be «admitted». After that you can practice, which means you can start business on your own.


1)would-be barrister – будущий барристер.

2)Inns of Court – «Судебные инны» (четыре корпорации барристеров в Лондоне; пользуются исключительным правом приема в адвокатуру; в школах при этих корпорациях готовят барристеров; существуют с XIV в.).

3)to be called to the Bar – быть принятым в коллегию адвокатов

4)Queen’s Counsel (QC) – королевский адвокат (высшее адво-

катское звание).

5)Law Society – Общество юристов (профессиональный союз солиситоров).

V. Прочтите и устно переведите письмо. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы.

August 27, 20.


Dear Sirs,

Subject: Packing/Handling of Equipment under Contract No.

Following the discussions this morning with the representatives of your trading organization we wish to make the following comments:

1.We have received several reports concerning damage to 96 cases and their contents delivered to St.Petersburg by the s.s. “Novodruzheck”. We cannot consider those reports acceptable as they do not give specific details to enable us to consider if there are in fact any faults with our pack-

ing procedure. In fact they are informal reports (mainly photographs) showing marking and packing deficiencies1 only.

We therefore ask you in all cases of damage to prepare detailed reports with photographs giving the following data:

а) identification data of cases giving case number and name of vessel; b) detailed description of damage to the case;

c) detailed description of damage to contents;

d) your considered opinion as to the cause of damage.

2.We would like to emphasize that the packing specification which


we are using in fulfillment of the contractual requirements are virtually the same specifications which have been used by other major US contractors shipping goods to Russia.

3. Finally we would like to state that in accordance with the provisions of the Contract your inspectors do not have the right to reject equipment and/or materials technically acceptable because of nonacceptance of export packing. However we have always welcomed your inspectors at the packers and we have found their comments and advice to be useful.

We are looking forward to your reply.

Yours faithfully,


deficiency – недостаток

1.Why didn’t the Sellers refer the Buyers to the Insurance Company?

2.What was the weakest point in their arguments?

3.What evidence would the Buyers need to justify their claim?


I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1.Justice in this country to be administered equally by judges of ten depends on the sum of money a person has.

2.We believe the prevention of crime to be one of the main functions of militia.

3.Criminality is considered to be a social phenomenon.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1.He was seen looking for something.

2.The district courts being the primary link of the judiciary, most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts.

3.The entrance exams having been passed successfully, he became a student of the University of Consumer Co-operatives.


III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений.

1.If I met an English customs official I would ask him a few questions about similar.

2.If the consignor had wanted to ship cigarettes from Poland to France he would have used the same scheme, to my mind.

3.If you say that again, I’ll repeat it.

IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст.


1.Each country in the world has its own system of law. There are two main traditions of law in the world. One is based on English Common law. The other tradition is Known as Continental, or Roman law.

2.Common law, or case law system, differs from Continental law, as it has developed gradually throughout history. It is not the result of government attempts to codify every legal relation. Customs and court rulings have been as important as statutes (government legislation). Judges do not merely apply the law in some cases. They make law, and their interpretations may become precedents for other courts.

3.Before William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 no law was common to the whole kingdom. The Norma Kings sent travelling judges around the country and gradually a common law “developed. Uniform application”, of the law throughout the country was promoted by the gradual development of the doctrine of precedent.

4.The doctrine of precedent is still a central feature of modern common law systems. Even when governments make new laws – statutes, they are interpreted by the counts in order to fit particular cases and these interpretations become new precedents.

5.Continental systems codified legal systems have resulted from attempts by governments to produce a set of codes so that the state could govern every legal aspect of a citizen’s life. When the law makers were


codifying their legal systems, they looked to the example of Revolutionary and Napoleon France, whose legislators wanted to break with previous.

6. The law makers were also influenced by the model of the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, but the most important models were the codes produced in the seventh century under the direction of the Roman Emperor Justinian. Versions of Roman law Lad long influenced many parts of Europe but had little impact on English law.


1.Common law – общее право, обычное право, некодифицированное право.

2.precedent – прецедент.

V. Прочтите и устно переведите. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы.

Dear Sirs,

Thank you for your letter enquiring about our range of Christmas toys. Our catalogues and export price-list are enclosed.

Payment is made on the last day of the month in which the goods are delivered; we allow a 5% discount if payment is made 15 days after the date of the invoice. We allow a 15% discount for order of 1,000 Pounds or more and 30% for orders of 5,000 Pounds or more.

All the prices are quoted fob Liverpool.

We would like to draw your attention to the fact all the items are available now.

We shall be glad to send you samples of any specific items which interest you.

We look forward to hearing from you and we will be pleased to give you any further information you may require.

Yours faithfully,

1.What goods are the Buyers interested in?

2.What documents are enclosed with the letter?

3.When is payment expected?



Чтобы правильно выполнить задание № 3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

1.Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо–временных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

2.Согласование времен (The Sequence of Tenses).

3.Причастия (Participle I, II)

Независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.


I. Перепишите предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму глагола – сказуемого.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.The laws are interpreted by the courts.

2.The law makers were influenced by the model of the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church.

3.Laws had been put into writing by Greeks by the 16th century B.C.

4.In a civil case a verdict was given by a jury.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на правила согласования времен.

1.They asked me when I was leaving for Omsk.

2.They said that he had served in the Far East two years before.

3.I answered that I should be there at 50’ cloak.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1. The district courts being the primary link of the judiciary, most people are tried by these courts.


2. The Supreme Court of the USA consists of some justices, one justice being appointed as the Chief Justice.

III. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст


1.Customs are social habits, patterns of behavior, which all societies evolve without express formulation or conscious creation. Custom is one of the principal sources of law; originally law was based upon it. Moreover, custom is not important only as a source of law, for even today some customary rules are still observed and they have almost the same power as rules of law. The only difference is that their observance is not enforced by the organs of the State. Thus, many of the fundamental rules of the Constitution are “conventional” (i.e. customary) rather than legal, rules.

2.But in modern times most general customs (i.e. customs universally observed throughout the realm) either do not exist or have become absorbed in rules of law. For example many of the early rules of the common law were general customs which the courts adopted, and they have become laws.

3.On the other hand customs of particular groups of people living in particular localities, are sometimes still capable of creating a special “law” for the locality in question which is different from the general law of the land.

4.But such variants will only be recognized if certain conditions are satisfied. The following are among the more important of those conditions. The custom must (1) not be unreasonable, (2) the right must be claimed by or on behalf of a defined group of people, (3) must have existed since “time immemorial”. This means that it must go back to 1189 (by historical accident the terminal date of “legal memory”).


IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите письмо. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему.


Dear Sirs,

Aug. 7, 19

Subject: Contract…

My purpose in writing this letter to you is to express my deep concern about a very serious problem that appears to be forming between our companies. The problem concerns the terms of payment for the subject contract.

I have been informed by our representatives who have just returned from Moscow, that Rossimport have indicated that payment funds for the two machine tools we are planning to ship in September and October will not be available until January 1, 19…

As you remember in June, 19.. our Company entered into a contract with Soyuzimport with the full understanding that an early shipment could be effected. Now we are at a stage of completion of the contract and are going to ship the equipment as soon as it is ready.

I am certain that you realize the space requirements for such a large amount of equipment as is involved with this contract. We cannot leave all this equipment on our assembly floor in completed form for three months; nor can we bear the cost of additional handling and storage fees to move the material to another location.

Further we have contractual obligations to our subcontractors to receive the equipment they are manufacturing for us on this project as we have scheduled it. Our payment terms to these subcontractors are the same as the payment terms we have with Soyuzimport, namely 15 days from the delivery date of the equipment. In our case we are to meet these payment terms in accordance with our contract commitments to maintain our reputation.

I wish to draw your attention to this matter because having all this equipment completed and not being able to ship for three months is extremely serious in itself; but the financial effects of such a situation on our company are much more serious.


I have reviewed this problem with our Board of Directors and we find that we cannot accept a solution that does not render us payment 15 days after the shipment dates of September 10, 19.. for the first machine tool and October 12, 19.. for the second machine tool. We can, if you wish, assist you in finding storage for this equipment for shipment at a later date. We must point out, however, that the extra handling and storage fees would be at your expense.

In summary, I hope that you can understand the seriousness of this problem, and will take the necessary steps to see that we receive payment in accordance with the delivery schedule as noted above and earlier advised to you in our letter of March, 27, 19…

Respectfully yours,

1.Why did the American company want to transfer the manufactured equipment to another location? Who would be responsible for payment of this?

2.How could Rossimport improve the situation?

3.What do you think of the solution which was offered?


I. Перепишите предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.Don’ t worry Speeches are being prepared by professional speech


2.The law of the world has been influenced by Roman law.

3.The law on partnership was codified by the Parliament in 1972.

4.Customs are not created by societies consciously.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на правила согласования времен.

1.The students said that they would study many new subjects the next


2.He said that the lecture in criminology had taken place the day be-


3.We didn’t know If our friend was married.


III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1 .The Senate consists of 2 members from each state, chosen for six years one third being reelected every 2 years.

2.The entrance exams having been passed successfully, he became a student of the University of Consumer Co-operatives.

3.The exercise being difficult for the students, the teacher explained them how to do it.

IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст.


One of the earliest systems of law of which we have knowledge is the collection of laws, known as the Code of Hammurabi, the Babylonian king, who lived in about 1900 B.C., and whose stone figure we can see in the British Museum in London. Another early code is the code of Hebrew law1 contained in the Book of Exodus2 in the Bible.

In Greece each city state had its own Law were common to many states. In the seventh century B.C.3 the Greeks began to put their laws into writing. About 594 B.C. Solon, the famous Athenian law-giver, provided a new code of law. The Athenians did not consider it necessary to have legal experts for non-criminal cases. In a civil case the verdict was given by a jury, which might number anything from 201 to 2,500. The members of the jury listened to speeches made by the persons who had brought the case before them, and by their friends. Barristers did not participate in court proceedings, but professional speech-writers sometimes prepared speeches.

Roman law is one of the greatest systems that has ever existed. It was based upon custom, and by A.D.4 528 the quantity of Roman Law had become so immense that the Emperor Justinian in Constantinopole ordered to make a clear, systematic code of all the laws.

Roman law had a deep influence upon the law of the world. It had a strong influence on the law of most European countries and some influence on Anglo-Saxon law, which is the other great law system of the world. After many years Roman law reappeared in the eleventh century, when there was a great revival of learning. Many European countries be-


gan to use Roman law in their courts. In France, however, until Napoleon codified the law in 1804, each province had its own laws. The Napoleonic Code was a splendid achievement, and it has influenced the law of many countries in Europe and South America.


1.Hebrew Law – древнееврейское право.

2.Book of Exodus – Исход (2-я книга Ветхого Завета).

3.B.C. before Christ – до нашей эры.

4.A.D. anno Domini (лат.) – нашей эры.

V. Прочитайте и устно переведите письмо. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему.


Dear Sirs,

St. Petersburgh

As you know, Holton & Son, Inc. Received two shipments from Rossexport, Russia on the s.s. “Thomas Jefferson” when it last discharged in Wilmington, North Carolina in September. Two Russian technicians were sent to Holton to assist in assembling the equipment and to put it into operation.

These men are thoroughly familiar with the equipment, and after inspection of the material we received, they determined that the shipment was five crates short.

All of this information was promptly passed to Amatory Trading Corporation in New York who represent Soyuzexport in the importation of their machinery into the United States.

We have been unable to find any trace1 of the missing crates in any of the US ports of call2 of the s.s. “Thomas Jefferson”. Wemow have the continuing expense of maintaining the two Russian technicians and are losing valuable time.

It is our intention to insist that the missing parts be replaced by you and shipped to us via air freight, all for your account.

Yours faithfully,

1.On what terms had the contract been signed?

2.Who do you think wok responsible for this short delivery.

3.Hon could Rossex port prove actual shipment of the five crates?



I. Перепишите предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму глагола–сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.Many general customs have been adopted by the courts and have become laws.

2.Customs are sometimes still recognized by the courts.

3.Roman law was used in the courts by many European countries.

4.Statutes are made by the Government, customs are created by the people.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на правила согласования времен.

1.They asked when the seminar in Administrative Law would take place.

2.She said she had been to the city of Smolensk a year before.

3.They said that they were going to take their exam in history the next week.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1.Big monopolies in the state having real power in the country, the rules take all measures against any representative of the people attempting to find his way into Congress.

2.Students study many subjects at the institute, a foreign language being one of them.

3.The professor having finished the lecture the students asked him many questions.

IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст.


1. English law can be divided into Statute Law1, Common Law and Case Law2. Statute Law consists of all laws passed by Parliament. The majority of laws are proposed and drafted by the government in power, any member of the House of Commons or House of Lords can also propose a law. An excep-


tion to this is that only a member of the House of Commons may introduce a financial Bill. The laws that are drafted by the government, as the laws proposed by individual members of the House of Commons or House of Lords, must be agreed to by Parliament before they become effective. That means that they must be passed by the elected House of Commons, approved (in most cases) by the House of Lords, and confirmed by the Sovereign.

2.Common Law consists of principles and rules of conduct based on the ancient customs of the country and recognized by the Courts as Law. Common Law is unwritten, and its principles can be learnt only by intensive study of past court decisions and ancient custom. The Common Law can, however, be changed or developed by statute.

3.But more important perhaps than either the Statute Law or even the Common Law are decisions of the Courts. Just as the many ancient customs of the land make up the Common Law, the collected decisions of the Courts form English “Case Law”. Once Parliament has passed a law, the courts must decide what the words of that law mean. The interpretation of the Courts remains till either a higher Court decides that this interpretation was wrong, or Parliament passes another law and changes it.

4.So once a Court decided against the government on a question of what a law means – and the Courts may decide that a law as worded means something quite different from what the government intended – the government must accept the decision of the Court. They may, if the Houses agree, pass another law. But that takes a great deal of time and trouble.


1.Statute Law – статутное право, писаный закон.

2.Case Law – прецедентное право.

V. Прочитайте и устно переведите письмо. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему.

Remember: force majeure – форс мажор, чрезвычайные обстоятельства


Dear Sirs,

On 20th December, 19.. we again wrote to you (copy attached) informing you from midnight of 16th December, 19..the Government had applied restrictions on the use of electricity. The effect of these restrictions


was that electricity was only available for industry on five days, each day being of eight hours duration. You can understand that we have been severely affected by the curtailment1 of the use of electricity creating shortages of essential materials over which we have had no control.

Our original delivery promise was January 19…

We have given the highest possible priority to the delivery of the machines which are the subject of the Contract. However, in spite of our efforts we cannot promise that the machines will be available for inspection before week commencing2 Ist April, 19…

In these circumstances, which are completely beyond our control, we have no option but to claim force majeure on your Contract. This is very much to be regretted and we very much hope that you will understand our very difficult position.

We believe that you will appreciate that we are suffering significant losses by reason of the fact that we are unable to dispatch the machines to obtain payments. Any reduction in payments by way of delivery penalties would further increase our losses.

We would be grateful, therefore, if you would accept our contention that Clause 5 (Force majeure) has been implemented by us and accepted by yourselves as the Buyers.

Our correspondence upon this subject can be regarded as formally amending the Contract but should you wish we can draft a contract amendment for your acceptance.

We look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Commercial Director


1.Curtailment – урезывание.

2.To commence – to begin.

1.Why did the firm claim force majeure on this Contract?

2.Why did the firm try to explain their financial difficulties?

3.What penalty would they have had to pay in the absence of this amendment?




1.By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.

2.The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of 4 years by electors of each state. The President election is held every four years in November. The President of the USA must be a native-born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years and at least 35 years old.

3.The President is to carry out the programs of the government, to recommend much of the legislation to the Congress. He is to appoint Federal Judges, ambassadors to other countries and heads of various government departments, called secretaries.

4.The legislative power belongs to the Congress of the United States which consists of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of two members from each state elected for a term of 6 years, one third of them being elected every two years. The number of representatives from each state to the House of Representatives depends on the number of people in each particular state.

5.In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President.

6.An important role in the American legislation is played by so-called “lobbyists”. They are often more influential than Congressmen themselves.

7.The third branch of government is the federal judiciary. Its main instrument is the Supreme Court. Neither the President nor Congress can change decisions of the Supreme Court.

8.Each state has a constitution similar to the Constitution of the entire nation and all the power in each state is divided into executive, legislative and judicial. The head of each state is the governor of the state.

9.Each state has its own system of courts similar to that of the Federal




1.The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the US and it meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington. It’s a beautiful building of white marble. Above the main entrance the words are written “Equal Justice Under Law”. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress or any order issued by the President. This right of veto is widely used to block the passage of any progressive bills. The USA is divided into eleven judicial circuits and each one is served with a Federal Court of Appeals. As a rule the Court of Appeals sits with three judges on the bench. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system.

2.Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA. Cases tried in the district court may be appealed in one of the eleven Courts of Appeal and in the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In the US the judiciary is divided into the federal and state judiciary. Jurisdiction of particular courts or judges is determined by either the national or state constitutions and laws. The state courts are organized in a system that looks like a system of Federal courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In most of the states the lowest courts are the magistrates, or police courts.


1.The legal system in the United Stales is similar in many ways to the English system. One of the main differences is the existence of the United Stales Constitution, which is interpreted by the highest court, the Supreme Court. The nine Supreme Court judges, who are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate, can only be removed from office by impeachment.

2.Federal judges are also appointed for life by the President. They deal with federal law, which applies to the country as a whole, and with important cases involving citizens from different states. State Judges hear


cases involving the law of a particular state. They hold office for ten years and are usually elected, or confirmed in office by election.

3.The jury. The number of people who make up a jury varies from state to stale, but efforts are made to ensure that they represent a fair crosssection of society. Both the defense and the prosecution are allowed to reject a certain number of jury candidates. Except in minor cases, the defendant in a criminal case has the right to be tried by a jury, and many civil cases are also heard by a jury. In most states, the task of the jury is only to decide whether the defendant is innocent or guilty, while it is the judge who passes sentence.

4.The attorneys, who represent clients in court, have been trained at law schools and are licensed to practice only in certain states. If they wish to practice in a different state, they may have to lake another exam. In a criminal case, the prosecution attorney is appointed by the District Attorney to prosecute the defendant. The defense attorney will be provided by the Public Defender’s Office if the defendant cannot afford to engage her or his own lawyer. The prosecution may agree to charge the defendant with a less serious offence if he or she agrees to plead guilty. This is known as plea bargaining.


1.When the police believe that somebody has committed a crime, they arrest that person and the case is then heard in court and treated as a criminal case. The courts also deal with civil cases, where no crime has been committed, such as cases of divorce or disputes over property.

2.Less serious criminal and civil cases are dealt with in the Magistrates’ Courts, where there is no jury but a case is usually heard by two or three magistrates. Most magistrates, also known as Justices of the Peace (JPs), work part-lime and are not paid. They are given some training but do not need legal qualifications. A clerk of the court advises them on the law. When they have heard a case, the magistrates reach a verdict and where necessary decide what the punishment should be.

3.Magistrates also decide what should happen to somebody between the time they are arrested and the time when the case is heard in court. They may grant bail (allow the person to be free until the trial, if a sum of money is paid) or remand her or him in custody (keep the person in prison until the trial).


4.More serious cases are heard by judges in the crown courts (for criminal cases) or the country courts (for civil cases). In civil cases, and in cases where the defendant has pleaded guilty, the judge sits alone, without a jury and after hearing the case, makes a decision, or judgement.

5.If the person accused of a crime pleads not guilty, he or she is tried before a jury. When the evidence has been heard, the judge goes over the facts of the case (the summing-up) and explains the low to the jury. If they find the accused guilty, the judge passes sentence, that is, decides what the punishment should be.

6.Solicitors are lawyers who do legal business for individuals and companies and also act as advocates, representing clients in court.

7.Barristers used to be the only lawyers allowed to appear as advocates in… the higher courts. One barrister (the Counsel for the Prosecution) tries to prove in court that the accused committed the crime. The advocate representing the defendant (the Counsel for the Defense) tries to show that he or she is innocent. They call witnesses and question them about the facts of the case.

8.The jury in England and Wales is made up of twelve ordinary people aged between 18 and 65. When they have heard the evidence and the judge’s summing-up, they retire to a special room to decide whether to return a verdict of guilty or not guilty. If they all agree, they have reached a unanimous verdict. If no more than two people disagree, the judge may ask for a majority verdict. If the accused is found guilty, he or she has the right to appeal and ask for the case to be heard by a higher court.


1.The Moscow Law Institute is one of the Colleges in the system of law enforcement professional education in Russia. It was founded in 1975. The College trains detectives and investigators for Moscow and Moscow region. But our graduates work in all militia services.

2.Now there are two faculties at our College. There are also refreshment courses for working militia officers.

3.In order to enter the Moscow Law Institute an applicant must pass the entrance examinations successfully.

4.The students of our College have all conditions for getting a good education. There are many law enforcement experts of great practical experience, Doctors of Law, professors who give lectures and do their best to


give our students professional specialization and provide them with general and cultural education.

5.There are many specially equipped classrooms, laboratories, lec- ture-halls, gymnasiums, libraries which are effective for proper training. The term of training at the Moscow Law Institute is four years. After graduation from our College the students get a diploma of a lawyer and become lieutenants of militia.

6.The working day of our students begins at 8.30 a.m, and ends at 5 p.m. Every day the students have lectures, seminars, tutorials, practical exercises. In order to become a law enforcement expert of high professional standards our students must get knowledge of such sciences as: Operative Detective Activity, Criminalistics, Administrative Law and Administrative Activity, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and many others. After classes the students can be engaged in sports, can have scientific societies, various clubs.

7.Besides very often in the evening our students patrol the streets maintaining public order in Moscow.


1.The principal agency for carrying out the education and training function within New York City Police Department (an organization of almost 35.000 police and civilian personnel) is Academy.

2.Five sections organize the work of the Academy: Recruit training section; Advanced and specialized training section; firearms section; training services section; and administrative section. The key units are the first three.

3.The Academy works at the Police Academy building 235 East 20th Street, New York City, which was built in 1964. The police laboratory

is on the eighth floor. The library, administrative offices, a conference room are on the sixth floor. The Fifth floor is principally devoted to classrooms. There are 13 regular classrooms, one seminar room, a lecture hall there. The muster deck is on the third floor. The auditorium, with 495 seats, the police museum and a recruit muster deck share the second floor and the first floor is occupied by the gymnasium and open campus. The pool is located in the basement, as are the physical school offices and a garage with accommodation for 38 cars.

4. The usual routine consists of 3 hours per day of physical training for the recruit and 4 hours per day of academic training. (They have a 50-


minute class period). The current academic program in the recruit curriculum is divided into 5 divisions and consists of 312 hours of academic instruction. There are, in addition, 192 hours of physical instruction and 56 hours in firearms, making a total recruit program of 560 hours.

5. The recruit makes acquaintance of the development of legal process in society (e.g. cooperation with governmental agencies, the courts, criminal law and modus operandi, etc.). Police recruit training includes subject matter which will provide a better understanding of human behavior and which will develop proper attitudes on the part of police (psychology and the police, human relations, crime and delinquency causation, police ethics, etc.). The following is a list of some of the program topics.


1)advanced and specialized training – повышение квалификации и специализации;

2)is devoted to – отведен для;

3)muster deck – зал для построения;

4)routine – режим работы.


1.Mr and MRS Barker were having a quiet day at home. Their 17year old daughter was away in Scotland staying with a friend. At 12 noon, Mr and Mrs Barker got a phone call from the friend where their daughter was supposed to be staying, that she had disappeared. They were just about to call the police when the phone rang again. A hoarse voice informed Mr Barker that his daughter had been kidnapped and that unless he paid a ransom of $ 1000 he would never see his daughter alive again. When Mr Barker inquired who the caller was, the voice answered that it was someone he knew well. The voice then gave him instructions about where and when to hand over the money. He was warned not to tell the police or to attempt to have the phone call traced. Mr Barker went to the bank and immediately withdrew the money out of his bank account and left on the next train to Brighton. When he arrived, he entered the Grand Hotel at five to six and carefully placed the briefcase beside a sofa as arranged. At six o’clock precisely, a woman in a scarf and raincoat approached, took the briefcase and walked quickly away.

2.At 10 p.m. the same evening, to his great relief, his daughter returned home. She could hardly refrain from laughing. Imagine his surprise


when she handed him his briefcase containing the $ 1000. It turned out that she and her friend had decided to play a practical joke. It was she who had put on a hoarse voice to phone her father and it was she who had collected the briefcase in Brighton. The joke had succeeded but, strangely enough, Mr and Mrs Barker did not appreciate it as much as their daughter did.

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1.Without question, the police play an important role inprotecting citizens from crime. They have special powers to do it. Police have the power to investigate, which often means to stop and question persons, to arrest criminals and many others. Society gives to police the right to use force if necessary. We shall discuss now the problems of arrest.

2.What is an arrest? When is person “under arrest”? Are you under arrest only if the police officer says that you are? If the police stop you in the street and ask you to explain why you are there and what you are doing, are you under arrest? If a police officer asks you to follow him to the police station, are you under arrest?

3.These are difficult questions to answer. The answers are not clear and are discussed among police officers and judges. Basically there are

two views. Some say that a person is arrested the moment the police officer comes up to him and restrains1 his freedom to walk away. Others say that an arrest is an intent2 of the police officer to take a person to the police station to charge3 him with crime. What do you think?


1)to restrain freedom – ограничить свободу;

2)an intent – намерение.


1.The police. They do a number of things. When someone commits a crime (=breaks the law and does something wrong / illegal / against the law) the police must investigate (= try to find our what happened / who is responsible). If they find the person responsible for the crime, they arrest them (=take them to the police station).

2.At the police station, they question them (=ask them questions to find out what they know) and if they are sure the person committed the


crime, the person is charged with the crime (= the police make an official statement that they believe the person committed the crime). The person must then go to court for trial.

3.The police find most criminals because somebody tells them who the criminals are. They find other criminals by using science and their computers. When there is a bank robbery, the police first look through their computers for the names of bank robbers they know about. Then they go and talk to any of these robbers who are not in jail.

4.They ask them where they were at the time of the robbery. If any of these people cannot give a good answer, the police will often use science to find out if one of them is the robber.

5.Many criminals leave something of themselves at the place of the crime, like a fingerprint or a hair. Or they take something away on their shoes or clothes, like dirt or animal hair. If they leave behind some of their blood or a hair or a piece of skin, it will have their DNA inside it.

6.Everyone’s DNA is different in the same way that their fingerprints are different. Therefore, if a criminal cuts himself during a robbery or leaves a hair, or even a small piece of skin, scientists can find out what his DNA is. The police can then ask the person they think is the robber to give them one of his hairs or some blood and see if it has the same DNA. Many criminals are in jail today because of this kind of evidence.


1.What is the Commonwealth? It is a group of former British colonies together with six countries, which are still British. Britain, because it is an island, has always been forced to have good trading relations with other countries. During the nineteenth century, Britain traded all over the world and had a large colonial Empire. Britain’s international links with the Commonwealth today are still based on the Empire, although the Commonwealth now works to encourage good cultural relations between members.

2. The present members of the Commonwealth have many different styles of government. Some of the countries, such as Canada, are monarchies and recognize the Queen as their Head of State; others, such as India, are republics, and choose their own Heads of State; some countries, such as the Falkland Islands, are British colonies and rely on Britain for defense. All of the countries recognize the Queen as the Head of the Commonwealth.


3.After the Second World War, Britain still believed it was a world power. In fact, Britain had no money. After 1956, Britain knew it could not rely on America. In 1963, Britain realized it had to join the Common Market, but its application was not accepted. It was only in 1973 that Britain was allowed to become a member.

4.Now over half of Britain’s trade is with the EU. About half of British people believe that Britain needs Europe because it offers British companies a market of over 350 million people to buy its products. Britain also needs Europe so that it can buy food, clothes and fuel, which it does not produce. Other people think that Britain has always been separate from Europe, that it is an island and should try to keep its differences.

5.Britain and the USA had for many years what was called a “Special Relationship”. They were allies in both World Wars and in the Korean War. In recent years, however, they have not always supported each other. The USA did not help Britain and France during the Suez crisis in 1956. Britain did not support the USA in the 1964-73 Vietnam War. Both President Bush and President Clinton have announced that Germany is now the most important ally of the USA.


1.Most big towns in Britain have both a university and a college of higher education. There are 91 universities in Britain and 47 colleges of higher education. Universities offer threeand four-year courses; colleges of higher education offer both two-year HND (Higher National Diploma) courses, as well as degree courses. A degree is the qualification you get from university when you pass your final exams. You are then awarded a BA (Bachelor of Arts), BSc (Bachelor of Science) or BEd (Bachelor of Education).

2.Undergraduates, students who are studying for degrees, go to large formal lectures, but most of the work takes place in tutorials: lessons in groups of ten or more when the students discuss their work with the lecturer.

3.Only 25 per cent of the student population goes on to higher education. Competition to get into one of Britain’s universities is fierce and not everyone who gets A levels can go. Students usually need three A levels to go to university and grades at A level go from A, the highest grade, to E.

4.Students apply to universities months before they take their A- levels. The students are given a personal interview and the universities then decide which students they want. They offer them a place which de-


pends on A-level results. The more popular the university, the higher the grades it will ask for.

5.Most British students choose to go to university a long way from their home town: university is seen as a time to be independent, to live away from home and develop new interests. British students do not have to pay to go to university, but do need money to live away from home while they are studying.

6.Some students whose parents do not earn a lot of money are given a grant (money) from the local authority. If students do not get a grant, parents are expected to pay for their children. Some students borrow money from the bank, which must be paid back after they leave university. In theory, the grant pays for rent, food, books, transport and socializing. In fact, the grant is not a lot of money. Students used to work during the holidays to earn more money, but it is now difficult to find such jobs. The result is that more students are dropping out, failing to finish their courses.

7.Not all students study full-time at university or college. Many people combine their studies with work. Some companies release their stuff for training one or two days a week or for two months a year. Large companies often have their own in-house training schemes. The British government is very enthusiastic about such training schemes, in particular because so few people go to university.

8.If you are unemployed, there are two forms of training schemes: employment training for people who have been out of work for a long time and Youth Training Schemes for school leavers who cannot find a job.


1.About 80 per cent of British people live in houses. Detached houses are usually in expensive suburbs, quite far from the town center, near to the countryside. Semi-detached houses are often in suburbs, which are nearer the town center. Terraced houses and blocks of flats are mostly found in town centers. They can either be small two-storey houses with one or two bedrooms or large houses with three to five floors and four or five bedrooms.

2.About 67 per cent of the people in Britain own their houses or flats. Most of the rest live in rented accommodation (2 per cent live in sheltered accommodation). People in Britain buy houses or flats because there is not enough rented accommodation and what there is can be expensive.

3.Council flats and houses are built and owned by the local council. After the Second World War, a lot of high-rise council flats, known as


tower blocks, were constructed. Some were as high as 20 storeys and so badly built that they had to be pulled down only thirty years later.

4.Modern council housing estates are built differently now. There might be a mixture of two-storey terraced houses, together with a fourstorey block of flats. There are play areas for children and there is often a community center where people who live on the estate can meet.

5.Most British houses have a garden and many British people spend a lot of time in it. Most gardens, even small ones, have flowers and a lawn. If you don’t have a garden, it is possible to grow flowers and vegetables on an allotment, which is a piece of land rented from the local council.


1.YORK. The history of York stretches back to Roman times. Few cities look as completely medieval as York as many buildings have remained more of less unchanged for centuries. With its ancient wooden houses and narrow winding streets, the whole city gives off an atmosphere of history. Today, these streets contain a fascinating variety of shops. York has been called ''the City of churches'' for there are no fewer than 17 preReformation churches within the city walls. The pride of York is the huge and magnificent Minster which towers over the whole city. It is thought to contain the largest area of medieval coloured glass in the world.

2.DOVER. The white cliffs of Dover are familiar to millions of travellers. Dover, the gateway to Britain, is the busiest ferry port in Europe. In times done by, the town has been host to kings, armies, pilgrims and all kinds of travellers. Ancient monuments and ruins testify to Dover's long and fascinating history and today the town offers a great deal to interest visitors all the year round. On a fine day, the harbour itself offers excellent walks.



1. Rules and laws – and the conventions or customs from which they are descended – have been a part of human life ever since our ancestors first began to live in large and settled groups. But our knowledge is vague of laws that were in effect before the invention of writing in about 3,500 B.C. The