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32. Semantic Aspect.

Semantically compounds are subdivided according to the degree of semantic cohesion constituent parts. 2 groups:

  1. Non-idiomatic - compounds whose meanings can be described as the sum of their constituent meaning. The first component in these words, if taking as a free form, denotes an action or state of whatever or whoever is characterized by the word. (classroom, bedroom, evening gown).

  2. Idiomatic - the meaning is shifted. 2 groups: 1) The meaning is slightly recognizable through the meaning of its constituent parts. (bluebell, blackberries). 2) In this group it is impossible to deduce the meaning of the compound from the meaning of its constituent part. (mother-of-pearl, kill-joy - брюзга). The key to meaning have been irretrievably lost (ladybird – an infect, a tallboy – a piece of furniture.).

33. Semi-affixes.

Semi-affixes – the elements occurring as independent noun such as “man”, “land”, “worthy” on the one hand and have characteristics similar to that of affixes. They stand mid-way between stems and affixes. E.g.: “like” – ladylike, “man” – sportsman, “proof” – waterproof, fireproof; “land” – motherland.

34. Shortenings.

The process of shortening consists in clipping a part of word; as a result we get a new lexical unit. In such cases as “fence” – “defense” or “fantasy” – “fancy” we have different lexical meanings. In cases “lab” – “laboratory” we have different styles. Shortening doesn’t change the meaning. It produces words belonging to the same part of speech as original words. Mostly nouns are affected by shortening. 2 main types:

Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening only in written speech for economy of space.

1. e.g.- examplia gratia; a.m. – ante meridien; p.m. – post meridien; No – numero; p.a – per annum.

2. Native origin (months, days of the week, name of states, names of counties, military rinks, scientific degrees.)

Lexical shortenings are in 2 groups:

1. Consists in making a new word from a syllable of the original word. The latter may be its beginning (telephone – phone) or ending (circs – circumstances; ad – advertisement)

2. Initial abbreviations: BBC, BUP, FBI. OPEC, WORN – acronyms.

35. Minor types of word-building.

Sound-Imitations. Words coined by this type are made by imitating different kinds of sounds that may be produced by animals, birds, insects, human beings and inanimate objects. But in different lang. The imitations sound in different way. E.g.: dogs bark (лаять).

Reduplications. New words are made by doubling a stem, either without any phonetic changes as in bye-bye or with variation of the root-vowel or consonant as in ping-pong. Most words made by reduplications are informal.

Back-Formation. The earliest example of it are the verb to bag (from French beggar), to burgle from burglar. These verbs were made from the noun by subtracting what was mistakenly associated with the English suffix -er.

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