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Шпаргалки / Шпаргалки по лексикологии.doc
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20. Stages of assimilation.

1. Fully assimilated words.

These words adjust themselves to the new environment and get adapted to the norms of the language. They undergo certain changes. But these words are not felt like foreign. (e.g. French word “sport” and the native “start”.) These words belong to the regular verbs.

2. Partially assimilated words.

  • borrowings non-assimilated semantically. They denote objects and phenomena peculiar to the country from the language of which they were borrowed (e.g. “sari, tsar, sombrero”)

  • grammatically. Some Latin and Greek nouns retain their plural form (e.g. “datum-data”)

  • phonetically. 1. Some Scandinavian borrowings (sky,ski,skate)

2. Words with initial sounds “V, Z” (voice, zero)

3. Some French borrowings with stress on the final syllable (police, bourgeous, words with [g])

  • partly assimilated graphically. E.g. – “phoneme”

3. Non-assimilated words.

These words are not adjusted at all. They sound foreign, are not adapted to the grammatical, phonetical, semantical system of the lang. (dolce vita, coup’d’etat)

They are barbarisms.

21. Conditions and reasons of borrowings.

Conditions of borrowings:

  1. War invasions or conquest when foreign words are imposed upon the related conquered nation.

  2. Trade or international cultural relations. These conditions are most favorable for the borrowing process.

  3. The divergence in the level of civilization of the 2 conflicted nations. Let’s compare Norman conquest and Mongol-Tatar yoke. This represented a long period of impression as it was during Norman conquest but the imprint left by it on Russian vocabulary is comparatively insignificant. The difference between these 2 events is that Russian civilization and the language development at the time of Mongol-Tatar yoke were superior to those of invaders, that is why the language of oppressors was successfully resisted. On the other hand the Norman culture of the 11th century was certainly superior to that of the Anglo-Saxons. That is why the impact of French on English vocabulary was so great.

Reasons of borrowings:

    1. To fill a gap in vocabulary when it is lacked for some new objects and notions. (Latin “plum, butter”)

    2. To represent the same concept in some new aspect, to supply a new shade of meaning or emotional coloring and thus to enlarge group of synonyms.

22. International words.

These words are borrowed by several languages, they convey concepts which are significant in the field of communication.

  1. Names of sciences and art: philosophy, music, comedy.

  2. Political terms: politics, policy, progress,democracy.

  3. Scientific and technological advances: radio, antibiotic, sputnic.

  4. Sports: foot-ball, golf, tennis.

  5. Food, fruits, vegetables: banana, mango, chocolate.


  • Express different notions and objects of different scenes: technology and so on.

  • They are known to many languages

  • They are one and the same language sores

  • They are one and the same meaning in all languages

  • They are easily recognizable in all languages by show some peculiar of a given language