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14. Native element of English vocabulary.

These words are specifically English having no cognates in other languages whereas for Indo-European and Germanic words such cognates can always be found. They stand quite along in the vocabulary system of indo-European languages: bird, boy, girl, lord, lady, woman, always, daisy. The English proper element also contains all the later formations, that is, words which were made after the 5th century according to English word building patterns both from native and borrowed morphemes. For instance, the adjective beautiful built from the French borrowed root and the native suffix belongs to the English proper element. It is natural, that the quantity of such words is immense.

15. The 1st and ancient Latin borrowing

Appeared before the migration of Germanic tribes to Britain. They occupied for many centuries the north part of central Europe and carried the trade with Roman Empire after a number of words. The ancestors of Anglo-Saxons were at rather primitive stage of development, especially if compared with the high civilization and refinement of Rome. They were primitive, castle tribes and knew nothing about land cultivation; so trading with Romans they gained knowledge of new and useful things.

1. New things to eat: wine, pepper, pear, plum butter, cherry, cheese.

2. Household articles: dish, kitchen, cup.

3. Names of domestic animals: ass, mule

4. Measures: pound, inch.

5. Words, which were borrowed sometime later after migration of Germanic tribes to British Isles. These words came to Celtic: street, camp, port.

16. Celtic and Scandinavian borrowings

Celtic borrowings (15th century)

They are one of the most ancient groups of borrowings. Celts were the original inhabitants of modern Britain, before the migration of Germanic, tribes. Angles, Saxons, Jutes – these tribes migrated across the sea to the Britain. One of the Celtic tribes, Brits, gave the name to the whole country. During the confrontation with Germanic tribes, Celts yielded most of their territories. They retreated on the north and southwest.

1.Bald, glen, druid, bard, cradle, bin, brat, down.

2.Place means name of rivers, hills, originated from Celtic words: uisge, exe, esk, Aberdeen, aber, dun, Dundee, London

3.English proper names: Evan, Arthur

4.Some Latin words: street, wall

5.Later borrowings: flannel, clan, robber, wisky, Tory.

Scandinavian borrowings (8 – 11 century)

These borrowings are opposed to all other groups of borrowings, due to the way of borrowing their meaning and finally to the fact that penetrated to the language. Only during 8 – 11 centuries and in later periods only single cases of borrowings can be noted.

During this period England underwent several Scandinavian invasions. As Scandinavians were at higher stage of development then Anglo – Saxons, most Scandinavian borrowings were notions and words of everyday live

1. nouns: sky, ski, root, wing, anger, fellow, gate, scar.

2.adjectives: happy, weak, ill, ugly, low, wrong.

3.Verbs: take, hit, call, want.

4.Propositions: them, they, their, same, till

5. Geographical names: Derby, Whitby, Rugby, Althorp, Linthorp

6. Certain words changed their meaning under the influence of Scandinavian words:

Dream (old English: joy), Bread (old English: piece)

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