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23. Etymological doublets.

Etymological doublets - words originating from the same etymological source but differing in phonetic shape and in meanings.

  1. Native – native. These doublets are due to deviance of different meanings of one and the same word: shade – shadow, of – off, mead – meadow

  2. Native- borrowed element: shirt – skirt, shriek – screech

  3. Borrowed – borrowed element. This group presents words borrowed from the same language twice but in different periods: liquor – liqueur, travel – travail.

  4. Words represented by 2 borrowings from different languages, which are historically dissented from the same root: sir – senior, treason – tradition.

  5. Words, representing a shortened word and the one from which it was derived: history – story, fantasy – fancy, fanatic – fan, defense – fence, shadow – shade.

24. Translation loans.

They are borrowings of a special kind.


  1. They are not taken into voc. of another language in the same phonetic shape in which they have been functioning in their own lang., but undergo the process of translation.

  2. They are only compound words.

E.g.: masterpiece (from German Meisterstuck), wonder child (German Wunderkind), first dancer (Italian prima-ballerina), collective farm (Russian колхоз).

25. Affixation. Morpeme. Free and Bound form. Functional and derivational affixes. Suffixes, Prefixes, Roots.

Words are divisible into smaller units, which are called morphemes, which occur in speech only as constituent part of words. The morphemes can be free (if it may stand alone without changing its meaning) and bound (it is always bound to smth. else). E.g.: sportive (sport may occur alone), elegant (eleg is bound form).

Morphemes are subdivided into 2 classes: roots and affixes. Affixes fall into prefixes and suffixes. Affixes are subdivided into:

  1. Functional affixes. They serve to convey grammatical meaning. They build different forms of one and the same word. E.g.: near-nearer-nearest

  2. Derivational affixes. They serve to supply the stem with components of lexical and lexico-grammatical meaning and form different words. E.g.: heart-hearty, care-careless.

Root is ultimate constituent element, which remains after the removal of all functional and derivational affixes; it is the common element of words. Affixes are always bound forms.

Suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem and forming a new derivative in different parts of speech. E.g.: hearten-hearty-heartless.

Preffix is a derivational morpheme standing before root and modifying meaning. It may serve to distinguish one part of speech from another. E.g.: earth-unearth.

26. Affixation. Productive, Partially-productive, Non-productive, Dead affixes.

Productive – which take part in deriving new words in this particular period of language development. E.g.: Noun: -er ,-ing, -ness, -ist. Adjectives: -y, -ish, -ed, -able. Adverb: -ly. Verb: -ize/ise, --ate. Prefixes: un-, re-, dis-.

Partially – productive – the derivatives build by means of partially – productive affixes. They are limited in coining new words. They are rare. E.g.: Noun: -lin, -ese, -ster, -ie,- let. Prefixes: be-, mis-, dis-, co-.

Non- productive – are those that do not take part in deriving new words in modern English. E.g.: Noun: -th, -hood, -ship-, dom. Adjective: -ly, -some, -ous, -ful. Verb: -en, -fy. Adverb: -wards.

Dead – have undergone the process of archaization during the historical development of the language so they have merged with the root and now can not be recognized as word-building morphemes.