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268

FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC

German

Army, 14, 53

evidence for the Armenian Genocide, 174

Military victory over France, 1871, 52

Historian’s controversy, 45 Involvement with the Special

Organization, 160, 164, 191 Junkers, 52

National identity, 45, 52 National Socialist Party, 14, 45 State, 34, 52-3

Germany, 7, 14, 33-7, 102-3, 108n, 183, 186-9, 191, 195-6, 238

De Gobineau, Arthur, 67, 108n, 109n Great Britain, 5, 9, 22, 52, 76-78, 98, 101, 153n, 172, 186, 190-1, 195,

198

Gölkap, Ziya, 37n, 62, 67, 133-5, 137- 8, 140, 153n, 155n

Gülen, Fethullah, 18, 26

Great Powers, 1, 4, 21-2, 76, 79, 110n, ch. 6 passim, 230

Grey, Sir Edward, 101

Greece, 20, 22, 97, 119, 156n, 201-2 Greeks, x, 58n, 82, 84-5, 96, 113n, 119,

127, 175, ch. 6 passim, 230, 240 Massacres and expulsion of, 135,

144-9, 175, ch. 6 passim, 208-9, 238-40

Habermas, Jurgen, 43

Hacı Adil Bey, 148

Halil, Mentes¸e, 65, 94, 140, 145, 147,

150, 157n, 234

Halil, Recyai, 167

Hague Convention, 1907, 187-8

Halep (Aleppo), 166

Halim, Said, 87, 153n

Hamlin, Dr. Cyrus, 99

Harbord, General, 197-9

Harrington, General, 196

Haskell, Colonel, 60

Hilmi, Erzerum Party Secretary, 160-1,

164-5, 176

Hitler, Adolf, 45, 53-4

Holocaust, Jewish, 45-6, 54, 225n, 228 Holy Roman Empire, 53

Hostler, Charles Warren, 108n Hulusi, 168

human rights, 27-8, 102-3, 181-2, 184, 190, 200, 204

humiliation of Ottoman defeats, 40, 51, 54, 67-73, 87-92, 217-225

Hunchaks, 99 Huntington, Samuel, 3

Hürriyet, 19,83

I·brahim Bey, 176

Ihsan Bey, 166-7

I·kdam, 71

Imperial Rescripts of 1939 and 1856, 151n

I·nönü Pas¸a, I·smet, 163, 100, 219 Battle of, 219

International Monetary Fund, IMF, 29 Iraq, 6, 31

Turkomen of northern, 5, 221 2003 war, 6, 30, 32

Iran, 4, 32, 133, 159

Islam, 3, 24, 63, 74-6, 103, 108n, 11822, 132-4, 135, 140, 159

Islamic

culture, 118-9, 123, 231 fundamentalism, 3, 120

religious schools, 63 state model, 29, 37n

thought, 229

Islamists, 14-5, 26-7, 37n, 59, 122, 124, 154n

Israel, 32

alliance with Turkey, 31

Istanbul, 52, 62, 68, 81-2, 85, 91, 93-4, 131, 143-4, 158, 160, 162, 165, 190-1, 198, 206n

understanding, 1915, 183 Italy, 7, 24, 102, 186

Invasion of Tripoli, 1911, 72, 102, 113n

INDEX

269

Ittihat ve Terakki see Committee for Union and Progress

Izmir, 82, 144-5, 147, 175, 201-2 I·zmit, 163, 180

Izzet Pas¸a, Ahmet, 169, 207n

Jedda, 86

Jews, 60, 80, 82, 84, 152n

Journal de Débats, 197

Kafé, Esther, 69

Kamil Pas¸a, 104

Karabekir, General Kazım, 96, 197, 200

Kaya, S¸ükrü, 239 Kazim, Hüseyin, 136 Kemal, Ali, 110n, 153n

Kemal, Kaimakam of Bog˘azlayan, 173 Kemal, Kara, 141, 143, 155n, 160 Kemal, Mustafa see Atatürk

Kemal, Namık, 51, 74-5, 83, 90, 119, 134-5

Kemalism, 121

Kenan Bey, 174

Khaldun, Ibn, 76

Kılıc, Tuncer, 7

Koçi Bey, 109n Köprülü, 78, 177n Kosovo, 56, 127

Kurdish conflict, 1970-1999, 151n Kurdish nation, 119, 230

Kurds, 5, 14-5, 21-2, 25-7, 32, 38n, 48- 9, 58n, 61, 99, 117-8, 122-4, 161, 180, 208, 221, 226, 228, 231-2

Kus¸çubası, Es¸ref, 143-6, 156n Kutan, Recai, 29

Laws

concerning the use of Turkish in communications, 1916, 142

on abandoned goods of the Armenians, 1915, 142, 239

on association, 1909, 129 on citizenship, 1869, 151n on deportation, 235

on the general provincial administration, temporary, 153-4n

prohibiting torture, 15 Laz, 118

League of Nations, 189 Lebanon, 186

Leipzig, 190

Lévi Strauss, Claude, 212 Lewis, Bernard, 91

Lice, 173

Lloyd George, David, 72, 183-5, 192, 202

London, 52, 90, 195 Agreement, 1915, 183

Lowther, Gerald, 131 Lütfi Efendi, 83

Macedonia, 130, 163 Macedonian Question, 131 Mahmut, Celal see Celal Bayar Mahmut, S¸evket Pas¸a, 141

Malta, 150, 176, 195-6, 239, 240, 241n Maras¸, 198

Marmara, 147

Marx, Karl, 46

massacres, see Armenian Genocide; Greeks, massacre and expulsion of

Mazhar Bey, Governor of Ankara, 171 Mecca, 86

Mehmed the Conqueror, 91 Memduh Bey, 170 Mestan, Ismail, 173

Metternich, German Ambassador, 174 Midhat Pas¸a, 83, 111n

Mil, A., 143, 155n, 159, 164, 165, 166, 168, 171, 177n

Millet system, 64, 127

Milliyetci Hareket Partisi, (MHP) National Movement Party see Political Parties

Milne, Commander of British Forces in the Caucasus, 185

Misak-ı Milli see National Pact modernization, 3, 34, 53, 117-8, 120,

123-26, 229

270

FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC

Molla, Said, 191

Mordtmann, 167

Morgenthau, Ambassador Henry, 146

Muhammad, 69

Murad Efendi, 96

Murat, Mizancı, 76

Muslims, Sunni, 120, 123

Musul, 173

Mus¸, 169, 240

Naima, Mustafa, 68 Nalbandyan Efendi, 149 Napoleon, 103

nation building, 48, 115-126, 151n National Defense Committee,

Müdafaa-i Milliye, 139, 143 National Pact, Misak-ı Milli, 4, 5, 23, 180, 182, 196, 200-1, 204, 204n

National Solidarity Committee,

Muzaheret-i Milliye, 139 Naumann, Friedrich, 103 Nazim, Dr. Mehmed, 152n, 166

Nazis, see German National Socialist Party

Necati Bey, 172 Nesimi, Abidin, 173

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 138, 214 Niyazi, 78

Nuri Bey, Abdu’lahad, 166 Nusret,172

Öcalan, Abdullah, 28, 151n

Office for the Settlement of Nomadic Tribes and Refugees, 169, 239

Osman, Topol, 239 Osmanlı, 128 Ottoman Empire

Army, 23, 229

boundary concerns see also National Pact, 2, 5, 6, 21, 22, 35, 66, 77, 85, 124, 183

Chamber of Deputies, 65, 94, 103, 140, 146

Grand National Assembly, 147, 149, 157n

humiliation of defeats, 40, 51, 54, 67-73, 87-92, 217-225

transition to republic, 2, 9, 12, 23, 35, 39, 218

Ottoman strength associations, 139

Pan-Islamism, 4, 5, 21, 22, 30-1, 133, 137, 221, 230

Turkism, 5, 21, 22, 30-1, 154n, 221 Turanism, 164, 221, 230

Paramilitary units, çetes see Special Organization

Paris, 62, 76

Peace Conference, Paris, 146, 185, ch. 6 passim

Perpetrator perspective, 41-43 Pertev Pas¸a see Demirhan, Pertev Plato, 12

political parties,

Committee for Union and Progress, CUP, passim

Democratic Left, Democratik Sol Partisi, DSP, 29, 38n

Felicity Party, Saadet Partisi, 29, 151n

Freedom and Accord Party, 238 Islamist Welfare Party, Refah

Partisi, RP, 13

Justice and Development Party,

Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, AKP, 3, 13, 18, 29, 37n, 38n, 120,151n

Kurdish Workers’ Party, PKK, 7, 15, 27-8, 122, 151n

The Motherland, Anavatan Partisi, ANAP, 28, 38n

Republican Peoples Party,

Cumuriyet Halk Partisi, 38n, 239

National Movement, Milliyetci Hareket Partisi, MHP, 29, 31, 38n, 151n

Virtue Party, Fazılet Partisi, 29, 151n

Welfare Party, Refah Partisi,151n

INDEX

271

Prinçcizade, Arif Fevzi, 240 Prisoners, 161-2, 176 psychological terms

denial, 9, 59, 211 forgetting, 211-2, 217, 222

inferiority complex, 35, 39, 91 projection, 211

remembering, 217, 222, 229 repression, 211, 217 schizophrenia, 16, 18, 229 suppression, 211

trauma, 39-40, 94, 212, 216-8, 223, 235-7

Quartermaster corps, 159

racism, 60, 66, 151n, 205n, 208

Radikal, 37n

Ragip, Bas¸katip, 169 Rahmi Bey, 145

Raid on the Porte, 1913, 139 Rasim, Ahmet, 73 reconciliation, 243-53

Refah Partisi, RP see Political Parties, Islamist Welfare Party

Reform Decree, Islahat Fermanı, 1856, 79, 89

Renan, Ernest, x, 70, 212

Renda, Mustafa Abdülhalik, 239, 240 Republic, Turkish

armed forces, 14, 20, 24, 26-30, 34 constitution, secret, 19 Constitutional court, 29, 151n elites, military-bureaucratic, 2-3,

16-8, 31, 33, 81, 126 history conference, 1932, 73 legal system, 15-6

Ministry of Religious Affairs, 121 National Assembly, 21, 150 national identity, 37, 45-54, ch. 3

passim, 115

National Security Council, Milli Güvenlik Kurulu, NSC or MGK, 2, 7, 19, 25, 37n

Ottoman inheritance, 10-1, 16, 23, 25

parliament, 5, 34

penal code, 24, 26, 61, 231 State Treasury, 20

Res¸it, Dr., Governor of Kastamonu, 171-2, 173, 235

Reval Conference, 1908, 77-8 Revolution of 1908, 63, 77-8, 102, 128 Rıza, Ahmet, 75, 84,

Rıza Bey, 160, 168

Rıza Pas¸a, Ali, 192

de Robeck, Admiral Sir J., 203 Roidis, Emmanouil, 20 Rössler, Dr. Walter, 239 Ruling nation principle, Millet-I

Hakime, 75, 115, 134-5, 153n Rumelia, 82, 93, 95, 102-3, 129, 152n Russia, 7, 76-78, 99, 101, 137, 150,

160, 163, 234 Russian Czars, 70, 183 Revolution, 4,8, 21, 32

Russo-Turkish War, 93, 101 Rwanda, 56

Ryan, Andrew, 201

Sabis, General Ali Ihsan, 64, 74, 83, 134, 160

Safa, Foreign Minister, 195 Said Halim Pas¸a, 76

S¸akir, Dr. Bahaettin, 160-8, 170-4, 177n Salisbury, Lord, 76

Salonica, 62, 67, 94, 130-1, 133 Sami, Bekir, 96, 195

Sami Bey, Sabur, 173

Samsun, 163, 171, 174

von Sanders, Marshall Limann, 146 Sarıkamıs¸, 164

Sasun, 169

Saudi Arabia, 6, 32 Selim III, 64, 89, 112n

Serbia, uprisings in, 86, 93 Sèvres Syndrome, 22, 24, 230 “sick man” thesis, 76-8, 230 S¸ims¸ir, Bilal, 235, 241n S¸inasi, I·brahim, 74-5, 135, 153n Sivas, 172-3, 192

272

FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC

Congress, 191-2, 204 Smyrna, 160 see also Izmir social darwinism, 66-7

Society for the Defense of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia, A-RMHC, 238

Soviet Union, 4-6, 11, 30-1, 117 Special Organization (Tes¸kilat-ı

Mahsusa ) 143-5, 148, 154n, ch. 5 passim, 240

Spengler, Oswald, 70

St. Jean de Maurienne Agreement, 1917, 183

Stange, Colonel, 65 Suat, Ali, 173

Suavi, Ali, 75, 83, 86, 135

S¸ükrü, Mithat, 162, 171 Süleyman the Magnificent, 91 Süleyman Pas¸a, 74

Susurluk scandal, 15 Sykes, Sir Mark, 60

Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916, 183 Syria, 6, 32, 86, 184

taboos, 8, 23-30, 41, 44 59, ch. 7 passim, 229, 231-3, 235, 240

Tahir, Bursalı Mehmet, 71 Tahsin, Governor of Erzerum, 173

Talat Pas¸a, 105-6, 130, 140, 145, 149, 152n, 155n, 160, 163, 166-7, 169, 174-5, 177n, 178n, 179n, 191, 235, 238

Tanzimat era, 64, 74, 79, 83, 134, 136- 8, 140, 151n, 154n

novels, 84 reforms, 1839, 33, 79

Tek, Ahmet Ferit, 110n, 153n Tengirs¸enk, Yusuf Kemal, 195 Terrorism, 32

September 11, 3, 31 Temo, I·brahim, 84

Tes¸kilat-ı Mahsusa see Special Organization

Tevfik Pas¸a, Grand Vizier, 190 Thrace, 147, 163, 197, 202

Timur (Tamerlane), 69

Togan, Zeki Velidi, 77 Toprak, Zafer, 80

Toynbee, Arnold, 70, 146, 156n Trabzon, 82, 160, 170, 172-3 Trabzon prison, 162-3

Trade School, Ticaret Mektebi, 81 Treaties

of Akkerman, 1826, 86 of Edirne, 1828, 86

of Lausanne, 9, ch. 6 passim of Paris, 89

of Sèvres, 1920, 9, 49, 58n, ch. 6 passim, 230

of Versailles, 1919, 34, 189

Trials, Turkish Military Tribunals Courtmartial, Extraordinary, Divan-

ı Harb-i Örfi, 203 Harput, 177n Istanbul

Main Trial, 143, ch. 5 passim Malta Trial, 176 Mamüretülaziz, 173 Nuremburg, 190

Trabzon, 168, 170, 174, 177n Yozgat

Tripoli, 72, 103, 113n truth commission, 243 Turan, 66, 133, 140, 154n

Turkish Hearth Society, Türk Ocag˘i, 66 Turkish Historical Society, Türk Tarih

Kurumu, 60

Turkish Homeland, Türk Yurdu, 66 Turkish Knowledge Society, Türk Bilgi

Derneg˘i, 66

Turkish Strength Society, Türk Gücü, 66, 108n, 139, 154n

Turkish War for Independence 71-2, 90, 180-2, 184, 196-7, 201, 204

Union and Progress Party, see Committee for Union and Progress, CUP

United Nations, 190

INDEX

273

United States, 7, 29, 31-2, 98, 186, 188,

202

military, 7, 8, 71

Urfa, 174

Vambéry, Arminius, 51, 62-3, 68, 91 Van, 87, 164, 168, 173

vatan, homeland, 64, 108n Vefik, Ahmed, 74

Vehip Pas¸a, 167, 170, 177n, 240 Venizelos, Greek President, 146, 149 Violence, 40, 51-3, 70, 116, 127, 210,

217, 220, 248 Voltaire, 70

war crimes, 182, 185-92, 194-6, 203 Webb, Assistant High Commissioner

to Istanbul, 185, Weber, Max, 16 Weimar Republic, 14 western

images of the Turk in, 69-73, 197-8 political policy towards Turkey, 3,

87-88, 96-100 Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 186-8

Wilson, Woodrow, 98, 113n, 185, 188, 192, 199, 202

World Bank, 29

World War One, 1914-1918, 4, 6-9, 21-2, 32, 55, 60, 71, 76, 95-6, 106, 113n, 115, 135, 141, 150, 175, 180-3, 190, 192-3, 200, 230, 238, 240

World War Two, 1939-1945, 2-3, 6, 32-3, 232

Yalçın, Hüseyin Cahit, 75, 94, 135 Yerevan, 60

Yılmaz, Mesut, 19

Young Ottomans, 75, 82-3, 90-1, 119 Young Turks, see Committee of Union

and Progress, CUP

Yugoslavia, 122-3, 201

Zekeriya Bey, 148

Ziya Pas¸a, 51, 83, 86, 91, 119

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