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VII. Translate into English:

1. Сучасна незалежна Україна має значний потенцiал для швид­кого розвитку економiки. 2. Реформи, якi розпочалися в народному господарствi пiсля проголошення незалежностi, спрямовано на ство­рення вiдкритої ефективної економiки ринкового типу. 3. Одним із головних напрямкiв програми економiчних реформ є створення умов для поступової iнтеграцiї України у свiтове господарство. 4. Верховна Рада та уряд України досягли успiху в створеннi правової бази для проведення економiчних реформ. 5. Уряд регулює цiни на енергоносiї, комунальнi послуги, транспорт та деякi iншi товари й послуги. 6. Велика увага придiляється приватизацiї державних пiдприємств.

Reading drills

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

industry, area, current, structure, occupy, heavy, steel, coal, light, job, service, health, care, concentrate, region, mineral, bias, output, yield, mining, ferrous, presently, automobile, locomotive, railway, airplane, lack, harvester, satisfy, integrate, process, standard, innovate, market;

b) stress the second syllable:

proportion, industrial, towards, account, employ, metallurgy, equipment, considerable, deposit, produce, however, accept, progressive, unable, consumer, unwillingness, initiative, techniques, approach.

2. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and

the part of speech of each word:

economy — economic — economical — economically — economics — economist — economize; industry — industrial — industrialist — industrially — industrious — industrialization; satisfy — satisfactory — satisfaction.

Text C

Industry is the most important area of Ukraine’s economy. In the current structure of Ukraine’s industry a great proportion is occupied by heavy industry, especially the steel, machine-building and coal industries. A considerable part is played by the food and light industries. About two-fifth of Ukraine’s people work in industry, and about a fifth work in agriculture. Most other Ukrainians have jobs in such service industries as education and health care.

Many of Ukraine’s heavy industries are concentrated in the Donbas region, the centre of Ukraine’s heavy industry. It has rich mineral deposits and major industrial base with bias towards1 heavy industry. A large industrial output2 is yielded3 by the mining, ferrous metallurgy4, chemical and machine-building industries.

The machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry. It accounts for a third of the national industrial output and employs about a fourth of Ukraine’s workers. Automobiles and buses, locomotives and railway cars, airplanes and ships, tractors and harvesters5, machine tools6 and metallurgical equipment are produced at Ukraine’s plants and factories.

However, today’s industries are unable to satisfy the consumers’ wants7. The reason is that they are not integrated into the world process of economic, technological and scientific progress. The national industries have low standard in processing raw materials8, outdated and worn-out production equipment9, unwillingness to accept progressive techniques and approaches and lack of innovating initiative. These and other problems must be solved in the course of new economic reforms aimed at creating a market economy.

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