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ГМУ учебник по английскому

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reproductions, his invention quickly died a commercial death. It was not until the 1980s that the fax became an essential piece of equipment in every office…too late for Signor Caselli.

Money also helps. The Frenchman Denis Papin (1647-1712) had the idea for a steam engine3 almost a hundred years before the better-remembered Scotsman James Watt was even born…but he never had enough money to build one.

You also need to be patient (it took scientists nearly eighty years to develop something which actually worked)…but not too patient. In the 1870s, Elisha Gray, a professional inventor from Chicago, developed plans for a telephone. Gray saw it as no more than “a beauty toy”, however. When he finally sent details of his invention to the Patent Office on February 14th 1876, it was too late; almost identical designs had arrived just two hours earlier…and the young man who sent them, Alexander Graham Bell, will always be remembered as the inventor of the telephone.

Of course what you really need is a great idea – but if you haven’t got one, a walk in the country and a careful look at nature can help. The Swiss scientist, George de Mestral, had the idea for Velcro4 when he found his clothes covered5 with sticky seeds6 after a walk in the country. During a similar walk in the French countryside some 250 years earlier, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur had the idea that paper could be made from wood when he found a vacant wasps’ nest7.

You also need god commercial logic. Willy Higinbotham was a scientist doing nuclear research in the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton. USA. In 1958 the public were invited to the Laboratory to see their work; but both parents and children were less interested in the complicated equipment and diagrams than in a tiny 120cm screen with a white period which could be hit back and forth8 over a “net” using some buttons9. Soon hundreds of people were ignoring the other exhibits to play the first ever computer game – made from a simple laboratory instrument called an “oscilloscope”. Higinbotham, however, never made a cent from his invention: he thought people were only interested in the game because the other exhibits were so boring!

Notes:

1.priest – священник.

2.pendulum – маятник.

3.steam engine – паровой двигатель.

4.Velcro – a trademark (торговая марка) for a material used for fastening (соединение) clothes, bags, or shoes.

5.to be covered – быть покрытым.

6.sticky seeds – липкие, клейкие семена.

7.wasp’s nest – осиное гнездо.

8.back and forth – туда и сюда.

9.button – кнопка.

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Answer the following questions in pairs.

a Did Caselli’s “fax machine” actually work? b Who designed the first steam engine?

c Who built the first steam engine?

d Why does the story show that inventors need to be patient? e Who invented the first telephone?

f What did the inventors of Velcro and of paper have in common?

g What was the purpose of the exhibition at the National Laboratory at Upton in 1958?

h Did professor Higindotham understand the potential of his “computer game”?

Discuss the following questions in pairs

Which information in the article did you already know?

Which information did you find the most surprising?

¨ Grammar snack: Remake the sentences using Passive Voice instead of Active, for example: In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, an American engineer, invented telephone. – Telephone was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, an American engineer.

1.Akito Morita (Japan) developed the first personal stereo – Sony Walkman.

2.In 1908 James M. Spangler from the USA built the first vacuum

cleaner.

3.In 1908 US automobile manufacturer Henry Ford created the world’s first car assembly line.

4.John Logie Baird from Scotland invented television in 1926.

5.Nicephore Nience from France pioneered photography in 1829.

6.In 1981 Bill Gates (USA) created Microsoft-DOS (Disk Operating

System).

7.In 1895 the Lumier brothers patented their cinematography and opened the world’s first cinema in Paris.

8.Wilbur and Orville Wright built the first airplane in 1903 (USA).

9.Scottish scientist Ian Wilmat developed the idea of cloning in 1997.

10.Karl Benz produced the world’s first petrol-driven motor-car in Germany in 1885.

11.Sergey Korolyev (Russia) designed the first artificial satellite in 1957.

Skills: 1.Comment on the picture:

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? 2.Translate from Russian into English using the dictionary

Изобретение века

Если наш век называют веком электроники и информатики, то штрих-код это поистине тоже изобретение века. Придумали штрих-код

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американцы. В одной из диссертаций Гарвардской школы бизнеса впервые появилось его символическое изображение. Однако новое изобретение было признано не сразу. Прошло еще около двух десятков лет, когда в США был выдан первый патент на линейный код. А практическое его использование началось в 60-х годах с идентификации американских железнодорожных вагонов. С тех пор штрих-код завоевал весь цивилизованный мир.

Если бы штрих-коду надо было придумать девиз, то он мог быть таким: «Скорость + надежность».

В развитых странах применяется кодирование информации о всех параметрах произведенной продукции с помощью разработанной международной стандартизированной системы. Код продукции состоит из ряда цифр и штрихов над ними. Цифры это товарный номер. Обычно он состоит из 13 цифр. Первые две обозначают код банка той страны, где выпущен товар. Следующие пять указывают на производителя продукции

его порядковый номер в каталоге страны. Еще пять содержат все необходимые характеристики товара. И последняя цифра это контрольное число, подтверждающее правильность самого кода. Полосы над штрихами штриховой код, который представляет собой запись этого же товарного кода, но в форме, удобной для чтения с помощью компьютера. Каждой цифре товарного кода соответствует особая последовательность штрихов и пробелов.

Lesson 3. Organisation

“How many people work in your office? About half.” Anonymous

&Useful vocabulary

1.cause – причина, причинять: Ice on the road was the cause of the

accident.

2.honest – честный: Give me your honest opinion.

3.to suggest – предполагать: Can you suggest how we should do it?

4.arrangement – договоренность: I phoned Ann and we made an arrangement to meet on Friday.

5.to promise – обещать: “Don’t forget to call me when you get to London.” “OK, I promise.”

6.debt –долг: As soon as she gets her salary, she wants to pay off her

debts.

7.message – сообщение: Let’s leave her a message to meet us at the

station.

8.to be sure – быть уверенным: I feel sure I’ve met her before somewhere.

9.to blame – обвинять, жаловаться: She always blames me when

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anything gets broken.

10.conclusion – заключение, вывод: I found the conclusion of his book very interesting.

11.description – описание: This book gives a good description of life on

a farm.

12.to provide – обеспечить: The course is free but you have to provide your own books.

13.liability – ответственность, фин. пассив: A child is it’s parents’

liability.

14.asset – фин. актив: If your liabilities exceed your assets, you may go

bankrupt.

15.share – акция: She’s got all her money in shares.

16.shareholder – акционер: “Shareholder” is the owner of shares in a

business.

17.to vote – голосовать: At the election I shall give my vote for Tom

Smith.

18.Annual General Meeting – ежегодное генеральное собрание:

Today we are going to have an Annual General Meeting.

19.to elect – выбирать: They elected him President.

20.Board of Directors – совет директоров: “Board of directors” is the group of people who have been elected by shareholders to manage a company.

21.stock exchange – фондовая биржа: “Stock exchange” is a place where stocks and shares are bought and sold.

22.owner – владелец: Who is the owner of this car?

23.to fail – не удаваться, потерпеть неудачу: “Did you fail your driving test?” “I went through a red light.”

24.to participate – принимать участие: Everybody in the group should participate in these discussions.

25.investment – инвестиция, капиталовложение: She made an investment of £1000 in the new firm.

26.cold – холодный, безучастный, равнодушный: She seemed rather cold towards the visitors.

27.paternal – отцовский, отеческий, ограничивающий: “Paternal” means protecting people and satisfying their needs but without allowing them any freedom or responsibility.

28.to respond – отвечать, реагировать: They still haven’t responded to

my letter.

29.flat – плоский, не интересный, to fall ~ не удаться, не иметь успеха: Everything seems so flat after the Christmas and New Year celebrations are over.

30.to encourage – поощрять, поддерживать: You should encourage her in her attempts to become a doctor.

31.to earn – зарабатывать: How does she earn her living?

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32.return – доход, прибыль: These shares have brought in good

returns.

33.to preach – проповедовать: My sister has been preaching at me again about my behaviour.

34.flexibility – гибкость, податливость, уступчивость: We can visit you on Saturday or Sunday; our plans are rather flexible.

35.target – цель, план, задание: I’m on a diet, and my target weight is

70 kilos.

36.to abolish – отменять, упразднять: Slavery was abolished in the US in the 19th century.

37.headquarter (HQ)– главное управление, центр: Our headquarters are in Geneva.

38.to switch – выключать, переключать, менять: We have switched

our plans.

39.to supervise – наблюдать, заведовать, просматривать: The work was done under my upervision.

40.branch – филиал, отделение: The bank has branches all over the

country.

41.to urge – подгонять, торопить, побуждать: They urged us to go

there.

42.responsible – ответственный: You can leave the children with him – he’s very responsible.

43.to remind – напоминать: I’ve forgotten his name – will you remind

me of it?

44.transaction – сделка: This transaction is very successful.

45.to offer – предлагать: I’ve been offered a job in advertising.

Starting up: 1. Discuss the following questions in groups.

Are you an organized person or not? Do you like to plan carefully in advance or do you prefer to be more spontaneous?

Do you have any friends or relatives who are very different from you in this respect? Does this ever cause problems?

Do you think age or sex affect how organized people are?

2.Do the quiz in pairs. What do you think your partner’s answers show about him / her?

HOW ORGANISED ARE YOU? Situation: how do you behave? A or B. 1. You have an important document to fill in and you know it’ll take

at least two hours to do it well. It’s Tuesday today and you have to do it by nine o’clock on Friday morning at the latest.

A.You’re planning to do it tonight. That’ll give you time to read it through tomorrow night and finish it early on Thursday.

B.You’re going out tonight, but you plan to do it tomorrow night. If you are honest though, you know you probably won’t even get down to it until about ten o’clock on Thursday evening.

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2.You bump into a friend you haven’t seen for ages in the street – she suggests a night out together next week.

A. You get out your diary to see what you’re doing next week, and make an arrangement there and then.

B. You agree enthusiastically and promise to ring her tomorrow … and then forget all about it!

3.To your surprise, you win £500 in a competition you took part.

A.You put the money in the bank towards the new car/ holiday/ computer that you are saving up for.

B.You pay off a few debts, buy some CDs and some new clothes, take a friend out for a meal to celebrate … and the money’s gone!

4. It’s the end of June. You have two weeks holiday from work at the beginning of August.

A.You have already booked your holiday and are starting to plan what

clothes you need. You are planning various excursions and trips.

B. You’re thinking of going to Greece, but you haven’t decided yet. You’re going to start phoning travel agents next week.

5. You have been given an important message for a friend.

A. You phone him immediately, in case you forget about it next time you

meet.

B. You’re sure to see him in the next few days – you’ll remember to tell him then.

6.You are to be at a meeting in another town at three o’clock. You know it’ll take you at least thirty minutes to get there.

A. You give an hour for the journey – that way you’re sure you won’t be late. You’d like to have enough time to have a coffee and make a few notes before the meeting starts.

B. You allow yourself twenty-five minutes and hope you don’t have any problems on the way. If you are late, you can blame the traffic or the public transport system!

7.You’re about to go on holiday. It’s eight o’clock the evening before. Your friend is picking you up to take you to the airport at eight-thirty tomorrow morning.

A. You’ve finished your ironing and packing. Now you’re going to have a nice bath and an early night, so that you’re fresh for the journey tomorrow.

B. You throw a few clothes into the washing machine and go to a café with a few friends. You’re going to pack after that.

3.Discuss the answers and read the conclusions in the Appendix. Are they the same as your own conclusions?

Discussing: 1. How important is each of the following for showing a person's status in an organisation? Give each one a score from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important).

a reserved parking space

having a secretary

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an office with a window

taking holidays when you like

a uniform

the size of your desk

a personal business card

having more than one seat in your office

your own office

flying business class

a company car

a company credit card

your name on your door

 

2.Read the three descriptions of company structures. Then answer the questions. Use a dictionary to help you.

Sole trader

One person sets up and runs the company. The person provides all the capital and has unlimited liability for business debts, even if this means selling personal assets.

Limited company

In a limited company (AmE corporation), the capital is divided into shares, which are held by shareholders. Shareholders have limited liability, but they can vote at the Annual General Meeting to elect the Board of Directors. There are two types of limited company:

1)In a private limited company, all shareholders must agree before any shares can be bought or sold.

2)In a public limited company, shares are bought and sold freely, for example on the stock exchange.

Partnership

A group of people provide the capital, set up the company and manage it together. There are two types of partnership:

1)Partners in an unlimited partnership are like sole traders - if the business fails they are fully liable for all debts, and may even have to sell personal assets.

2)In a limited partnership there can be sleeping partners who do not participate in the management of the company. Sleeping partners have limited liability - in the event of bankruptcy, they only lose their investment, not their personal assets.

1.What are most people's main personal assets?

2.How can a sole trader get the capital to set up a business? Think of five methods.

3.If a limited company has 5000 shares and each share is worth £2.50, what is the capital of the company?

4.What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a sleeping partner?

5.What is the difference between a sleeping partner and a shareholder?

6.If a private limited company goes bankrupt, do the shareholders lose their personal assets? Why?

7.What must you do to sell your shares in a private limited company?

8.What are the advantages of a public limited company? Think of three.

3. Discuss these questions.

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1. Which of the words below can describe:

a)good qualities of an organisation?

b)b) bad qualities of an organisation?

professional

impersonal

cold

caring

disciplined

democratic

decentralized

paternal

hierarchical

welcoming

centralized

slow-to-

respond flat

market-driven

bureaucratic

 

 

 

2.Which words could you use to describe your own organisation or an organisation you know well?

Reading I. 1. Here are some ideas for creating a good working environment. Which do you consider a) bad? b) good for motivating staff?

singing at meetings

having no individual offices

having no dress code

organizing company holidays

supplying flowers regularly for all offices

encouraging managers to invite staff home for dinner

dressing in strange clothes at meetings

buying birthday presents for staff

keeping small animals and birds at head office.

2. Read the article. Which of the ideas above are used by the Finnish company, SOL?

Pioneer preaches flexibility while her firm cleans up

A Finnish innovator finds new ways to work that earn big returns in a hard sector.

This is a company in which people work when they like, and flexibility is being strongly tested. It is one that Dr Joseph Juran, the management expert based in New York, considers to be the future. SOL is a Finnish company where its employees look well in yellow uniforms and produce heavy-duty vacuum cleaners.

SOL's owner, Liisa Joronen, a slim1, charismatic brunette of 50, back from a 90-mile keep-fit cross-country ski run in Lapland, says that she has thrown out traditional management styles and hierarchies in help of people motivation and targets.

She has brought fun to the workplace in a nation noted for its engineering innovation, but also for its people's nervousness and introversion. This most extrovert of Scandinavian business leaders sometimes dresses as a sunflower and sings at sales meetings if it will help. The company's name is from the Spanish for sun, and its sun logo has a curved2 line turning it into a smile.

The key words around SOL are freedom, trust, goals, responsibility, creativity, joy of working and lifelong learning, Ms. Joronen says. People's creativeness is controlled by everyday and traditional office hours. As work

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becomes more competitive, so we need more flexible, creative and independent people.

To help staff towards independence of mind, Liisa has abolished territorial space, such as individual offices and desks, and organised a collective area similar to a social club. It has a colourful playground, with trees, caged birds3 and small animals, a garden center, a billiard table, sofas, modern art and kitchen corners.

Staff sit anywhere. There is not a secretary in vision. The boss makes the tea if everyone is on the phone to the field teams. Headquarters can be empty in the day and busy in the evenings and weekends. One headquarters worker, keen to go to midweek tango classes, was switching tasks with a colleague. The person supervising the cleaning of Helsinki's metro was working from home.

Flying the country Economy Class, Liisa tells 3,500 staff at 25 branches to kill routine before it kills you. At SOL Days, Japanese - style motivation sessions, she has the whole hall dancing, and urges staff: The better you think you are, the better you will become.

Half the country sees Liisa as a revolutionary boss, and several television programmes have been devoted4 to her. The other half thinks she is crazy5.

Notes:

1.slim – стройная, изящная.

2.curved – изогнутый.

3.caged birds – птицы в клетках.

4.to devote – посвящать.

5.crazy – сумасшедший.

3.Which of these adjectives describe the type of worker SOL likes to employ? fun-loving competitive ambitious responsible animal-loving shy

punctual independent flexible creative

4. Discuss these questions.

1.Would you like to work in a company like SOL?

2.Which of Liisa Joronen's ideas would you like to introduce into your own company or organisation? Which would you not like to introduce? Why?

Reading II. Read and translate the dialogue. Learn useful expressions by heart.

-Good morning, Mr Brown.

-Good morning, Miss Benton. Are there any letters of faxes for me?

-There is a letter from Kenton Company and a fax from Canada.

-Thank you. Were there any phone calls while I was out?

-Your wife called and asked when you would be home today. She wanted to remind you about your son’s birthday.

-I know, I remember. But first I have to finish work in the office. Could you give me the reports that Mr. Andrews left yesterday?

-Reports? What reports?

-The ones about our co-operation with UCF Company.

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