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АСТРАХАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА «ИНОСТРАННЫЕ ЯЗЫКИ В ГУМАНИТАРНОМ И ЕСТЕСТВЕННО-НАУЧНОМ ОБРАЗОВАНИИ»

ПРАКТИКУМ ПО СОСТАВЛЕНИЮ РЕФЕРАТА И АННОТАЦИЙ

НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

(для студентов III курса всех специальностей)

Астрахань 2004

Составитель: О.В.Мазурова, ассистент кафедры «Иностранные языки в гуманитарном и естественно-научном образовании».

Рецензент: И.М. Коровина, старший преподавателькафедры «Иностранные языки в гуманитарном и естественно-научном образовании».

Практикум по составлению реферата и аннотаций на английском языке для студентов III курса всех специальностей / АГТУ; Сост.: О.В. Мазурова. – Астрахань, 2004. – 28 с.

Предлагаемый практикум предназначается для студентов III курса всех факультетов. Практикум рассчитан на лиц, усвоивших нормативный курс грамматики английского языка и имеющих соответствующий запас общеупотребительной и общенаучной лексики по данной специальности.

Данный практикум состоит из двух глав, которые состоят из практической и теоретической части. Студентам предлагается сначала изучить теоретический материал, а затем использовать его на практике. Представленные тексты являются неадаптированными оригиналами зарубежной прессы. Данный практикум дает возможность студенту приобрести навыки аннотирования и реферирования.

Методическое пособие утверждено на заседании кафедры

« 23 » июня 2004 г., протокол № 11

© Астраханский государственный технический университет

Глава I.

Реферирование.

Рефератом мы называем текст, построенный на основе смысловой компрессии первоисточника с целью передачи его главного содержания. Материал в реферате излагается с позиций автора и сходного текста и не содержит никаких элементов интерпретации или оценки. Реферат - это краткое изложение содержания книги, научного документа или его части с основными фактическими сведениями и выводами. В отличие от аннотации реферат выполняет не сигнальную, а познавательную функцию, и отвечает на вопрос: что говорится в представленной к печати работе? Поэтому реферат обычно включает в себя фразы, выраженные любой грамматической формой. Рефераты, как правило, сопровождают реферативные журналы и сборники, информационные карты и др.

При реферировании должна как можно шире использоваться способность слов

абстрагировать и обобщать смысл. Эта особенность находит выражение в работе с так называемыми ключевыми словами и словосочетаниями. Ключевые слова позволяют с предельной краткостью и необходимой полнотой выразить основное содержание первоисточника. (Реферат строится на основе ключевых фрагментов, выделенных из текста подлинника). Реферат содержит заглавие (обычно совпадающее с заглавием научной работы); текст реферата. Текст реферата, в свою очередь, должен освещать тему работы; предмет (объект) исследования; характер и цель работы; методы проведения работы (для новых методов дается описание, широко известные только называются); конкретные результаты работы (теоретические, экспериментальные), отдавая предпочтение новым и проверенным фактам или открытиям, важным для решения практических вопросов; выводы, оценки, предложения; принятые и отвергнутые гипотезы, описанные в научной работе; характеристику области применения работы.

Реферат-конспект и реферат-резюме – первый из них имеет большой объем и включает основные положения первоисточника, его цель – дать более полное содержание описываемого объекта. Второй содержит лишь краткое резюме. Два указанных варианта известны также как краткий и расширенный виды реферата

Назначение реферата – знакомить читателя с содержанием оригинала и таким образом замещать его. При реферативном изложении референт самоустраняется из полученной информации, которая излагается с позиции оригинала, так что для него не характерны субъективно оценочные элементы. При написании аннотации или реферата прежде всего, формулируется тема работы, т.е. тот предмет, который изучается, описывается, обсуждается, исследуется и т.д. Какие же языковые средства типичны для введения темы в английском языке по сравнению с русским.

Наиболее характерными для русского языка являются предложения со сказуемым в страдательном залоге настоящего и прошедшего времени, причем при этом используется обратный порядок слов, а для английского языка - предложения со сказуемым в страдательном залоге, но с прямым порядком слов (в таких предложениях подлежащее стоит перед сказуемым).

Примеры:

1. Изучается изотонический эффект в кристаллах.

1. The isotopic effect in crystals is studied.

2. Исследовались (исследованы, были исследованы) свойства радиоактивных элементов.

2. The radioactive properties of elements were studied.

Сообщая о теме или предмете исследования, следует пользоваться в первую очередь формами настоящего времени Present Indefinite, а в тех случаях, когда необходимо подчеркнуть законченный характер действия, - Present Perfect. Форма прошедшего времени Past Indefinite используется при описании проделанной работы (эксперимента, исследования, вычисления), если работа послужила основой для каких-либо заключений. Примеры:

1. Исследуется случай тонких кристаллов

1. The case of the thin crystals is analyzed.

2. Изучена ультраструктура различных стадий T. r.

2. The fine structure of the various morphological stages of Trypanosome rayаe has been studied.

3. Была рассчитана (рассчитана) деформация решетки, и формула использована для вычисления параметров.

3. The deformation of the lattice was estimated and formula was used to calculate the parameters.

При сообщении о предмете исследования может понадобиться целый ряд глаголов. Глаголы с общим значением исследования: study, investigate, examine, consider, analyse. Study имеет наиболее широкое употребление и означает изучать, исследовать. Investigate подчеркивает тщательность и всесторонность исследования, помимо значений изучать, исследовать, глагол включает понятие "расследование". Examine, помимо изучать, исследовать, означает рассматривать, внимательно осматривать, проверять. Analyse - исследовать, изучать (включая момент анализа). Consider - изучать, рассматривать (принимая во внимание разные параметры).

Примеры:

1. Изучается новая проблема.

1. A new problem is studied.

2. Была исследована причина взрыва.

2. The cause of the explosion has been investigated.

3. Изучались древние рукописи.

3. Old manuscripts were examined.

4. Было обследовано более 100 больных.

4. Over 100 patients were examined.

5. Исследовали несколько соединений.

5. Several substances were analyzed.

6. Рассматривается фотоэлектрическое излучение.

6. Photoelectric emission is considered.

Глаголы с общим значением описания: describe, discuss, outline, consider. Describe - описывать, давать описание. Discuss - обсуждать, описывать (иногда с элементом полемики), излагать. Outline -кратко описывать, описывать (в общих чертах), очерчивать. Consider - рассматривать, обсуждать (принимая во внимание разные параметры). Примеры:

1. Описываются мембраны аппарата Гольджи.

1. The membranes of Golgi apparatus are described.

2. Обсуждаются конструкция и рабочие характеристики прибора.

2. The design and operating conditions of the device are discussed.

3. Описан приводной механизм.

3. The rotation mechanism is discussed.

4. Изложены основные принципы.

4. The main principles were discussed.

5. Рассмотрены временные характеристики фотодетекторов.

5. Temporal characteristics of photo detectors have been discussed.

6. Описаны преимущества этого метода.

6. The advantage of the method are outlined.

7. Рассмотрен вопрос о природе изменений холодоустойчивости растений.

7. The nature of changes in plant cold-resistance has been considered.

Если при сообщении о проделанной работе или полученных результатах нужно что-либо логически выделить, то можно пользоваться следующими глагольными сочетаниями: pay (give) attention to... - обращать внимание на..., emphasize, give emphasis to, place emphasis on... - подчеркивать.

Значение этих сочетаний может быть усиленно следующими прилагательными и наречиями: particular, special, specific - особый, great - большой, primer - первостепенный, especially, particularly, specially, specifically - особенно (исключительно), with particular emphasis on... (with special attention to:) - причем особое внимание уделяется (обращается на..., особо подчеркивается).

Заключительные предложения аннотаций и рефератов статей часто вводятся следующими словами и сочетаниями слов: conclude - приходить к заключению (к выводу); make, draw, reach a conclusion, come to a conclusion that... - делать заключение (вывод) относительно...; it is concluded that... - приходить к выводу, что...; lead to a conclusion, make it possible to conclude that..., concerning, as to... - приводить к заключению, давать возможность заключить, что...; from the results it is concluded that... - на основании полученных результатов приходим к выводу; it may be noted that... - можно отметить, что...; it may be stated that... - можно утверждать, что...; thus, therefore, consequently, as a result - таким образом, следовательно, в результате. Примеры:

1. Был сделан вывод, что проводимость р-типа влияет на уменьшение концентрации.

1. It was concluded that the p-type conduction resulted in a decrease in concentration.

2. Делается общий вывод относительно равновесной формы кристаллов.

2. A general conclusion is made concerning (as to) the equilibrium shape of crystals.

Алгоритм составления реферата.

  1. Действия по выделению ключевых моментов. Ключевые фрагменты или подчеркиваются или выписываются из текста оригинала.

  2. Действия по анализу логической структуры исходного текста.

  3. Действие по перегруппировке фрагментов и составлению логического плана текста. В результате группировки абзацев в тематические связки, независимо от того, чертится графическая схема текста или нет, может быть составлен логический план текста.

  4. Действие по составлению и редактированию текста реферата. Так как реферат строится на материале ключевых фрагментов, некоторые из них заимствуются из оригинала без изменений. Часто предложения реферата монтируются из отдельных слов и словосочетаний, разбросанных по тексту. При этом следует всегда помнить, что реферат – это самостоятельный текст со своей собственной логикой изложения.

  5. Данная таблица поможет при составлении реферата

The plan for rendering the text

Some expressions to be used while rendering the text

1. The title of the article

The article is headlined…

The headline of the article I have read is…

2. The author of the article, where and when the article was published

The author of the article is…

The article is written by…

It is (was) printed in…

It is (was) published in…

3. The main idea of the article

The main idea of the article is…

The article is about…

The article deals with…

The article is devoted to…

The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information on…

The aim of the article is to provide the reader with some material (data) on…

4. The contents of the article

some facts, names, figures

The author starts by telling the reader (about, that)…

The author writes states that…

According to the text…

In conclusion…

5. Your opinion of the article

I found the article…

1. Please read and translate the articles given below and render them using key words and phrases.

Text 1. “Gold fields”.

Gold Fields faces $7bn uranium exposure suit.

By Nicol Degli Innocenti in Johannesburg.

Published: May 4 2003 19:13 | Last Updated: May 5 2003 8:26

Lawyers acting on behalf of more than 500 former employees of Gold Fields, South Africa's second largest gold producer, will file a suit on Monday in New York seeking damages of up to $7bn.

The case will be brought by Ed Fagan, a US lawyer, and John Ngcebetsha, a South African, and will seek compensation for the alleged exposure of "former employees to dangerous working conditions leading to uranium contamination".

"Some workers died because of the uranium contaminated water," Mr. Ngcebetsha said on Friday. "Gold Fields appears to have cared more about profits than about employees."

Gold Fields, which has a secondary listing in New York, said it was taking the lawsuit "seriously" and would "strenuously defend" it. The company confirmed it had received a letter from the lawyers but declined their request for a meeting.

Gold Fields is the latest in a string of international companies that have been targeted by the Fagan/Ngcebetsha team for allegedly unfair treatment of workers during the apartheid years.

Mr. Fagan became famous in 1998 when he forced Swiss banks into a $1.25bn settlement on behalf of victims of the Holocaust. The first hearing for the $100bn apartheid reparations case against more than 60 companies is scheduled for May 19 in New York's Southern District Court.

Mr. Fagan and Mr. Ngcebetsha last month filed a lawsuit against AngloAmerican, the resources group, and De Beers, the diamond producer, seeking damages of up to $6.1bn for "repressing workers" and benefiting from the cheap labour guaranteed under apartheid.

Gold Fields said - just as Anglo-American did last month - that it did not

recognize the jurisdiction of the US courts.

The case against Gold Fields is different in that it does not refer to apartheid reparations, Mr. Ngcebetsha said on Friday, but stems from complaints received from workers employed in the 1980s and 1990s. Some unlawful practices "were not changed even after 1994", he said, and "continue to the present".

Other gold mining companies could be involved in the lawsuit, as uranium is often mined as a byproduct of gold in South Africa.

The Council for Nuclear Safety estimates that more than 10,000 mineworkers have been exposed to unsafe radiation levels. The Institute for Water Quality Studies in 1996 found that water near gold mining activities was "unsuitable" for drinking due to the "levels of the radioactive uranium and radium".

Under the US Alien Tort Claims Act, foreign citizens can file claims regarding human rights abuses against companies that do business in the US.

Text 2.” Security concerns boost Gillette sales”.

By Lisa Fingeret Roth in New York

Published: May 6 2003 15:20 | Last Updated: May 6 2003 15:20

Stockpiling of batteries by US consumers concerned about security contributed to a strong first quarter performance by Gillette, the company said on Tuesday, underpinned by an expanded market for its new Mach3Turbo razor.

The world's leading maker of shaving supplies and batteries said net income rose 18 per cent to $263m, or 25 cents a share, for the quarter.

Net sales were up 14 per cent to $1.9bn compared with $1.7bn in the year-ago period. Sales of blades and razors rose 16 per cent to $893m, with a strong reception for the Mach3Turbo in Europe.

Sales of its Duracell brand rose 16 per cent to$384m, but the company noted that demand would likely dip in coming months as consumers work through their supply of batteries. An ongoing price war continues to be a challenge for the brand.

"We remain fully committed to Duracell's strategy that will restore growth through increased equity-building programs, a reduction in prices and promotion and the elimination of free-cell giveaways," said James Kilts, chairman and chief executive. "Regardless of competitive actions, we intend to maintain both our market leadership and our market share."

Text 3. ”Laidlaw takes executive post at ChevronTexaco”.

By Toby Shelley in London

Published: May 6 2003 14:41 | Last Updated: May 6 2003 14:41

Sam Laidlaw (pictured) has returned to Big Oil, taking up the newly-created post of executive vice-president for business development at ChevronTexaco, the US oil company.

For the past year, the former chief executive of Enterprise Oil has been setting up the private company Neptune Oil & Gas.

Mr. Laidlaw is well-respected in the City for his handling of Shell's £4.3bn ($6.9bn) takeover of Enterprise. His skills lie in managing change, said one analyst.

Before his 18-month stint at Enterprise, Mr. Laidlaw was at Amerada Hess, a company known best outside the US east coast for the personality of its founder, Leon Hess.

Mr. Laidlaw is credited with transforming Amerada Hess into an international exploration and production company with a reputation for exploration work in such places as new oil provinces offshore West Africa. He was president and chief operating officer from 1995 to 2001.

In his new post, which he took up on May 1 although it only became public on Tuesday, he will be responsible for identifying and developing major new opportunities worldwide.

Motorola, the US mobile phone and semiconductor maker, said on Tuesday it has closed its Beijing headquarters for one week after a staff member was discovered to have caught the Sars virus.

The company, one of China's largest foreign investors, said 27 of the office's 1,000 employees who had been in close contact with the Sars sufferer had been asked to undergo quarantine at home.

"The other employees are not in quarantine - they're just at home working remotely," a spokesperson for Motorola in Hong Kong said.

The scare, the third time Motorola has had to deal with a suspected or confirmed Sars case at one of its Asian installations, has come amid concern in China about the potential impact of the disease on the country's economy.

While there are few signs yet that Sars is scaring investors away from China, the rising number of cases has disrupted corporate operations and deterred foreign businessmen from visiting the country.

Beijing has become the epicentre of the disease with nearly 1,900 confirmed cases of Sars and 103 deaths, accounting for nearly half the country's total number of infections.

Motorola said its other office in Beijing, which has 600 employees, was open and operating normally.

The company has a total of 12,000 employees in China and US$3.4bn in investments in plants producing electronics ranging from mobile phones to telecom infrastructure, semiconductors and two-way radios.

The company has already had extensive experience in the battle against Sars. One employee at Motorola's factories in Tianjin in the north of the country was suspected of having Sars a few weeks ago but had since recovered.

In Singapore, the company quarantined 300 employees and shut a factory down for one night in late March after a worker caught the disease.

Text 4. “Sars forces closure of Motorola's Beijing office”.

By Joe Leahy in Hong Kong

Published: May 6 2003 11:23 | Last

Updated: May 6 2003 11:23

Motorola, the US mobile phone and semiconductor maker, said on Tuesday it has closed its Beijing headquarters for one week after a staff member was discovered to have caught the Sars virus.

The company, one of China's largest foreign investors, said 27 of the office's 1,000 employees who had been in close contact with the Sars sufferer had been asked to undergo quarantine at home.

"The other employees are not in quarantine - they're just at home working remotely," a spokesperson for Motorola in Hong Kong said.

The scare, the third time Motorola has had to deal with a suspected or confirmed Sars case at one of its Asian installations, has come amid concern in China about the potential impact of the disease on the country's economy.

While there are few signs yet that Sars is scaring investors away from China, the rising number of cases has disrupted corporate operations and deterred foreign businessmen from visiting the country.

Beijing has become the epicentre of the disease with nearly 1,900 confirmed cases of Sars and 103 deaths, accounting for nearly half the country's total number of infections.

Motorola said its other office in Beijing, which has 600 employees, was open and operating normally.

The company has a total of 12,000 employees in China and US$3.4bn in investments in plants producing electronics ranging from mobile phones to telecom infrastructure, semiconductors and two-way radios.

The company has already had extensive experience in the battle against Sars. One employee at Motorola's factories in Tianjin in the north of the country was suspected of having Sars a few weeks ago but had since recovered.

In Singapore, the company quarantined 300 employees and shut a factory down for one night in late March after a worker caught the disease.

Text 5 . Juniper enters marketing deal with Lucent”.

By Scott Morrison in San Francisco

Published: May 5 2003 20:10 | Last Updated: May 5

2003 20:10

Shares in Juniper Networks jumped more than 7 per cent on Monday after the networking equipment maker inked a sales and marketing deal with Lucent Technologies. The agreement is the latest bit of good news from Juniper, which is battling Cisco Systems for a slice of the internet router market.

Juniper has been on something of a roll in recent weeks. The company surprised Wall Street with better than expected first-quarter results and recent studies have highlighted the fact that internet traffic has continued to surge despite the economic downturn. Shares in Juniper have jumped some 40 per cent since mid-April.

Not long ago, industry observers were questioning whether Juniper might fall prey to Cisco, the internet giant that owns at least 70 per cent of the router market. Cisco seems to have only gained strength amid a downturn that has savaged its many rivals.

Cash-strapped telecommunications firms slashed spending on networking equipment three years ago and have been been extremely cautious about buying again.

But Juniper has responded with two strong quarters. Last month it said first-quarter sales rose 29 per cent to $157m, enabling it to swing to a modest profit. However, Scott Kriens, chief executive, has continued to caution that it is still too early to say whether the networking industry would soon pull out of its slump.

Some studies show that North American internet traffic grew 107 per cent in 2001 and another 85 per cent in 2002, suggesting carriers will need to start spending once again on equipment to cope with the volume.

"Internet traffic has roughly doubled on an annual basis. One might question whether there's been too much pessimism, but traffic has continued to grow. A single song or picture is more data than we can type in several hours," said Mr Kriens.

The Lucent agreement allows both groups to market each other's equipment to large phone companies. Lucent's recent financial crisis forced it to slash its internet protocol projects, leaving it with a notable hole in its product line-up. Juniper, in return, gets access to Lucent's vast customer list, greatly broadening its sales potential.

Juniper is also trying to make inroads into Europe and Asia, regions dominated by big groups such as Ericsson, Nokia, Siemens and Alcatel. The US company recently added China Telecom, South Korea's KT Corporation and Sweden's Telia International to its customer list.

Text 6 . ”PwC hits at new French rules”.

By Andrew Parker in London, Adrian Michaels in New York and Martin Arnold in Paris

Published: May 5 2003 22:00 | Last Updated: May 5 2003 22:00

PwC, the world's biggest accounting firm, has criticised French legislation it claims could diminish the quality of auditing.

The global accounting firms are angry at the French government's plans to restrict their ability to do lucrative non-audit work for audit clients.

The French legislation on auditing is one of the toughest measures to follow US business scandals that provoked concern about possible conflicts of interest inside accounting firms.

Some lawmakers claim the firms may do poor auditing for clients if they also benefit from lucrative non-audit contracts.

The big firms fear that the French legislation, due to be debated by lawmakers on Tuesday, will lead to a ban on certain non-audit work such as tax planning.

The firms insist that non-audit work can help them do high quality audits because it increases their knowledge of companies.

Samuel DiPiazza, global chief executive of PwC, told the Financial Times: "We are troubled by the French proposals.

"We do not believe they will produce higher quality audits. We are very sensitive to the culture and the history in France, but the potential restrictions in France go a long way past what we think is a good idea for creating high quality audits."

However, Mr. DiPiazza stressed that PwC would comply with the French government's requirements.

The French legislation will result in a new supervisory body for auditors called the Haut Conseil du Commissariat aux Comptes.

The legislation is expected to mandate the Compagnie Nationale des Commissaires aux Comptes, the accountancy profession's representative body, to draw up new rules on auditor independence.

The rules, to be reviewed by the supervisory body and approved by the French ministry of justice, would stipulate what non-audit work could be done by accounting firms for their audit clients.

The big firms fear that the French auditing regime will be tougher than the US equivalent approved by lawmakers last year.

The US Sarbanes-Oxley legislation, drawn up after the Enron and WorldCom scandals, prohibits accounting firms from doing certain non-audit work for their audit clients such as information technology projects.

However, US lawmakers allowed the firms to continue to provide tax services to audit clients. Tax is their biggest source of income after audit.

Text 7 .”Commercial operators hit by UK toll road levy”.

By Toby Shelley

Published: May 6 2003 10:36 | Last Updated: May 6 2003 10:36

The UK's first toll road will cost transport companies twice as much to use as had been expected. A charge of £11 will be levied on lorries using the 27-mile road that allows drivers to avoid the heavily congested M6 in the West Midlands.

The Freight Transport Association said the charge would force truck operators into making a "distress purchase", weighing the cost of keeping a lorry in an M6 tailback against the cost of using the relief road. The FTA had hoped the relief road would be an automatic choice for operators who have average heavy good vehicle costs of £30-35 an hour. With the higher than expected toll, they will now base the judgment on the time of day and expected congestion levels.

The toll rate of 32p a mile is much higher than the rates in Spain and France, according to the FTA.

The £11 charge for lorries and £3 for cars will be discounted for an initial period said road operator Midland Expressway. The private sector financed road is due to open by January 2004

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