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Creating Threads.doc
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Creating Threads

The CreateThread function creates a new thread for a process. The creating thread must specify the starting address of the code that the new thread is to execute. Typically, the starting address is the name of a function defined in the program code (for more information, see ThreadProc). This function takes a single parameter and returns a DWORD value. A process can have multiple threads simultaneously executing the same function.

The following is a simple example that demonstrates how to create a new thread that executes the locally defined function, ThreadProc. The creating thread uses a dynamically allocated buffer to pass unique information to each instance of the thread function. It is the responsibility of the thread function to free the memory.

The calling thread uses the WaitForMultipleObjects function to persist until all worker threads have terminated. Note that if you were to close the handle to a worker thread before it terminated, this does not terminate the worker thread. However, the handle will be unavailable for use in subsequent function calls.

#include <windows.h>

#include <strsafe.h>

#define MAX_THREADS 3

#define BUF_SIZE 255

typedef struct _MyData {

int val1;

int val2;

} MYDATA, *PMYDATA;

DWORD WINAPI ThreadProc( LPVOID lpParam )

{

HANDLE hStdout;

PMYDATA pData;

TCHAR msgBuf[BUF_SIZE];

size_t cchStringSize;

DWORD dwChars;

hStdout = GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE);

if( hStdout == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE )

return 1;

// Cast the parameter to the correct data type.

pData = (PMYDATA)lpParam;

// Print the parameter values using thread-safe functions.

StringCchPrintf(msgBuf, BUF_SIZE, TEXT("Parameters = %d, %d\n"),

pData->val1, pData->val2);

StringCchLength(msgBuf, BUF_SIZE, &cchStringSize);

WriteConsole(hStdout, msgBuf, cchStringSize, &dwChars, NULL);

// Free the memory allocated by the caller for the thread

// data structure.

HeapFree(GetProcessHeap(), 0, pData);

return 0;

}

void main()

{

PMYDATA pData;

DWORD dwThreadId[MAX_THREADS];

HANDLE hThread[MAX_THREADS];

int i;

// Create MAX_THREADS worker threads.

for( i=0; i<MAX_THREADS; i++ )

{

// Allocate memory for thread data.

pData = HeapAlloc(GetProcessHeap(), HEAP_ZERO_MEMORY,

sizeof(MYDATA));

if( pData == NULL )

ExitProcess(2);

// Generate unique data for each thread.

pData->val1 = i;

pData->val2 = i+100;

hThread[i] = CreateThread(

NULL, // default security attributes

0, // use default stack size

ThreadProc, // thread function

pData, // argument to thread function

0, // use default creation flags

&dwThreadId[i]); // returns the thread identifier

// Check the return value for success.

if (hThread[i] == NULL)

{

ExitProcess(i);

}

}

// Wait until all threads have terminated.

WaitForMultipleObjects(MAX_THREADS, hThread, TRUE, INFINITE);

// Close all thread handles upon completion.

for(i=0; i<MAX_THREADS; i++)

{

CloseHandle(hThread[i]);

}

}

The ThreadProc function avoids the use of the C run-time library (CRT), as many of its functions are not thread-safe, particularly if you are not using the multithreaded CRT. If you would like to use the CRT in ThreadProc, use the _beginthreadex function instead.

It is risky to pass the address of a local variable if the creating thread exits before the new thread, because the pointer becomes invalid. Instead, either pass a pointer to dynamically allocated memory or make the creating thread wait for the new thread to terminate. Data can also be passed from the creating thread to the new thread using global variables. With global variables, it is usually necessary to synchronize access by multiple threads. For more information about synchronization, see Synchronizing Execution of Multiple Threads.

The creating thread can use the arguments to CreateThread to specify the following:

  • The security attributes for the handle to the new thread. These security attributes include an inheritance flag that determines whether the handle can be inherited by child processes. The security attributes also include a security descriptor, which the system uses to perform access checks on all subsequent uses of the thread's handle before access is granted.

  • The initial stack size of the new thread. The thread's stack is allocated automatically in the memory space of the process; the system increases the stack as needed and frees it when the thread terminates. For more information, see Thread Stack Size.

  • A creation flag that enables you to create the thread in a suspended state. When suspended, the thread does not run until the ResumeThread function is called.

You can also create a thread by calling the CreateRemoteThread function. This function is used by debugger processes to create a thread that runs in the address space of the process being debugged.

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