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History of Angmar From “a History of the Angmareans”, by Deneloth, historian of His Majesty King Argeleb II, t.A. 1632

“Here I will unveil many secrets about the Evil Folk who dwells in Angmar – these secrets I discovered during my stay in Hadhodhrond, Kingdom of Dùrin’s Folk, where by grace of His Majesty King Bain I was permitted to look upon ancient tomes translated into Sindarin, describing the early history of that Folk of Dwarves.

The land now called Angmar, a barren and unforgiving waste, was settled since the Elder Days, in spite of its lack of beauty and fertility. The first Men to make their homes there were peoples akin to the Swarthy Men of Beleriand, who betrayed the Eldar and fought with the Black Enemy.

It is said that such Men had already been visited by envoys of the Dark Lord, and that many of them had turned to him. However, others developed friendship with the Dwarves of Durin’s Folk, who dwelt in Gundabad and in many other holds in the Misty Mountains, the most western of them being called Caradhrond. From the Dwarves, the Swarthy Men learned a great deal, first of all how to mould the abundant iron of that region into weapons, and how to build stone forts against the attacks of Orcs. Those Men would till the land and herd their cattle, supplying Dwarves with food, receiving back ores and crafted items.

It was at the end of the Elder Days that the land of Angmar was invaded by new peoples, fleeing the Sinking of Beleriand. The first were a few bands of Swarthy Men, who knew a great deal about agriculture and smithcraft: they were welcomed as long-lost kinsmen, and raised quickly to lordship among the Angmareans. These I believe to have been people of Bòr’s Folk, who first left Beleriand, but never betrayed the Noldor.

They were soon followed by more numerous and warlike tribes, that I am inclined to consider Easterlings of Ulfang’s Folk. At first they warred with the other Swarthy Men, but they were soon forced to peace by the arrival of Orcs. Lacking the whip of Morgoth, now Orcs were all too eager to fight against their former allies, yet the Folk of Ulfang proved their fierceness in battle, which surprised even the Dwarves.

Dwarven chronicles tell that, threatened by dramatic events, the Men of Angmar choose a King among them, who united all the tribes in war, and he was named Bodar. King Bodar wed Alathasa, daughter of Ulcasot, the most powerful chief of the newly-come Folk of Ulfang, and obtained their allegiance, too. For the first time together, and supported by the help of Dùrin’s Folk, the Men of Angmar effectively defended their lands, and for a while they even defeated and stopped Orc bands from roaming the country and settling in the Mountains. Yet, only five years later the Angmareans were routed by the Orc-chief Mukarg, who later met his end besieging Gundabad. But among Mukarg's followers, one found safety in flight, and returned to Angmar where he rallied local bands of Orcs, heading towards Mount Irondelf, where he besieged the Dwarves who inhabited that small mining settlement. Bodar made a call for the lords of Angmar to help their Dwarven allies, but they were not prepared to face the Orc-host: the Orc-general, in fact, prepared a trap by hiding groups of archers among the cliffs. At the battle of Irondelf Bodar First-King fell, after only seven years of reign, and the Angmareans were routed. The Dwarves capitulated a few days later, and the Orcs took the halls for themselves, renaming them after the general who defeated all enemies: Gram. And as Gram’s fame travelled far and wide, many bands and tribes looked at him for protection and help, and Mount Gram became the first Orc-capital of the Misty Mountains.

Meanwhile, the Men of Angmar quarrelled over kingship: for Rodar the Steadfast, brother of Bodar, demanded the regency, waiting that Brodec the Young, firstborn of the King, reached the age to rule; and Carasot the Bold, son of Ulcasot and brother of the Queen, claimed to deserve the crown as the best warrior of Angmar. The lords of the land divided on this issue. The following year Carasot led a surprise attack on Rodar’s fort and slew him, taking the regency. A few years later Brodec the Young died, before full age, and Carasot the Bold had himself crowned by many lords. However, his son Odarost was murdered by the son of Rodar, ho wrested the crown and, supported by other lords, obtained kingship. For many years the Angmareans demonstrated their wicked and greedy nature, and tens of King were stabbed, poisoned, strangled, drowned or shot by hidden archers. Factions warred among themselves, as the Orcs robbed Men and besieged the Dwarves, unharassed by anyone. After a few decades, there were no less than four Kings in Angmar.

Yet a little hope arose, after a century, as the Dwarf-kings of Caradhrond, which would later be named Carn-dûm, made an alliance with King Kull of Ironhill and his line. By this alliance, the siege of Caradhrond was broken, and Gram killed after his century-long reign of terror. And the Dwarves stormed the Northern Mountains freeing them from Orc-lairs. A century later, in SA 250, the alliance of Drèrin of Caradhrond and Foldar of Ironhill was able to cleanse the Southern Spur and take back the Orc-capital at Mount Gram. Supported by Dwarves, Foldar unified Angmar once more: his kingdom lasted less than fifty years. His firstborn Koder, his successor, was poisoned by the second-born Kallarok. He in turn was betrayed and killed by Varad, Koders’ third son. Varad strangled his first wife for betrayal, but was in turn stabbed in his sleep by the second one. As the sons of the two marriages quarrelled over succession, Angmar divided once more, never to be united again until the arrival of the Witch-king. The Dwarves, repulsed by the Angmareans’ ways, abandoned their alliance and friendship, and retired to their holds in the Mountains, now free from Orc presence.

In the end, kingship among the treacherous Angmareans lost all its meaning. After a few centuries, the numerous Kings of the country lost their right to pass their title to sons, but had to be confirmed by War Meetings, where their vassals would judge if they were fitting or not. Eventually, Kings had to establish, one by one, a War Council, who would meet when important decisions were to be taken. The Lords who composed it then could depose their King and choose a new one among themselves, when the former one did not suit their ends. By the last millennium of the Second Age, there were no more Kings in Angmar, but Warlords, military leaders elected by War Councils. Every lord would rule his own land, respecting no other unless a sword was needed against another rival. Violence remained the favourite argument to settle disputes, unless treachery could be used to obtain better results. Angmar became a lawless land where small lords vied for insignificant gains, sparing no mean to achieve their petty interests. It was in this land that the Witch-king came, in the thirteenth century of our Age, to create the bane of the Dùnedain kingdoms”

From "The earlier Kings of Carn-dûm", by Erwin the Wise, scholar of Noegrod, c. T.A. 300

"In the 20th century of the Second Age of the Sun, the annals of the Kings report that new peoples came to the region of Angmar from the North-west, Wild Men dressed in hides and armed with bone-weapons. When they met with the people of Angmar, at first they were considered enemies, and many bands of them crossing into the territory of the lords were driven out with battles and skirmishes. But as soon as it was discovered that they were not coming for conquest, and they were enemies of the Orcs, friendship developed between them and the folk of the Swarthy Men. Several chieftains of these newcomers were welcomed by Angmarean lords, and in exchange of ivory and hides the Wild Men were given lands in the North, and they swore allegiance to the various lords.

"The coming of these peoples, however, had worried the Kings of Carn-dûm, and they pushed the Angmarean lords to elect a King among themselves, should other, less friendly newcomers arrive. The lords met to discuss, but no agreement was reached: however, their War Council became permanent, and under the blessing of the Dwarven-king, they developed a loose alliance against common foes.

"In the following decades, more Wild Men came from the East, and they abode on the icy shores of the Sea. These new Men knew not how to mould metals, but they were skilled crafters of bone items, and their art was greatly appreciated both by Swarthy Men and Dwarves, and trade flourished with the North.

"It seemed that the Dwarven-king's fears were unfounded, yet a common enemy arose as the Orcs of Mount Gram started raiding again the lowlands. Then Tarmar of Axewood rose as King in the lands to the west of Gram, and other Kings were chosen elsewhere, and there was battle in Angmar, but the Orcs found often a worthy enemy, and soon became more wary and their raids decreased in frequence.

"But around S.A. 2200 other Wild Men came from the East, and they were warlike and aggressive, and preferred raiding over trade. They were named Snow-riders or Bear-riders, as they slid on the snow with wheel-less wains, pulled by voracious white bears whom they trained to battle. The Mountains were a good protection for most of Angmar, but the lands around Carn-dûm were often threatened by the marauding bands. Annals report that more than one King was slain in battle, and the Angmareans and their Wild Men lieges suffered dearly, and Carn-dûm was even besieged for a Winter by the Bear-riders, although they could not break the defence of the Dwarves.

"The raids of the Bear-riders lasted for nearly fifty years, then they gradually waned. In the same periods, many of Carn-dûm's mines were exhausted, and many young and brave Dwarves dared the Northern Wastes, and they reached the Bleak Mountains and there they mined gold and silver.

"While the Dwarves explored the North, the Angmarean deposed their Kings, all except the line of Tarmar in Cargash, that survived for many centuries. But elsewhere, the Swarthy Men elected Warlords among themselves, and once the Bear-riders had been repulsed, they returned to their wars. In 2367, Osrac Warlord of Ironhill, elected with the support of the Dwarves to bring peace to the Windy Land was ambushed by his rival Harsgalt, and Osrac and his guard perished together with some Dwarves who were travelling with him. After that year, the friendship between the people of Carn-dûm and the Swarthy Men waned, and the Dwarves trusted no more Men, and even their trade decreased. In 2380, the last King of Carn-dûm, Rashgar IV, abandoned the city and moved his line to the North, settling at the Ringing Hall in the Bleak Mountains"

From "The Kings of the Broadbeams", by Harald the Fair, scholar of Noegrod, c. T.A. 2300

"The extinguishing mines of Noegrod and Telenaug became a serious problem by the end of the 29th century. In that time, many Broadbeams moved eastwards, and they settled in Hadhodhrond with Dùrin's Folk. But others, more adventurous, dared the North and the unforgiving Mountains of Angmar, and entered the ruins of Carn-dûm, abandoned more than five centuries before, and they drove off the Orcs that inhabited the hold and they mined again, and they found rich ores of iron and silver. Around them, there remained a few scattered villages of Angmareans who recalled with joy the time of the Dwarves in their songs. And they welcomed the Dwarves and were happy to trade with them.

"In 2900, King Thràr II officially moved his line to Carn-dûm, making it the capital of his folk. From there, together with his Mannish allies, he cleansed the lands within a day's march from Orcs, and there was peace, and the halls echoed with ringing anvils and merry laughters."

From "A Gazetteer of the Northern Marches", by Dillanim of Annùminas, c. T.A. 200

"As Elendil founded the North-kingdom of Arnor, he declared its northern borders to be the Ice-bay of Forochel and the Misty Mountains. But hardly the Dùnedain could call a real dominion over the wild peoples of those lands. The Ice-men of Forochel had no king, and they wandered in their cold lands paying little heed to envoys of the King; but the Angmareans were a fell lot, descendants of the folks of Bòr and Ulfang who still hated the Edain and their offspring, the Dùnedain. They lived in scattered villages, ruled by warlords and always plagued by Orc- and wolf-raids, and when they were visited by royal envoys, they turned them back, threatening them with axes or hangmen's nooses should they return to bring the King's word. They were a dwindling and forsaken race, and Elendil preferred to leave them rule themselves in Angmar, where at least they fought against the evil creatures that lived in the North.

"Shortly before the War of the Last Alliance, the Orcs of Gundabad and Mount Gram launched raids in Angmar by Sauron's orders, and gathered slaves for their mines. The Angmareans suffered dearly and their already small population was greatly diminished. It is said that in that time their alliances crumbled, and that those who survived preferred to hide waiting better times, than rally around a warlord and give a last battle.

"After Sauron's overthrow, some of them returned to their villages, but nowhere except around Caradhrond there was prosperity, and the Angmareans lived as a doomed people, friendless and always threatened by the many dangers in their land."

From "The Bane of the North", a history of Angmar, by Haldir Rhovanion, scholar of Rivendell, c. T.A. 2100

"Angmar in the 13th century was a lawless land where petty warlords, of the race of the Swarthy Men that betrayed Maedhros at the Nirnaeth, fought endless and pointless wars for gold and land, all the while slowly falling under the yoke of the Orcs, who either raided the lower lands or exacted tributes from those who didn't dare to defend their homes from marauders. Most Dwarven holds, who had seen better days, were almost isolated, unwilling to trade with the treacherous Angmareans, yet clinging to their ancient homes and delving deep under the Mountains to accumulate silver and gold.

"Lost in their dreams of ancient treasures, the Dwarves of Mount Gundabad were taken by surprise when a large army of Orcs besieged their ancestral home. It is now known how they underestimated greatly the threat, deeming the assault a whim of a fool among the Orc-chieftains of the Misty Mountains; no one at that time had still perceived the hidden menace hiding under the shades of Mirkwood. It was the Necromancer, it was later known, that had united many tribes under his will, and gave them a warlord, Balcog the Fierce, to bring ruin to the North. Gundabad fell in the late winter of 1267, and Balcog took the title of Ashburduk, something that had not be done in centuries.

"The first step of the Necromancer's masterplan was taken, yet no one understood it was the beginning of a march that would end with the waste of Eriador. Under the leadership of a new Orc-King, the tribes of the Misty Mountains launched an invasion of Angmar, but unlike other times, they did not burn and destroy, but rather forced the Angmareans to cruel tributes, showing a cunning that was not Orcish at all.

"The following years were full of suffering for the Angmareans, and it appeared that the end of that people had finally come by the very hand of Morgoth's creatures, an ironic prize for those whose ancestors had chosen to serve the Dark Enemy betraying the Free Peoples. But in the darkest moment of all, a leader appeared among them to defend their freedom.

"Nobody knew from whence he had came, and his face was hidden by an iron helm, and even his name was unknown, and the Angmareans called him the Dark Sorceror. He was a man of skill and authority, and his words held no less power than his arm, as he wielded the sword and the art of spells with equal mastership. After he defeated some bands of Orcs near the swamps of Targish, his fame travelled far and wide, and than one Angmarean lord swore allegiance to him. In a matter of years, the Dark Sorceror had become the warlord of a small kingdom in south-eastern Angmar, freeing that land from the Orcs who did not dare to cross the borders for the fear he instilled in them.

"In the meanwhile, another power had arisen at the opposite side of Angmar, as the Dwarf-king Bròr of Caradhrond had rallied under his banner some Angmarean lords, effectively freeing their lands from any tribute.

"In 1276 a large army of Orcs, led by Shaktur the Cruel, the son of the Ashburduk, headed for Caradhrond to crush the alliance. Bròr, King of the Broadbeam folk of Dwarves, made a call for help, which was answered by the Dark Sorceror, who set journey for Caradhrond with an army of one thousand men. They reached Caradhrond in the first days of July, and they were hosted inside the fortress, preparing the defences against the Orcs.

"But as Shaktur the Cruel started the siege of Caradhrond, the warriors of the Dark Sorceror turned against their people and the Dwarves, and slew them in their own fortress, and opened the gates to the Orcs. The treachery of Caradhrond has never since been forgotten by the Broadbeams: so many were the treasures of the Dwarves, that for days the Angmareans and the Orcs plundered the fortress, and at last Shaktur left with a booty so large that the only Orc-leader who could rival it was his father, conqueror of Gundabad.

"The Dark Sorceror, instead, became the master of the Dwarf-hold, and he made it his own palace. Rich beyond the wealth of many mortal Kings, armed with Dwarfish steel and ruling over thousands of warriors, at peace with the Orcs and freed from his main rival to unite the Angmareans, he dedicated to the complete conquest of the land. By 1280, all Angmar was under his sway, and all those lords who had not met their end by the Sorceror's sword united at his capital Carn-dûm and declared him Witch-king of Angmar. And it was later known that the Ashburduk had sent gifts to him, making now plain to all the shameful alliance of Men and Orcs.

"At that time the Wise did not see the danger that had arisen in the Iron Land, and though many of them had been informed of the events, they thought that the kingdom of Angmar would bring peace to the northern Misty Mountains and protect Eriador against the Orcs. The Dùnedain kingdoms, those who still could easily have put an end to the history of Angmar, dismissed the rise of a petty warlord, continuing their internecine wars for the inheritance of Elendil, and the Elves decided not to act, keeping out of the affairs of mortal Men.

"In 1285, the Witch-king's armies crossed the Angirith without any hindrance from Gundabad, and swarmed into the Nan Anduin, submitting the Estaravë people and enlarging their power. On the following year, bands of marauders started to make raids into Forochel, enslaving the inhabitants of those lands and putting them at work in their iron mines.

"In less than thirty years, Angmar had grown from a plundered land to the greatest threat for the Free Peoples of the North. But the evils that it would bring were still unforeseen."

From "The Last Days of Rhudaur", of Calered the Meek, scholar at the court of Barandil, last Lord of Minas Brithil, and later at the court of Sarnilion, Lord of Caladir, T.A. 1415.

"As soon as he attained the dominion of Angmar, the Witch-king stopped for a while to consolidate his power. But in the meanwhile, having been deprived of their favourite victims, the Orcs of the Misty Mountains turned their attention from inner Angmar to the outer lands. And they multiplied, and all the lands about the Mountains were troubled, most of all the borderlands of Rhudaur. However, the men of the king mounted good guard on the Ettenmoors, and they were strengthened by a few Dwarves escaping the ruin of their holds in the North, and some of them entered the service of King Aldor and became his master weapon-smiths. But the Northmen on the other side of the Mountains were those who worst suffered the scourge of the Orcs, and they had no hills or stone towers where to defend, and most of them left the western banks of the Anduin.

"But not only the Orcs were on the move: Trolls, too, stirred in the central hills of the kingdom, which came to be known as the Trollshaws. And in the Ettenmoors there appeared a dark power, called the Hag of Blackmoor, and she was a dark enchantress whose curses dried the streams, and blighted the harvests, and made children fell ill. And Trolls and Ettins served her and protected her secret abode.

"Many valiant knights set themselves on a quest to put an end to the Hag's evils, but they all failed. In the Spring of 1310, after two years of bad harvests, the armies of Angmar marched through the Cirith Angsiril into the northern marches, and they were joined by an army of Trolls from Blackmoor. King Aldor met them at Ragshold, and there he was defeated and the ancient fortress taken. The King's army tried to stop the Angmareans again at the fords of Crosham, but although the invaders suffered many casualties, they pushed on and gained the southern banks, slaying the King's son Alardur and swarming into the Trollshaws.

"The Hillmen lords retreated to their holds, and they were besieged day and night by Men and Orcs and Trolls. The king called for the help of Arthedain and Rhudaur, but the Sister Kingdoms were slow to send their help, as there were mistrust between the heirs of Isildur. In the following years, many Hillmen lords capitulated, surrendering to the invaders and pledging allegiance to the Witch-king, thus preserving their lordship. Those who didn't, fought heroically, but they were as prisoners in their own castles, weakened by hunger and fear, as the hills and woods were stalked by fell creatures assailing farmsteads and villages.

"In 1343, King Aldor gathered an army composed of his Dùnedain retainers of the Egladil and the Oiolad lands, a few Hillmen lords from the Trollshaws and some auxiliary troops sent by Arthedain and Cardolan, mainly composed of archers and spear-men. Then he left Cameth Brin and entered the Trollshaws to free them from the invaders. For five years Aldor's army chased Angmarean forces, that the Witch-king had divided into small bands who would ambush the king's men at every chance. The king succeeded in taking some holds, that were entrusted to faithful retainers, but the forests were impossible to rule for him.

"In 1347, king Aldor and some of his men fell into an ambush, and most of the royal guard was slaughtered by Trolls. The king managed to flee, but as soon as he reached the safety of Esperkeep he was imprisoned by Daster, the Hillman lord. All believed that Daster did so to let Elgost, Aldor's nephew, to take the crown. In fact, Daster of Esperkeep soon became the most powerful lord of the Trollshaws and was always welcome at the court of the new king. But Minalcar of Cardolan denied his help to the usurper, and Malvegil of Arthedain claimed the crown for himself, retreating his warriors from Rhudaur .

"As soon as his authority over his vassals appeared sound, Elgost resumed Aldor's campaign to cleanse the Trollshaws. But as his army was resting near Vercrag, and he was hunting, an arrow killed him. Accusations were made among all the lords, and the army divided. In that confusion, Daster's warriors took possession of the hold of Vercrag and they opened the gates to the Angmarean host, who marched quickly towards Cameth Brin, taking the royal palace almost defenceless. It became clear, then, that Daster the Betrayer had been an ally of Angmar and of the Hag of Blackmoor since the beginning, and that he had purposely supported an usurper to divide the kingdom from its allies, and he also organised the murder of Elgost.

"In 1355 Daster became the first Hillman King of Rhudaur, ruling over the central part of the old kingdom, as the northern marches were now controlled by Angmar and the Hag of Blackmoor, and the Egladil had rebelled, although the Dùnedain lords were divided on the issue of their leader, among Calvegil lord of Barad Calnë or Argeleb, new King of Arthedain"

From "The Bane of the North", a history of Angmar, by Haldir Rhovanion, scholar of Rivendell, c. T.A. 2100

"As the Witch-king rose to power in Angmar, evil stirred in all the North, under the call of that dark tyrant or the spells of the Necromancer. Orcs multiplied in the Misty Mountains and raided the Nan Anduin, Trolls roamed the northern and central regions of Rhudaur, that came to be named Ettenmoors and Trollshaws. In the Blackmoor, an evil enchantress rose and her spells troubled the peoples of that land. In the far North, too, wild Trolls and cold Drakes stirred and plagued the Men of Forochel; and some of them came south, crossing the frozen Lhûn, in the Winter of 1343, and blighted the northern marches of Lindon, bringing evil in that land for the first time since the Last Alliance. It was then that, for the first time, some of the Eldar began to feel a greater Evil behind all those events. Morfinel Uruniel, Lady of the Northern Marches, and Urufin the Smith her husband spoke openly about the need to counter Angmar, and they defended actively the borders and led many an assault against the fell creatures and the Angmarean bands that crossed into northern Eriador and Forochel.

"It took the crowing of a Hillman in Rhudaur, however, to push the Dùnedain to action"

From "An accounting of the First Northern War", by Annaith of Fornost, c. 1670

"The line of Isildur in Cardolan had been the first to fail, when in 1235 Calimendil perished while besieging Eldor of Rhudaur at Cameth Brin. In spite of the claims made by both Celebrindor of Arthedain and Eldor of Rhudaur, the Cardolanian lords elected a new king among themselves, not from the direct line of Isildur.

"In 1347 King Aldor of Rhudaur was deposed by his nephew Elgost, who took the crown for himself, and lost the support of Malvegil of Arthedain and Minalcar of Cardolan. In 1349 Malvegil's son, being the only direct heir of Isildur, made claim to the crown of all Arnor, and was crowned as Argeleb. Elgost reigned but seven years, and then he was murdered by Daster the Betrayer, a Hillman who took Cameth Brin and the crown, supported by Angmar. To this the Dùnedain lords of the Edgladil rose in arms, but they were divided.

"Argeleb's claim to the crown of the three kingdoms had been welcomed by many Cardolanian lords, although the current king Minalcar resisted it with some followers, and also threatened to prevent Argeleb's election as king of Rhudaur by force. At this, some Rhudaurian lords elected among them Calvegil, lord of Barad Calnë and a distant cousin of Aldor, as their ruler. This confusion in leadership let Angmar strike first, and in 1356 Daster led his army in the Egladil, supported by auxiliary Angmarean troops. Calvegil was besieged at Barad Calnë, while Minalcar and Argeleb negotiated their role in the upcoming war. As the Dùnedain of Rhudaur were crushed by Daster and forced to accept his rule, the lords of Cardolan met at Thalion to discuss the threat of the Hillmen and Angmar. After many weeks of debates, finally Minalcar accepted Argeleb's kingship over all of Arnor.

"By that moment, Daster had already crossed the Mitheithel with his Angmarean allies, attacking Arthedain before it could have received help from Cardolan. The two armies met at Dol Gil, where Argeleb was slain by a poisoned arrow. His son Arveleg fought valiantly and he repelled the Hillmen beyond the Mitheithel. Joined by Minalcar, he fortified the borders and freed the Oiolad from all enemies. In 1357, Minalcar officially recognised Arveleg's kingship of all Arnor at Thalion; Arveleg in turn granted to Minalcar the title of Prince of Cardolan, and the right to rule over the lords in the name of the King of Fornost".

From "The strife for the Elendilmir", by Rilannon of Minas Ithil, c. 1966

"The First Northern War showed the growing power of Angmar and the incapacity of Isildur's heirs to defend the Northern Kingdom. In Cardolan the line had failed since the 13th century. As a Hillmen took the crown of the Rhudaur supported by the Witch-king, Argeleb and Minalcar quarrelled over the possession of a land none of them would ever rule, thus effectively accepting Daster's dominion. When they moved, they did it too late, and Argeleb I died on the battlefield having underestimated the numbers of the enemy. His son Arveleg, although a skilled captain, was still a young politician and he was convinced by Minalcar not to push for a unification of the two kingdoms, recognising the rights of a vassal over a land that was rightfully his own, but effectively ruled independently."

From "The Black Winter", by Alladan of Fornost, c. 1520

"After the First Northern War the power of Angmar grew. It is said that the treasure of the Broadbeams, and then the tributes of war coming from the Estaravë and Rhudaur greatly enriched the land. It was reported that at the same time the population of Angmar grew, thanks to new agricultural techniques, consisting of special fertilisation, the delving of special tanks to retain water during the dry months, and the terracing of foothills.

"Arveleg ordered the northern frontier to be strengthened against raids, and he sent rangers to watch over the Angmareans' activities. But the Witch-king did not remain idle, and he moved his pawns. Sadly, not only Hillmen and Northmen served his cause, but some Dùnedain joined him, and among them some members of the court of Fornost: among them was Malborn, one of the High Seers who counselled the King. It is said that he was seduced by the knowledge of the Dark Arts, offered by the servants of the Witch-king, around the first years of the new century. But his treachery was not discovered until the Black Winter, 1409-10.

"In that winter, the Witch-king fell on Arthedain with a march over the snow, avoiding the main bulwarks of the kingdom thanks to Malborn, who had revealed many a secret about the Dùnedain defences. Before the King could rally the army, the host of Angmar, composed of Angmareans and Estaravi, Orcs and Trolls, and supported Rhudaurian auxiliaries, fell on the Emyn Sûl, ravaging them and besieging the tower of Amon Sûl, where King Arveleg rallied the Dùnedain of the North. The heroic defence of the Emyn Sûl was a great deed, in which the Arthedain were supported by Ostoher king of Cardolan and the Elves of Lindon; yet many lords of Cardolan, in the hope that the battle would have weakened both Angmar and royal authority, did not heed the call to arms, and kept their warriors from battle. And it is said that other Dùnedain lords from Rhudaur fought on the side of the Hillmen against their kin. And inn the end the Tower of Amon Sûl was taken and destroyed, and Arveleg slain in battle, and the defenders were scattered. Ostoher, last king of Cardolan, retreated with his faithful vassals southwards, into the Tyrn Gorthad, where he and his guard were isolated from the main host and slaughtered by Trolls during the night. Then the chasing army divided and set to plunder, wasting all of Cardolan and even crossing the Baranduin into the lands of Siragalë.

"Araphor son of Arveleg was able to repair to Fornost with his forces, and there make a stand, waiting for the Spring, when larger armies from Lindon and Imladris brought him enough force to campaign against the Angmareans, who were forced out of the kingdom with many losses"

From "The Last Days of Rhudaur", of Calered the Meek, scholar at the court of Barandil, last Lord of Minas Brithil, and later at the court of Sarnilion, Lord of Caladir, T.A. 1415.

"After the battle of Amon Sûl, Barandil, my gracious lord, spoke to king Tarcal, advising him to show mercy for the defeated. But the cruel folk of the Angmareans had become similar to the Orcs with which they shared their lands, and they plundered and raped and wasted. Seeing the suffering and woe that their victory had brought to their kinsfolk, the lords of the Egladil finally came to their minds; and even some among the Hillmen lords understood that the power of Angmar was growing too much, and it could become a threat much more great that Arthedain and Cardolan could ever had been.

"But king Tarcal feared greatly the power of his allies, and he dared not to challenge the authority of the Witch-king. But to the help of our cause came the Elves of Rivendell, whose magic could counter the evils of the sorcerers of Angmar. And so, while the armies of Angmar still scourged Cardolan and Arthedain, before Spring the lords of the Egladil rose in arms against Tarcal, and they were soon joined by some Hillmen lords, and some other stayed neutral, and it is said that even some Dwarves, survivors of the fallen holds of the North, joined the rebels. Tarcal fell on the field of Coron Iaur in April, and as soon as Cameth Brin was reached it surrendered to our armies. But then there was division among us for the election of the new king, and Barandil, my gracious lord, was accused to push for an allegiance with Arthedain, like Cardolan did, but the Hillmen threatened a war. But the Dùnedain would not accept a king of Hillman descent.

"In the meanwhile the armies of Angmar were leaving Cardolan and Athedain, but many of them made their way home through Rhudaur, and they were mostly marauding bands of Angmareans and Orcs, and the Egladil was wasted by their raids. At the same moment, Trolls issued out of Blackmoor and they were joined by others in the Trollshaws, and they were led by Herlewad the Hideous, a sorcerer of great power, and other Angmarean magicians served him.

"Even then, assailed by the elven armies from the West, Angmar could not hope to maintain its hold over Rhudaur. But the Witch-king had decided that a dead ally was better than an enemy alive, and his armies fought more to destroy than to subdue. Great was the suffering in those days, and evil creatures stalked the hills hunting for Men. In the Egladil the power of Rivendell restrained most of them, yet Minas Brithil, castle of my gracious lord, was overrun by Angmareans, and Barandil the Merciful was killed and his dead body cruelly violated by the invaders, and I myself could barely escaped to the protection of my gracious lord, Sarnilion of Caladir.

"But in the Trollshaws elven magic could little, and all the rebel Hillmen were killed or enslaved, and Angmarean sorcerers ruled thereafter in their stead, and in Cameth Brin Raghanor, a Hillman who had served most of his life at Carn-dûm, was made king. Thus ended the kingdom of Rhudaur, and although some falsely claim that it survives free and strong against any enemy, its spirit died with Barandil, and its people are banished or enslaved, and though its crown lies no more Cameth Brin, but rather in Carn-dûm".

From "The Bane of the North", a history of Angmar, by Haldir Rhovanion, scholar of Rivendell, c. T.A. 2100

"The invasion of Angmar changed Eriador in the time of a single winter. Where before the mighty Sister Kingdoms of the Dùnedain of the North had stood, now lay ruins and woe. Rhudaur, where the last Dùnedain and many Hillmen lords had revolted against the Witch-king, supported by Elrond lord of Imladris, had been ravaged by Herlewad the Hideous at the head of an army of Angmareans and Trolls, and it had become a puppet kingdom; Cardolan had been plundered of its wealth and its king, and few Dùnedain had survived the war, and no royal heir could be found among them, leaving scattered villages and ancient forts to be ruled by vassal princes to whom the King at Fornost was but a distant name; and Arthedain had lost its mighty fortress of Amon Sûl, that now was a smoking ruin. Conscience of the defeat mixed with the understanding that not even the Dùnedain were free from betrayal, and that even a High Seer like Malborn could be seduced by Shadow and sell his own people to the Enemy.

"Luckily, one of the chief aims of Angmar was not achieved, as the Palantìr of Amon Sûl was recovered by Araphor and brought to Fornost, and it did not fell into the hands of the Witch-king. But the Palantìri were of little avail to Arthedain, as their use was restricted to all except the Kings, and even they lacked the will to use the sight at full potential, and Carn-dûm was veiled at their eyes by spells and dark enchantments.

"Not only Men had been the victims of the Witch-king's war. Many valiant warriors had lost their lives in the battles against Angmar, and Siragalë had been wasted, its inhabitants unable to withstand the marauders had fled to the sea, leaving Endor in fear.

"Some said that the danger of Angmar had been understood too late. But now it can be said that even then, there was still a little hope, and yet the threat had been greatly underestimated even after the Black Winter. Most still believed Angmar to be a reborn kingdom of the Swarthy Men of old, looking for better lands and vengeance against the descendants of the Edain and the Elves. Some among the Wise were able to pierce the shadow looming over Carn-dûm: the Witch-king had reigned over the city for more than 130 years, more than any Man, even of Dùnadan descent, could live. And from the dark powers he wielded and the fear he inspired in the enemies, it became clear that he was no living Man, but perhaps an evil spirit of Morgoth's or Sauron's following, who had survived two ages to plague Eriador in the third one.

"Under the counsel of such Wise, the elven armies, driving the host of Angmar out of Arthedain and the Egladil of Rhudaur, pursued the runaways back to their lands, where they laid waste to fortifications and cleansed many a den of Trolls and Orcs. But they could not take Carn-dûm, nor assail Mount Gram or Cameth Brin or other fortresses too mighty for their sole forces. And so they retreated, hoping that the kingdom would crumble after the vanquishing of its armies.

"It was not so. Although the Angmareans had suffered tremendous losses, and their land was devastated, the will of the Witch-king held them together, and a greater power from the East provided new supplies and warriors. The old people of Angmar had almost disappeared, and the lines of the ancient warlords extinguished: in their stead the Witch-king created the new warlords, named the Black Lords, chosen personally by him among his servants, owing allegiance to him only and unable to pass their right on men and land to any heir. Effectively, whereas before he had been a symbol and an inspirer of the war of the Men of Angmar, now he had became the very heart of Angmar. All power derived from him, and to him returned when a servants would leave it. All laws, all rights, all decisions came from him or were taken by his lieutenants under his orders.

"The new Angmar, a land who had lost all and had no will to survive, was kept alive by the his sole will. New peoples came from the East, wild Men and riders of small horses, and more Northmen from Rhovanion, and they replaced the dying race of the Swarthy Men. The only values of the new Angmar were power to fight and plunder, and loyalty to the tyrant of Carn-dûm. Like a wounded beast, knowing that its end have to come, Angmar fed himself of hatred not to build a future for itself, but to end the future of its enemy."

From "The waste of Eriador", by Winglas of Minas Tirith, c. F.A. 60

"After the Black Winter, Eriador started its slow waning, pushed by the shadow that lay in Angmar. His kingdom left unmanned by the war but his identity almost uncovered, the Witch-king did not contain his evil powers any more, and he unleashed them all over the Dùnedain of the North. Winters started to get colder and colder, and harvests were ruined by Spring freeze or Autumn hail. With the coming of the Great Plague, carried by dark winds from the East, the Witch-king sent evil wights to haunt the Tyrn Gorthad, where no one would abide until our days. In the aftermath of the Plague, Trolls came out of Rhudaur, and they wreaked havoc in Cardolan, pillaging villages and tormenting the last Dùnedain of Cardolan, and their leader, the Warlord Ardagor Half-Troll, took control of the Emyn Harnen and launched raids over the Cardolanians until all of the ancient folk of the West who dwelt in those lands had been killed or left for more hospitable places.

"The Witch-king was preparing to strike with a large army over Arthedain, but as he rallied troops, the Hillmen of Rhudaur rebelled against him, no more willing to serve Angmar in its wars against the Dùnedain. In 1645, the Troll Warlord Rogrog came to Rhudaur from the Cirith Angsiril with a force of Orcs and Trolls, to subdue the rebels. It took 43 years to Angmar to extinguish that rebellion, and at its end the Hillman people of Rhudaur had almost disappeared, leaving behind them ruins of keep and towers, and Rhudaur was a deserted land roamed by fell creatures, and even the Egladil had been abandoned by its inhabitants.

"The Great Plague and Rogrog's war in Rhudaur left Angmar unable to strike against the Dùnedain, for lack of Men and resources. It was in this time that caravans started to reach Angmar from the East: herds of cattle and bands of mercenaries from the region north of the Emyn Engrin had been travelling to Angmar since the time of the Black Winter, but it was not until the Plague that such traffic increased, and north of Mirkwood a Road was built. It took many years to the Wise, however, to trace and discover that traffic of cattle, supplies, settlers and mercenaries, that revealed that Angmar was supported by some power in the East. The Wise then obtained the support of Thranduil king of Mirkwood and some Northman tribes beyond the Forest to hinder the traffic. For a few years the caravans were stopped, but soon tribes of Orcs were dispatched by Carn-dûm to watch over them, and more companies of Easterlings travelled along the Road, thus making it difficult to effectively damage the supply chain of Angmar.

"But it was not before 1851 that the Witch-king could feel strong enough to move his armies against his enemies. In that year, a large force assailed Arthedain during the winter: there were the last remnants of the Angmarim, so few that they could not even considered a people; and there were Estaravi, and new Easterling peoples from the East akin to the Wainriders, but mounted on small horses from which they shot short arrows. They were followed by Orcs and Trolls. King Araval made a stand on the North Downs, but he was forced to retreat to Fornost, while the host of Angmar plundered the northern marches and even reached Annùminas on Lake Evendim, the beautiful city founded by Elendil, and razed it to the ground. By the Spring, assisted by the Elves of Lindon and Imladris, Araval was able to repel the invaders, but large part of the kingdom had been pillaged beyond recover.

"In 1890, a plague spread in Arthedain, named the Red Flux, causing high fevers and abundant bleeding, and it affected most of all children and old people, and many regions were depopulated. It was a that time understood by the Dùnedain that some single power was at the head of all the threats to their people, and that it came out of the East, where armies gathered to assail Gondor and supply trains were manned by mercenaries and settlers heading for Angmar. And the actions of the Witch-king and the Ashburduk of Gundabad were all too timely with the invasions in the South, and the power of the Necromancer grew. It was in 1940 that Araphant of Arthedain and Ondoher of Gondor took counsel together, and Arvedui son of Araphant married Fìriel daughter of Ondoher. But it came to pass that only four years later Ondoher and his sons, Artamir and Faramir, perished in battle against the Wainriders. It was then that Arvedui, seeing the chance to unify the Dùnedain, claimed the throne of Gondor on the base of his right as the last heir of Isildur and Elendil, and that of his wife as daughter of the last King. But the claim was rejected by the Council of Gondor, and the crown passed on to Earnil of the royal house.

"In 1960, a new plague hit all the horses, exterminating huge numbers of them: beasts affected by the Blood-eye Ravish went mad and drooled, writhing until death. At the end of the century, Arthedain was the shadow of what it had been in earlier times. It was then that the Witch-king choose to deliver his last strike"

From "The Bane of the North", a history of Angmar, by Haldir Rhovanion, scholar of Rivendell, c. T.A. 2100

"In the campaign of 1851, the suspect the Wise had about the identity of the Witch-king were finally confirmed, as he met elven warriors on the fields of the North Downs, and many of them recognised him as an enemy from a previous age. Since then, in fact, the Witch-king had always been more a name that a physical presence for the Eldar, as he spent most of his time in Carn-dûm, and carefully avoided field battles involving the Elves, preferring to direct his captains from his palace, or from a safe hold in the Trollshaws or a well-secured camp on the top of a guarded hill. But in the Third Northern War, the Witch-king abandoned his secrecy in the hope of a quick victory, and he rode to the battlefield and personally led his host during the winter march, and his will sustained his warriors, and the sight of his iron helm was enough spread fear in the hearts of the most experienced fighters.

"Then the Wise knew that the Witch-king was actually one of the Ringwraiths od Sauron, and among them no less than the First, once a mighty Nùmenorean Prince of the royal line, seduced by the Dark Lord in the Second Age of the World, and returned from the shadows to plague the Free Peoples who had defeated his Master first in Eriador and later in his own kingdom, Mordor. He was immortal, endowed with dark powers beyond the scope of any mortal Man, and he wielded one of the Nine Rings of Men. But it was understood that he held one of the Seven, too, taken from the hand of the Broadbeam King at the fall of Carn-dûm.

From "The Awakening of the Worms", an account of the Dragon's wastes, by Rangir Goosefeather, scholar of Noegrod, c. T.A. 3000

"It is believed by many, although it can not be proved, that the evil sorceries of the Witch-king contributed in the first awakenings the Dragons in the North. Dragons are known to fall into age-long slumbers and then awake hungry and greedy of someone else's treasures. But it is agreed upon by all scholars that their sleeping patterns cane be and are often influenced by some powers and events. In general, it seems that Dragons awake in waves, with many of them coming out of their sleep in the span of a few seasons. This events have often been put in correlation with the rise of evil powers. And what more evil power could be imagined than the Witch-king's rule?

"The Witch-king's aim, as all scholars know, was to bring war and destruction to all the Free Peoples of the North, that is the Dùnedain, the Elves and the Dwarves. The betrayal of the Broadbeams, the conquest of Carn-dûm, the slaughter of our folk and the plundering of their treasures, was only one of the fell actions of that tyrant.

"It is known to the scholars of the far North that the Witch-king sent his bands to plunder the villages of the Men of Forochel and the Northmen of those lands and capture slaves for his mines, and he sent Trolls and other fell creatures on the tracks of the survivors. If he could control such creatures, why couldn't he do the same, although on a more limited scale, with Dragons? In fact, it came to pass that during the Summer of 1545, a large number of Dragons, so many that no one ever reckoned such numbers, awoke in Forochel, during what has been called the Year of the Dragons. Since that Summer, the worms have inflicted death, robbery and sorrow to all the inhabitants of those faraway lands.

"In 1636, the Orc tribes of Forochel were at first united by an Orc-king, Agog the Terrible. Again, it is known that the Witch-king entertained good relations with the Ashburduk of Mount Gundabad, and his ambassadors were always welcome at the court of Agog thereafter, who had always been at good terms with Angmar. It is obvious that Agog received a great support from the Witch-king, in terms of money, goods and minions, and surely the dark sorceries of Carn-dûm helped the Orc-king more than little. The Orcs of Forochel rarely troubled the Dragons, who in turn attacked the Orcs much less frequently than they did with the Men of Forochel or the Elves, or the Northmen or the Umli or the few of our people who settled those lands.

"In 1670, Dragons awoke again, but this time nearer to Angmar, just North of the Grey Mountains. The Dragons moved to the Mountains and beyond, and they fell on the inhabitants of the Narrows, the Bear-people, who had to flee those lands and search refuge southwards, in the Anduin Vales. Dragons stirred in the Northern Waste again in 1950, and they came in the northern Wilderlands and scourged the Dwarves and Northmen. It was the last awakening until the end of Angmar. After it, Dragons slept again for many centuries, until they awoke again and to rob Dùrin's folk of their treasures.

"During the years that the Witch-king ruled in the North, three Dragon awakenings happened in those lands. There may be no link between the two, but yet both Angmar and the Dragons had the same purpose, that is bring sorrow and woe upon the world, and they both were a ruin for the Dwarves"

From "The waste of Eriador", by Winglas of Minas Tirith, c. F.A. 60

"In 1974, the Witch-king led his army, a huge force of Men, Orcs and Trolls, upon Arthedain. It came in winter, as ever, and so sudden was the attack that Fornost fell and was stormed in a few weeks, and the last Dùnedain of the North fled westwards beyond the Lune. Arvedui, last King, had stood in defence of the North Downs, and he was driven into the lands about the Bay of Forochel, where he was helped by the Wild Men of that land, who were enemies of the Witch-king as well. But while sailing on an elven vessel sent from the Grey Havens to retrieve him, Arvedui drowned in the Ice-bay.

"While the Witch-king took residence in the capital of Arthedain usurping the palace of the Kings, Earnil king of Gondor had sent a fleet in help of Arthedain, commanded by his son Eärnur. The fleet came too late to save Arthedain, but it carried a mighty army, that was joined by the last Dùnedain of the North, led by Arvedui's son Aranarth, and the Elves of Lindon. Underestimating the enemy's strength, the Witch-king moved his army to meet them, but he was utterly defeated on the field between Lake Evendim and the North Downs, and his army was taken between the main host, Gondor's cavalry and the forces coming from Imladris.

"It is said that at the Battle of Evendim only one survived out of Angmar's host, and it was the Witch-king. Eärnur challenged him, but his horse could not stand the Ringwraith's presence, and so Sauron's chief minion fled the field, disappearing forever from the North."

From "The Bane of the North", a history of Angmar, by Haldir Rhovanion, scholar of Rivendell, c. T.A. 2100

"Angmar's defeat came too late for the Dùnedain of the North, and all of Eriador had been ravaged, most of it beyond healing. But such was the might of Gondor's army, and so burning the hatred of Aranarth's followers, that the defeat of the Angmarean host at Parth Nenuial could not be enough.

"For years the Witch-king was hunted in all the lands west of the Mountains, and all his minions, too, to the last Man. Rhudaur was deserted, and all those that lived in it had been killed in battle or had fled beyond the Mountains, where they found little support by the Orcs and the Bear-men of the Vales. Angmar itself was razed, and no stone was left standing by the victors. Carn-dûm and Mount Gram were emptied from their foul inhabitants, until no Orc or Man who had fought for Angmar was left west of the Mountains. In the same years, the Éotheod, a Northman people of riders, moved northwards, subduing the Estaravi and putting an end to the last remnant of the kingdom of Angmar.

"But the Witch-king could not be found, for he had left the North and, escaping the hunt of his enemies, had found haven in the land of his ancient Master, Mordor"

From "The waste of Eriador", by Winglas of Minas Tirith, c. F.A. 60

"After Eärnur's return to Gondor, Aranarth and the Dùnedain of the North could not hope to relive their kingdom anymore. So they disappeared into the shadows, and they became the Rangers of the North, swearing to defend the lands of old Arnor from the Shadow.

"In the King's absence, the few surviving peoples gave themselves new rulers. In the Shire, the Halflings elected a Mayor, Bucca of the Marish, and the same did the Breeland east of it. In Tharbad, the guilds took the power, and on the borders of Cardolan Dunnish and Eriadorian leaders took the titles of Princes."

From "The Quest of Dwendel the Wanderer", by Wamund the Story-teller of Noegrod, c. T.A. 2800

"Those of the Broadbeams that had joined Eärnur's army and the Elves against Angmar, helped greatly in the demolishing of all the holds and fortresses of the Angmareans and the Orcs. But they also dreamed of recovering the lost treasures of Carn-dûm, stolen six centuries before by the Witch-king. Famous among these Dwarves became Dwendel who, at the head of a band of other fellows, was the first to enter the deserted halls of Carn-dûm after its occupants had fled. There they collected what treasures they could, examining every piece and its workmanship to determine whether it was part of the treasure of Bròr the Unready or not. But they could not find the main piece they were searching for, the Red Heart of Thràr. And after demolishing other holds, they collected a fortune, that was given to Snòri lord of Noegrod and Telenaug, who in his generosity distributed much of it to the warriors who helped destroying Angmar and to their families.

"Dwendel, though, decided to search more and he wandered for several years the northern Misty Mountains, hunting Orcs and Trolls and Men that could have robbed the treasure of his folk. But in the same years, a wave of settlers came from the South, Dwarves of Dùrin's folk fleeing Khazad-dûm. And many of them, finding Angmar free, decided to return to their holds. Many of them joined Dwendel's company, and they even dared the ruins of Zarak-dûm, where the old inhabitants had been slaughtered by Orcs in the 13th century, and they were in their turn dislodged by a large cold drake. Dwendel and his companions battled the drake and obtained his treasures, and lo! There they find the Red Heart of Thràr; and they occupied the ruins, opened the mines again and prospered for a few years.

"Unfortunately, Dwendel's fortune did not last long. Zarak-dûm was attacked by the Orcs of Gundabad and fell again in 2091. Of all the inhabitants, only Dwendel managed to flee, taking the Heart with him. Chased by wolves, he dared the Mountains alone, old and burdened by the treasures he took with him. The Orcs never found him. But what was the doom of Dwendel no one ever knew, or said, and his treasures may still lie somewhere, in the Mountains north of Zarak-dûm, buried by snow, or a land-slide, or awaiting in a cave where the Wandered ended his days, holding his dearest treasure in his colder and colder hands".

From "The Holds of Dùrin's Folk", by Thrérin the Lame, Scholar of King Dain of Erebor, c. T.A. 3000

"Since the first days of the children of the Deathless, Dùrin's Folk delved many halls in the northern Misty Mountains and the Northern Spur. Most of such halls were lost to Orcs at the beginning of the Second Age, and they were freed only in the 20th century. Resettled again, these outposts were never thriving, and the Dwarves were often at bad terms with the local Men: all the halls of that region were abandoned or conquered by Orcs before the 13th century of the Third Age, shortly before Gundabad's fall.

"With the end of the realm of Angmar and the rise of Dùrin's Bane in Khazad-dûm, many young Dwarves returned to claim the halls of their fathers in Angmar, but they found little ores save iron. More prosperous were the new mines founded in the Grey Mountains to the East. But as the Great Dragons awoke, in the 26th century, and they fell on the North, many Dwarves fled to Erebor, while most of the Orcs of the Grey Mountains fled towards Gundabad and resettled in Angmar, where they forced out of the mountains the few remaining Dwarves of Dùrin's Folk.

"When the Dwarves avenged their King Thràin with the War of the Mountains, they took Gundabad and stormed the Orc-hold of Angmar. But no Dwarf did mine again the old tunnels of that land: poor and isolated, it was most uninviting for the survivors. Orcs slowly returned to their dens, most of them migrating from the Northern Wastes and the Bleak Mountains where they had fled from the Dwarves' anger. And in Gundabad and Gram there still were Orc-kings to command crawling armies under the mountains"

From "The enemies of the Shire", by Fastred Took, c. F.A. 80

"For long years after the fall of Angmar Eriador knew peace, thanks above all to the unknown battles of the Rangers of the North. After years of efforts, the Shire had been healed by the signs of the war, and wolves driven over the Baranduin, so that the Shire was safe under the rule of its people. Winters were warmer, and Summers brighter than ever.

"But at the beginning of the 25rd century, evil crawled again in Angmar, and the Orc-city of Mount Gram was inhabited again, and Orcs and fell creatures multiplied near the Mountains and troubled the Free Men and Elves who lived in those regions.

"About the same period Gondor was assailed by Easterlings and Haradrim, who overrun Ithilien and Calenardhon and ruined Osgiliath, and were repulsed thanks to the Éotheod, who had left the North, where evil was spreading out of Gundabad and Dol Guldur filling the Wilderlands. In the following century, Dragons awoke in the Grey Mountains and troubled Dùrin's Folk, and wolves came to Eriador in great numbers, followed by Orc-raids, and the Breeland was troubled, and the Orcs of Mount Gram dared even to cross the Baranduin. But in the famous battle of the Northfarthing, in 2747, the Bullroarer Brandobras Took drove them off and killed the Orc-king Golfimbul, becoming the terror of the Orcs for the following years, and the hero of the Shire forever.

"The Orc-raids were followed by the Long Winter of 2758-59, when snow didn't melt until late Spring, and there was great suffering in all of Eriador. It is said that at this time Gandalf came in help of the Shire-folk, but the Breeland and all the other villages in the outer lands grieved in hunger and disease. But surely the Winter fell also on the Orcs in the North, and many of them died, and certainly many resolved to eat each other while awaiting the better season.

"For a few years the raids were less frequent, but Eriador was not safe until the end of the century, when finally the Dwarves cleansed the Misty Mountains from all Orc-lairs, starting from Erebor to Moria. And Gundabad and Gram were conquered and freed from Orc-presence. Eriador knew peace for more than one hundred years.

"In 2911 the Fell Winter came to Eriador, and the Baranduin was frozen, and white wolves came from the North and preyed upon cattle as well as people. It is said that with the white wolves came Orcs from the far North, and that they at first warred with their kinsfolk in Angmar. But later they resolved to ally with them, and they joined their forces. And as the Winter passed, Orc-raids started again, though not as frequently as they did in previous time. Yet Angmar was again an Orcish land, as ever the first stronghold of evil and the main threat to peace and happiness in all of Eriador"

From "Elessar the Peace-maker", by Nimglos of Fornost, c. F.A. 150

"Before and during the War of the Ring Sauron had concentrated his forces in Mordor, moving many tribes of Orcs southwards. Many of these tribes came from the land of Angmar: it is said that this decision was a way to weaken the power of the Orc-hold of Mount Gram, always in bad terms with Gundabad, so much that the two cities were most often at war than joining forces according to the Dark Lord's orders. So it came to pass that Angmar was almost emptied of Orcs, with the notable exception of Mount Gram and a few other holds, and the invasions of Eriador ceased for some years, while Sauron unleashed his minions over Rhovanion.

"The defeat of the Dark Lord spread fear and panic among his followers, but most of all it revived ancient hatreds and revenges that quickly broke into wars. Mount Gram of course took the occasion to rebel against the reviled domination of the Orc-king of Gundabad, and all of Angmar was divided by battling Orc-tribes.

"All the while, Elessar dedicated to revive the North-kingdom, and he set his northern capital at Fornost Erain, and he entrusted many lands to faithful captains, who would rebuild castles and keeps and defend the frontiers from all enemies. Word of the return of the King spread far and wide, and few enemies dared to challenge his authority. It is said that in the years after Elessar's return, many bandits who were driven out of the Shire and the Breeland were pushed eastwards, and that they found rest in the Ettenmoors of Rhudaur, where they occupied ancient ruins, and that for a while they survived under the leadership of Harwald Blackface, raiding a few surrounding villages and allying with Orcs as spies and scouts. They were afterwards dispersed by the Elves of Rivendell, who captured Harwald and many of his band, and freed the region from the last outlaws of the Third Age"

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