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1.Different kinds of companies and types of organizations.

Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations such as companies, government departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life.

In all these organizations there are people that carrying out the work of a manager. For example, the president of a students’ union or a chief librarian they are all managers. They have responsibility to use the resources of their organization effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

Types: organization can be centralised and decentralised. When organization is centralized, a limited amount of authority is delegated. In a decentralized organization a greater degree of authority is given to staff.

2.Принятие решений

Making decisions is a key management responsibility. 1)Some are of the routine kind and can be made fairly quickly (on the spot) as the manager has experience and knows what to do in some situations.

2)Other ones are intuitive ones and not really rational, manager can have a hunch or a gut feeling that certain actions are the right ones.But many of them are more difficult as they involve problem solving and affect the future of anzorganization. They must be made quickly with an innsafficien information. When complex problem arises the manager has to collect facts and weight up courses of action. A useful approach includes different steps, for example ^ 1) define the problem 2) analyzing and collecting information

3) consider the options available to solve it4) decide on the best solution At first step tha main is to find out the real problem and not mistake it with the symptoms of it. Some rules and principles of the company should be taken into account, they will act as a constraints. The second is to analyze and collect information. Gettinf the facts is an essential at this step. Then the options available for solving should be considered, Maybe to chang e an image of the company, creat new product and so forth zometimes its even better to tajke no action at all. Everything should be considered carefully. assessin advanteges and disadvantage of each decision. Sometimes you can use more than one option.

  1. Качества и характеристики менеджера

A French industrialist, Henry Fayol, wrote in 1960 a classic definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, co coordinate and to control’. This definition is still accepted by many people today, although some writers on management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about ‘command’, they say a manager must motivate or direct and lead other workers.

An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr. Peter Drucker. In his opinion, the managers perform 5 basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what they should be and how the organization can achieve them. Secondly, managers organize. They must decide how the recourses of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. The third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. Managers must be able to get people work as a team and to be as productive as possible. The forth activity is measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organization, and of its staff. Finally, Mr. Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and grow as human beings. Successful managers are the people, who command the respect of workers and who set high standards. Good managers must bring character to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

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