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  1. The noun

  2. The adjective

  3. The verb

  4. Old English

  5. Dialects

  6. History of English language

  7. Lexicology

  8. Etymology

  9. Theory of phonetics

  10. History of Great Britain

  11. Geography of the UK

  1. Noun

A noun is a member of a large category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition (or put more simply, a noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing or abstract idea).In traditional English grammar, the noun is one of the eight parts of speech.

Classification of nouns in English

Proper nouns and common nouns

A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities (such as Earth, London, Jupiter, Larry, or Toyota), as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities (such as city, planet, person or car).

Agent nouns

Agent nouns are usually common nouns (although they may be proper nouns, such as in titles or adopted surnames) that take the form of a subject (typically a person) performing an action (verb). Examples in English are maker (from to make), teacher (from to teach), and actor and actress (from to act).

Countable and uncountable nouns

Count nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or quantifiers (e.g., one, two, several, every, most), and can take an indefinite article (a or an). Examples of count nouns are chair, nose, and occasion.

Mass nouns (or non-count nouns) can't take plural or combine with number words or quantifiers. Examples from English include laughter, cutlery, helium, and furniture. For example, it is not possible to refer to a furniture or three furnitures. This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between mass and count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns present these entities.

Collective nouns

Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include committee, herd, and school (of fish). These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for the singular.

Concrete nouns and abstract nouns

Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can be observed by at least one of the senses (for instance, chair, apple, Janet or atom). Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts (such as justice or hatred). While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun art, which usually refers to a concept (e.g., Art is an important element of human culture) but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts (e.g., I put my daughter's art up on the fridge).

Noun phrases

A noun phrase is a phrase based on a noun, pronoun, or other noun-like word (nominal) optionally accompanied by modifiers such as adjectives.

  1. Adjective

An adjective is a name for a word that describes a noun. Nouns are words that name a place, a person, a thing, or an idea. An adjective is a word that gives more information about the noun that goes with it (accompanies). In other words, adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or other substantive by limiting, qualifying, or specifying. It is distinguished in English morphologically by one of several suffixes, such as -able, -ous, -er, and -est, or syntactically by position directly preceding a noun or nominal phrase. Word Order. As a rule, in English, the adjective comes before the noun it describes. Sometimes an adjective is not followed by a noun, but it's still an adjective, because it is still describing the noun though they are not side by side.

Comparative and Superlative. Sometimes there are different forms of the same adjective. If one joke makes a person laugh more than another joke, then that joke is funnier. This is called the comparative form of the adjective. The day that is colder than any other is the coldest day. This is the superlative form of "cold". Some adjectives need additional words when we want to compare them. For instance, one car may be cheaper than another, but the second car may be more reliable. (We use "more reliable", instead of "reliabler".)

The rule is: For short adjectives ending in a consonant like cold, black, fast, one adds the suffix «er» to make a comparison of greater magnitude. The greatest possible comparison is made by adding the suffix est. For long adjectives like intelligent, conscientious, comprehensive, one uses the word more to make a comparison of greater magnitude. To make the greatest possible comparison one uses the word most.

Adjectives and adverbs. One can make adverbs from some adjectives by adding the suffix ly. Example: take the adjective 'beautiful', the adverb is beautifully. One can do it the other way around: take an adverb like 'presumably', the adjective is 'presumable' (assumable). The adjective 'guilty' becomes the adverb 'guiltily' and vice versa.

Many adjectives are derived from other words (especially nouns), and are easy to recognize by their suffixes. Some of the most common adjective suffixes are: -al (as in equal), -ous (as in famous), -ic (as in basic), -y (as in sleepy), -ful (as in beautiful and -less (as in hopeless)."

  1. Verbs

Verbs in the English language are a part of speech and typically describe an action, an event, or a state.

Forms. A regular English verb has only one principal part. This is the bare form, and is shown in dictionaries. For example, the bare form "exist" produces the forms existexists (third person singular present), existed (past tense and past participle), existing(present participle). Each of these can be used in a variety of grammatical contexts. Another class of verbs, strong verbs, have three principal parts. This gives a total of five forms (write, writes, wrote, written, writing).

Bare form is used in:

  • present tense for all persons and numbers other than the third person singular.

  • in the to-infinitive, which is one of two verbal nouns: To write is to learn.

  • as the complement of many auxiliary verbs:  I really ought to write it.

  • imperative mood: Write these words.

  • subjunctive mood: I demand that he be there.

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