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A state of superfluidity in an electron liquid would explain how Tesla was able to


a current through the earth. When in its commonly known state a current does not travel far through the earth's resistance, but if the current has undergone the proper phase change, it could easily travel with no resistance.

Likewise, a phase changed current would travel through a generator coil with no resistance. Having undergone the change it would become a super-current in a nonsuperconducting conductor. Such a condition would allow a generator to maintain a current without an external power source.

This particular solution, which of course has to be tested, of Tesla's self-sustaining generators, is not an explanation of all the other similar devices such as the Figuera, Hubbard and Herdershot devices [8]. There are probably as many engineering solutions to such generators as there are inventors of them.

One characteristic all the other devices have in common in contrast to Tesla's magnifying transformer, is that they did not require the high voltage and currents Tesla used. They do not, though, represent an engineering advancement over Tesla's engineering methods.

Tesla put his main efforts into high energy devices as a matter of mere practicality in marketing a product. A year after his Colorado Springs experiments, he wrote in his Century magazine article, 1900, that he had spent a great deal of time on a smaller generator but realized that negative market pressures would not allow such a machine to see the commercial light of day [9]. And he was right; it is not possible yet to by a Hubbard or a Hendershot generator to light our homes.

Tesla believed he had a greater chance for introducing a new electrical technology if it made use of the generators then being sold, but which used their output in novel ways — which is why he concentrated on the wireless power transmission project, though even that idea proved too much for his time.

A careful study of his later writings shows that many of his more advanced concepts were based on earlier work with lower voltage versions of generators capable of maintaining a super-current. These designs appear to be based on intricate configurations of coil geometries. The peak of this line of research might have been just before the fire of his New York City laboratory in which, many of his prototypes and papers were lost. The task of uncovering the precise nature of these designs becomes very complex, because after the fire, Tesla spoke of his more advanced work only obliquely and never in detail.

Recovering these earlier designs would bring about the second stage of electrical technology - one that Nikola Tesla started, here, a century ago.


1. There have been several such paradigm changes in western ideas about nature. Theories alternate between a one substance universe out of which everything is made and a many substance universe in which the constituent particles are separated by a vacuum.

2.Robert Fludd, Mosaical Philosophy. London, Humphrey Moseley, 1659, p. 221.

3.Fludd, p. 221

4.U.S. Patent #1,119,732 of December 1, 1914; application filed January 18,1902.


5. Nikola Tesla, Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900. Beograd: Nolit. 1978, p.43.

6. Andrija Puharich, "The Physics of the Tesla Magnifying Transmitter and the Transmission of Electrical Power without Wires". Planetary Association of Clean Energy,

Ottawa, Ontario, 1976).

7.Nikola Tesla, quoted in the NY Herald Tribune, Sept 22, 1929, pg. 21.

8.C. Bird and O. Nichelson, "Nikola Tesla, Great Scientist, Forgotten Genius", New Age, Feb. 1977. p. 41.

9.Nikola Tesla, "On the Problems of Increasing Human Energy", in Nikola Tesla, Lectures, Patents, Articles, Biograd, Nikola Tesla Museum, 1956, p. A-143. (Also in Century,

June, 1900-Ed. note)

10. Coram, James & Kenneth, "Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and Applications of Single Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for Power Processing, Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons," Proc. Inter. Tesla Symposium, 1986, p.7-21

Oliver Nichelson can be reached at 670 W 980 N, Provo, UT 84604





2. Force-free fields. Consider the Lust and Schlueter expression for



force-free fields with cylindrical symmetry (i.e. axial






a) For the constant twist field, that we covered in class, derive an



expression for alpha, the ratio between current and magnetic field






b) The magnetic field vector is tangent to the magnetic


line at

any point. Hence the tangent vector satisfies



which is the field line equation. From the solution for a constant



twist field derive the number of turns in the fieldlines on an axial



segment of length L.






c)Now assume alpha is constant and


that to

simplify the



Schluter differential equation to






sketch the solutions for B_z and B_phi.






Robert W. Bass is a physicist working for an aerospace firm and can be reached at 45960 Indian Way #612, Lexington Park, MD 20653, donquixote@radix.net





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