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1.Dynamics of English vocabulary English language can be regarded as a closed system that is complete, static and unchangeable. But English is being used by great number people and this process is endless. Language can’t help changes. The first to study such changes in the language was W.Mathesius, who observe the lengths of English vovels. 1 different people pronounce the same vowels with different length 2. the same vowels have different length in different words 3. the same people can pronounce the same vowels in the same words with different length. Language system is not rigid. It is not unchangeable. It allows certain variations of fluctuations. Numerous linguistic studies show that such changes occur in different levels of language and on the synchronic level.The most vivid examples of the dynamic character of language are supplied by the productive patterns of word formations in any language according to which new words are immediately built when necessary.

2. Semantic, pragmatic and syntactic treatment of the sign. Semiotics.  Semiology (seme –sign, logos – science) is the general theory of signs. It studies how signs of natural and artificial languages functions in human society. One of the founders of this science Charles Morris introduced the following division of semiotics: or syntax, pragmatics.Semantics is the study of relations of signs to reality.Syntactics is the study of relations between signs e.g. combination of different pansof speech (adverb combinations with a verb, but not with a noun). Pragmatics is the study between signs and their users. This division proceeds not from the material investigations, but from various types or relations. Pragmatics takes into a count circumstances or communication and speaker’s personalities. In the level of words and phrases one should differentiate between internal and external pragmatics Internal PR. – it’s a part of the language system and is preserved in all communicative situations (it is called systemic). External PR it depends on a particular speaker and situation it is connected with the subjective interpretation of the word.Communication and speaker’s personalities.

4 Asymmetric duality of the linguistic sign as the linguistic sign as the linguistic cause and conditions for its dynamic. Asymmetric duality of the linguistic sign is the ability of the signifier to be associated with more than one signified, and the ability of the signified to be associated with more than one signifier. #Dollar, buck, fish, dough #Fish - an animal which lives water or the flesh of a fish when used as food (a cold/odd/queer fish) Arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is the fundamental property of the linguistic sign. It is the absence of any connection between the signifier (form) and the signified (meaning). We constantly transfer names from one object to another because the number of linguistic signs is limited, while reality has no limits. It was F. de Soussure who first paid attention to the fundamental importance of the abiterness of the linguistic sign for linguistic theory

5. Semiotic triangle

Ogden & Richard's (1923) famous triangle of meaning implies that the referent of an expression (a word or another sign or symbol) is relative to different language users: With the terminology of Peirce: "A sign, or representamen, is something which stands to somebody for something in some respect or capacity. It addresses somebody, that is, creates in the mind of that person an equivalent sign, or perhaps a more developed sign. That sign which it creates I call theinterpretant of the first sign. The sign stands for something, its object [or referent]. It stands for that object, not in all respects, but in reference to a sort of idea, which I have sometimes called the ground of the representamen." (Peirce, 1931-1958, 2, 228).

6. Nomination Nom. Is naming things and phenomena. Act of nomination is a speech-cognitive process of choosing a ready name for the thing from the available linguistic units or coining a new name for it. 2 types of nom. 1)Primary nomination takes place when the referent is nominated directly and the meaning of the linguistic unit can be understood without the of context, in (mouth “a part of a head”)  2) Secondary nom. Is the use of existing linguistic units in a new function, with a new meaning (the mouth of river, the mouth of a cave)

7. Morheme

The smallest linguistic unit within a word that can carry a meaning, such as "un-", "break", and "-able" in the word "unbreakable".

morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning. In spoken language, morphemes are composed of phonemes (the smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound), and in written language morphemes are composed of graphemes (the smallest units of written language). Types of morphemes.Free morphemes like town, and dog can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, i.e. "free". Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word.Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness." They carry semantic information. Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on, without deriving a new word or a word in a new grammatical category (as in the "dog" morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme "-s" becomes "dogs"). They carry grammatical information.Semi-bound is the m witch stands between a root and affix . a s-b m can function as an affix , prefix. Suffix, and at the same time as an independent full-meaning w ill-bred waterproof

8.Morphemic analysis is the analysis limited to starting the number and the types of morphemes that make up a w. EG uncheerfull may be analysed into 3 m-s the root CHEER the prefix UN and the suffix FUL. Morphemic an established the m-s that make up a w. , regardless of their role in the formation of this w. in other w-s, m-as only defines the morphemes(their number and types) comprising a w, but does not reveal their hierarchy.

In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word. Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word's meaning. The line between word formation and semantic change is sometimes a bit blurry; what one person views as a new use of an old word, another person might view as a new word derived from an old one and identical to it in form; "see" Conversion (linguistics). Word formation can also be contrasted with the formation of idiomatic expressions, though sometimes words can form.

9. Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of  speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation. Compounding or composition is the word formation that creates compound lexemes Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting together old words. In other words, compound, compounding or word-compounding occurs when a person attaches two or more words together to make them one word. The meanings of the words interrelate in such a way that a new meaning comes out which is very different from the meanings of the words in isolation.  conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation; specifically, it is the creation of a word from an existing word without any change in form. Conversion is more productive in some languages than in others; in English, it is a fairly productive process.

10. n linguistics, conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation; specifically, it is the creation of a word from an existing word without any change in form. Conversion is moreproductive in some languages than in others; in English, it is a fairly productive process.Often a word of one lexical category (part of speech) is converted to a word of another lexical category; for example, the noun green in golf (referring to a putting-green) is derived ultimately from theadjective green. Conversions from adjectives to nouns and vice versa are both very common and unnotable in English; much more remarked upon is verbing, the creation of a verb by converting a noun or other word (e.g., the adjective clean becomes the verb to clean).The boundary between conversion and functional shift (the extension of an existing word to take on a new syntactic function) is not well-defined.

11,12 Compound words are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a

sentence as a separate lexical unit.Compound words proper are formed by joining together stems of words already available in the language. Derivational compound is a word formed by a simultaneous process of

composition and derivation. Derivational compound is formed by composing a new stem that does not exist outside this pattern and to which suffix is added. The great variety of compound types brings about a great variety of

classifications. Compound words may be classified according to the type of

composition and the linking element; according to the part of speech to which the compound belongs; and within each part of speech

according to the structural pattern. It is also

possible to subdivide compounds according to other characteristics, i.e. semantically, into motivated and idiomatic compounds (in the motivated ones the meaning of the constituents can be either direct or figurative).

The classification according to the type of composition 1)The predominant type is a mere juxtaposition without connecting elements:

heartache n, heart-beat n, heart-break n, heart-breaking 2)Composition with a vowel or a consonant as a linking element. The examples

are very few: electromotive a, speedometer n, Afro-Asian a, handicraft n,

3)Compounds with linking elements represented by preposition or conjunction stems: down-and-out n, matter-of-fact a, son-in-law n, pepper-and-salt a,

The classification of compounds according to the structure of immediate constituents

1) compounds consisting of simple stems: film-star;2)compounds where at least one of the constituents is a derived stem: chain-smoker;3)compounds where at least one of the constituents is a clipped stem: maths-mistress (in British English) and math-mistress (in American English). 4)compounds where at least one of the constituents is a compound stem:


13. Shortening is the process of subtracting phonemes and/or morphemes of words and word-groups without changing their lex-gram m-g.

Graphical abbreviation is the result of sh-g of words only in written speech,while orally the corresponding full form use. They are signs representing words and word-groups of high frequency of occurrence in various spheres of human activity(RD-road; St-street;tu-tube;i.e.-that is)

Lexical Abbreviations is the process of shortening the result of which is a word made up of the initial letters or syllables of the components of a word-group or a compound word. There are 2 types of abbr: 1)alphabetic(initial) abbr. are read as a succession of alphabetical readings of the constituent letters(R.C. red cross; RR railroad; MTV music television;VCR video-cassette recorder)

2) acronyms are read as a succession of sounds denoted by the constituent letters, i.e. as if they were ordinary words(AIDS, UNESCO, TESOL-teachers of eng. To speakers of other lang., ADAPTS-air deliverable antipollution transfer system)

14. Shortening is the process of subtracting phonemes and/or morphemes of words and word-groups without changing their lex-gr m-g.

Clipping is the process of cutting off one or several syllables of a word. In many cases the stressed syllables is preserved(sis/ter; doc/tor; Alf/red; Ed/ ward). Sometimes the unstressed syl-s that remains (phone/telephone; plane/airplane). Types:

1.apocope – final cl-g(ad/advertisement)

2.aphaeresis-initial cl-g(car/motor-car; Bella/ Isabella;varsity/university)

3.syncope- medial cl-g(maths/mathematics;comms/ communications; mart/market)

4.fore0and-aft- initial and final cl-g(flu/influenza; Liza/ Elizabeth;frig/refrigerator)

Clipped words are characteristic of colloquial speech. It is very natural process which begin early in human life. Child-pa, ma, sis. Student – trig/ onometry, lab, fac.

15. Shortening is the process of subtracting phonemes and/or morphemes of words and word-groups without changing their lex-gr m-g.

Blending(telescoped word) is a process of merging parts of words into one new word. It is a word that combines parts of 2 words and includes the letters or/and sounds they may have in common as a connecting element(smo/ke+f/og=smog; motor hotel-motel). The result of bl-g is an unanalysable, simple word, for the parts of words blended by the word coiner are not morphemes at all in terms of En. Language. Therefore a blend is perceived as a simple word unless speakers have received the extra-linguistic inf-n about its composition.

Many blends are short-lived. A fair proportion have become established in the vocabulary(clash=clap+ crap; flush=flash+blush;slanguage;smaze).

Additive blend is a blend which is transformable into a phrase consisting of the respective complete stems combined by the conjunction and. The components may be synonymous, members of the same lex-gr class of words (brunch; fantabulous)

Restrictive blend is a blend which is transformable into an attributive phrase where the first component serves as a modifier of the second (spiced ham=spam; detectifiction)

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