Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
int. com. for mobile.doc
Скачиваний:
0
Добавлен:
18.12.2018
Размер:
324.61 Кб
Скачать

Cultural dimension of Greet Hofstede and Fons Tropenaars

HOFSTEDE:

  • the main cultural differences among relations lie in values

POWER DISTANCE

SMALL POWER DISTANCE

  • Inequities among people should be minimized

  • Hierarchy in organizations means an inequity of roles

  • Decentralisation is popular

  • Narrow salary range between top and bottom of organization

  • Subordinates expect to be consulted

  • The ideal boss is a resourceful democrat

  • Privileges and status symbols are forward upon

  • Austria, Israel, GB, Germany, Scandinavian countries

LARGE POWER DISTANCE

  • Inequities among people are expected and desired

  • Less powerful people should be dependent

  • Centralisation is popular

  • Wide salary range

  • Subordinates expect to be told what to do

  • The ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat or good father

  • Privileges and status symbols are expected and popular

  • France, LA, Belgium, Third World Countries

Large power distance

  • children are dependent

  • student-teacher inequity => the educational process is teacher centered, teachers are never publicly criticized or contradicted

  • organizations centralize power as much as possible in a few hands; subordinates expect to be told what to do; hierarchy

  • cultural privileges, status symbols

  • one party political system

Small power distance

  • children – treated as equals; encouraged to be independent

  • need for independence – major component of the mental software

  • teachers – treat students as equal and vice versa, educational process is student centered

  • organizations – decentralized; hierarchical pyramid – flat; small salary range

  • laws guarantee equal rights

  • revolutions – unpopular

  • scandals – end political carriers

Individualism X collectivism

Individualism

  • Everybody for him or herself

  • USA, GB, Germany

Collectivism

  • People should remain attached to tight groups

  • East Asian countries, Arab cultures

Individualism

  • societies in which ties between individuals are loose – everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her family

  • speaking one´s mind is virtue

  • children – encouraged to develop opinion; own pocket money

  • “guilt societies”

  • open discussions at schools

  • relation between an employer and employee – business transactions

Collectivism

  • people – strong, cohesive1 in groups

  • maintenance2 of harmony

  • direct confrontations => rude, undesirable

  • personal opinion doesn´t exist

  • shame society

  • large family – children, parents, uncles, aunts, servants

  • lifelong loyalty to one´s group

MASCULINITY X FEMININITY

MASCULINITY

  • Tough society

  • Dominant values: material success and progress

  • Money and things are important

  • People are supported to be assertive, ambitious and tough

  • Sympathy for the strong

  • Live in order to work

  • Resolution of conflicts by fighting them out

  • German, Japan, GB, USA

FEMININITY

  • Tender society

  • Dominant values: Earning for others

  • People and warm relationships are important

  • People are supported to be modest

  • Sympathy for the weak

  • Work in order to live

  • Resolution of conflicts by compromise

  • Scandinavian countries

Masculinity

  • Batman, Rambo

  • boys/girls learn to be ambitious, competitive

  • students – visible in class, compete openly with others

  • conflicts should be resolved by a good fight

  • manager – visible

  • taxation favours wealthy people

  • fights

Femininity

  • boys/girls learn to be nonambitious, modest

  • motto: just behave as everyone else

  • resolving conflicts by compromise

  • manager is less visible

  • taxation redistributes public wealth

  • compromise, negotiations

UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE

STRONG UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE

  • Uncertainty is a threat and must be fought

  • High stress

  • What is different is dangerous

  • Emotional need for rules

  • Suppression of deviant and new ideas

WEAK UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE

  • Uncertainty is a normal feature

  • Low stress

  • What s different is curious

  • Strict rules are not necessary

  • Tolerance of deviant and new ideas

Strong uncertainty

  • classification of what is dirty and dangerous are tight and absolute

  • plenty of taboos

  • teachers – should know all the answers; not supposed to say “I don´t know”

  • formal controlling rights and duties of employers and work process

  • rules are nonessential and dysfunctional => but satisfy people´s emotional need for a formal structure

  • negative feelings toward politics

LONG TERM X SHORT TERM ORIENTATION

LONG TERM ORIENTATION

  • Adaptation of traditions to a modern context

  • Thrift, being sparing with resources

  • Concern with respecting the demand of

  • Virtue

  • East Asian countries

SHORT TERM ORIENTATION

  • Respect for traditions

  • Social pressure “to keep up with the Joneses” even if it means overspending

  • Concern with processing the Truth

  • Anglo-Saxon countries

TROPENAARS:

Culture =

  • the way in which a group of people solves problems and reconciles dilemmas

  • every culture – different way of solving these problems:

  1. those which arise from our relationship with other people

  2. those which come from the passage of time

  3. those which relate to the environment

  • defined seven basic cultural dimensions

Relations with people

UNIVERSALISM vs. PARTICULARISM

Universalists

  • rule-based behaviour

  • fear that once you start to make expectations for illegal conduct, the system will collapse

  • “What is good and right can be defined and always applies”

  • US, Australia, Germany, UK

  • focus is more on rules than on relationships

  • procedures and contracts adhered to very closely

Particularist

  • friendship – 1st place

  • focus on exceptional nature of present circumstances

INDIVDUALISM vs. COMMUNITARIANISM

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]