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5. Составьте словосочетания, используя слова из обеих колонок.

  1. to grant a. protection for works

  2. works b. federal statue

  3. to provide c. a copyright symbol

  4. to place d. intellectual

  5. to be governed by e. exclusive right

PATENT LAW

The law of patents embraces the subject matter of products and processes. To be eligible for protection an invention must be useful and novel. Before a patent is issued by the Patent and Trademark Office, the invention must be determined by an examiner, after detailed search of prior art, to satisfy the statutory conditions.

As defined by the U.S. International Trade Commission, a patent is "a grant issued by a national government conferring the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention within the national territory". The U.S. patent law protects an invention or a new discovery for twenty years from the date the patent is granted. A patent may be granted for a product, a design, or a process of making a product. Patents are granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office located in Washington, D.C. Once a patent is granted, any use of the rights secured by the patent without permission from the inventor will constitute an infringement for which damages may be recovered.

Example: Mr. Inventor creates a device* that can send people back in time. Since no one has ever created such a device, Mr. Inventor wants to protect his invention from being copied Mr. Inventor patents his new invention which will now prohibit others from copying and marketing the invention without his permission. However, Mr. Copier makes and sells the exact invention patented by Mr. Inventor. Mr. Inventor may now sue Mr. Copier for patent infringement and recover damages, or Mr. Inventor may seek an injunction. If Mr. Copier makes the product abroad and attempts to import it into the United States, Mr. Inventor may pursue an exclusion action before the U.S. International Trade Commission to keep the product out of the United States.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 1/ Original creative works that have economic value and are protected by law. Intellectual property laws reward the creators of original works by preventing others from, copying, performing or distributing those works without permission. They also provide incentives for people to produce scientific and creative works that benefit society at large. Some types of intellectual property are automatically protected by law from the moment of their creation. Other types, require a specific grant of rights from a government agency before they may be protected by law. Nearly all nations have laws protecting intellectual property. However, some nations do not vigorously enforce intellectual property laws, making counterfeiting a major problem in these areas.

1. Найдите в тексте следующие глаголы и образуйте словосочетания с приведёнными ниже словами.

1. Быть защищенным; 2. предотвращать; 3. копировать; 4. распределять; 5. производить; 6. обеспечивать;

a. intellectual property; b. original creative works; c. others from coping; d. scientific and creative works; e. intellectual property laws; f. by law.

2. Образуйте различные части речи от следующих глаголов.

То create, to value, to protect, to prevent, to produce, to require, to enforce

3. Соотнесите слова в левой колонке с их определениями в правой.

  1. value a. to hand, give or send out

  2. to distribute b. ownership, possessions

  3. incentives c. requiring the use of the intellect

  4. property d. that which rouses a person to action

  5. intellectual e. worth

\/c

COPYRIGHT

Copyright is the body of law that deals with the ownership and use of works of literature, music and art. The basic purpose of copyright is to enrich our society's wealth of culture and information. The means for doing so is to grant exclusive rights in the exploitation and marketing of a work as an incentive to those who create it.

Copyright law protects original works of authorship which are written down or recorded. The U.S. International Trade Commission has defines "copyright" as "a form of protection provided by" a national government to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works". As with other types of policies for intellectual property, the fundamental policy of copyright law is to provide protection for works so that they can be distributed in the public domain. In the United States, the copyright protection lasts for the life of the author, plus fifty years. Copyright protection applies to: literary works, plays, computer programs, and other kinds of works of authorship. The owner of a copyright may place a copyright symbol on the work as a warning to others that the work is protected. The symbol consists of the letter "C" with a circle around it: ©. Following the creation of the Copyright Act of 1976, most copyright law in the United States is governed by federaf statute. If copyright is violated, the owner of the right may seek damages for the copyright infringement.

Example: Mrs. Author writes an original play and composes original music for the play. She applies for two copyrights. One for her play, and one for the music that she created for her play. She now has two copyrighted works which are protected.

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