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1What is lexicology?

It’s a branch of linguistics? A science of language. The term of lexicology is composed of two grille morphemes: Lexic, meaning word, phrase and Logus, which denotes learning, a development of knowledge. The literal meaning is the science of the word. Lexicology has its own aims and methods of scientific research. It’s basic task – being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development, and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word’s groups, parasitological units and morphemes which make up words. Lexicology is developed into types:

General (a part of general linguistics, the study of vocabulary irrespective of the particularly language and its features). Special (the study of a particularly language – f.e English)

Lexic. is closely connected of other branches of linguistics – stylistics (The study of the nature functions and structure of stylistics devices. ) and linguo-stylistics (The investigation of each style of language, its structure and characteristic features). Phonetics investigates the phonetic structure of the system of phonemes, intonation patterns, pitch melody (высота). Another branch of linguistics – grammar – the study of grammatical structure of language.

Lexicology also deals with the main principles of classifying vocabulary units into various groups and also with different ways of replenishing of English voc with new voc units relations existing between different lexical layers and the specific laws governing its development at present time.

2.The meaning of the word.

Word meaning in syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations define the meaning the word possesses when it’s used in combination of other words, in speech or an utterance: get-got. He got tired. He got a letter. He gor to London. He could not get the piano through the door. Paradigmatic relations define the word meaning through its interrelation with other members of the paradigm. To get-to receive – to obtain. But he got the letter – he obtained the letter.

We see that the word can be substituted. The lexical meaning would change from informal to formal style. The distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations can conventionally been illustrated by horizontal (syntagmatic) and vertical lines (paradigmatic). She obtained an epistle – I received a note – he got a letter.

Generally speaking meaning can be described as a component of the word through which the concept is communicated. In this way enduring the word with the ability of denoting, real objects, qualities, actions and abstract notions. The complex relationships between referent, concept and word are traditionally represented by the following triangle. Concept – symbol (word) – referent (object).

The total link suggests there is no immediate relation between word and referent. It is established only through the concept. The meaning of the word is studied on two levels: paradigmatic and syntagmatic. On a paradigmatic level the word is studied in its relationships with other words in a voc system. It may be studied with comparisons of other words of similar meaning (to look – to stare), of opposite meaning (antonomy – to except – to reject, busy – idle). Words of different stylistic characteristics (man-fellow-guy). The main problems of paradigmatic studies are synonymy, antonimy and different functional styles. On the syntagmatic level the semantic structure of the word is analyzed through its lineal relationships with neighboutring words In the utterance (предложение, высказывание).

The modern approach to semantics is based on an assumption that the ino-form of the words presents a structure which is termed denotative(обозначающий) structure (denotational component) – to glare – to look – to glance. Connotational (смысловой) component of the word is a motive or evaluative (оценочный) (emotive it can also be a cause) . The denotational component makes communication possible, the connotational component comprises (вкл) the stylistic reference and emotive charge.

3. The stylistic classification of an English voc. Speaking of stylistic characteristics of the word we mean stylistic coloring and emotive change. In other word we mean the functional style, the meaning of the word represents. The term functional style is generally accepted in modern linguistic by Professor Arnold as a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication. By the sphere of communication we mean the circumstances attending the process of speech in this or that particular case. F.e. professional communication (business, presentation, lecture, a formal or informal letter (talk), negotiations). All the circumstances and situations can be classified into 2 types: 1. Formal 2. Informal (is used in once immediate circle: family relatives, friends) It is relaxed, free, familiar, unpretentious, easy. The ignorant talk of well—educated people differs from that of illiterate or semi-educated people. The choice of words is also different: teenagers – adults, teachers-students, city dwellers – villagers. It is determent in each particular case not only by formal or informal situation but also be speakers’ educational, cultural background, age group, occupational or regional characteristics. The first stratum, informal style 1. Colloquial words (the sphere of communication is lagre): snack (col) – meal (neut). Hi, hello – informal greetings. To have a crush on smb. Shorten words: exam, fridge, flu – influence. Literary colloquial words are distinguished from familiar colloquial words and low colloquial words. Low colloquialisms are defined as characteristics of speech of persons who may be broadly described as uncultivated. These words are belonged to illiterance language and don’t present much interest. The example of familiar colloquial words are: doc – doctor, shut up – keep silent, goings on – stand for behavior – похождение. They are usually used with a negative connotation. They closely verge on slang (граничат) and have sth of its coarse flavor (грубый привкус). 2. slang words. The Oxford English dictionary defines slang as language of highly colloquial style, considered as below the level of standard-educated speech and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense. This definition is inadequate because it equates slang with colloquial style. All or most slang words are current words whose meanings have been metaphorically shifted. Each slang metaphor is routed in a joke but not in a kind or amusing joke but a joke with a coarse mocking, cynical coloring. Why do people use slang? To be pictureaque, arresting, striking, different from others. To avoid the old-fashion hackneyed (банальный) common words. To demonctrate once spiritual independence. To sound modern, cool, up-to-date. The circle of users clang is narrower than that of colloquial words: mug - face, trap – mouth, saucers, blinkers – eyes, dogs – feet. The circle of users: teenagers, college students, professional people. 3. Dialect words. The Fowler’s dictionary defines a dialect as a variety of the language which prevails in a district with local peculiarities of voc, pronunciation and phrase. Thus dialects are regional forms of English. Dialectical peculiarities are constantly being incorporated into everyday colloquial speech or slang from these levels they can be transferred into common stock: car, trolley, tram – they began as dialect words. Formal style. 1. Learned words. They are mainly associates with a printed page. The term “learned” isn’t precise, it includes several deter genius subdivisions of words. The out-of-date term is bookish. That’s why learned words can be found in fiction both emotive prose and poetry. They can be also found in other functional styles (scientific style, newspaper style,

Publicistic). Though learned words are mainly associated with a printed page, they are used in everyday speech, professional communication, official letters. On the other hand excessive use of learned words may sound ridiculous and produce a comic effect. F.e. Bernard Show - “Pegmalion” – Will it rain do you think, the shallow depression, any barometrical change. 2. Archaic and obsolete (старомодный) words. They stand close to “learned words” particularly to the modes of poetic diction. They are also associated with a printed page. But archaic words can’t be used in conversational situations. The border line between obsolete and archaic is vague and uncertain. Some authors se the term “obsolete” for words which have complicity gone out of use. Another term is “historisms” . these are words denoting objects, phenomenon which are things of the past and no longer exist. Shakespeare is famous for historisms. 3. Professional terminology. These are words may belong to special, scientific, professional or trade terminological systems and are not used or even understood by people outside the particular occupation or speciality. Stylistically neutral words. Belong to the basic voc. They are used in all kinds of situations (formal, informal, verbal, written). Used by everybody. The central – the bulk of voc, it’s historical foundation and a living core. The neutral voc stylistically marked words are closely intolerated: basic – begin, continue, end, baby; informal – start, go on, finish, kid; formal – commence, proceed, terminate, infant.

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