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Education in Britain

In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old.

In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Then children go to the Secondary School.

When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects in order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) or "O level" (Ordinary level). After that students can either leave school and start working or continue their studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college.

Some parents choose private schools for their children. They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities.

In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree.   

Образование в Британии

В Англии и Уэльсе обязательное обучение в школе начинается с пяти лет, но до этого возраста дети могут ходить в детский сад, также называемый игровой школой. Обучение в школе обязательно до достижения детьми возраста 16 лет.

В первичной школе и начальной школе дети учатся читать и писать, а также основам арифметики. В старших классах первичной школы (или в средней школе) дети учат географию, историю, религию и, в некоторых школах, иностранный язык. После этого дети переходят в среднюю школу.

Когда ученики достигают шестнадцатилетнего возраста, они могут сдавать экзамены по различным предметам для получения квалификации. Квалификация может быть как образца О.С.С.О. (Основное свидетельство о среднем образовании), так и обыкновенного уровня. После этого учащиеся могут покинуть школу и устроиться на работу или продолжить образование в той же школе. Если они продолжат обучение, то, когда им исполнится 18 лет, они должны будут сдавать следующие экзамены, которые необходимы для поступления в университет или колледж.

Некоторые родители выбирают для своих детей частные школы. Они очень дорогие, но считается, что образование в них дается на более высоком уровне и имеются предпосылки для получения хорошей работы.

В Англии 47 университетов, включая Открытый университет, обучение в котором производится по телевидению и радио, около 400 колледжей и высших учебных заведений. Старейшие университеты Англии — Оксфорд и Кембридж. Главным образом, в университетах присваиваются два типа степеней: степени бакалавра и магистра.

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist. He was one of the most influential of theclassical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and James Mill.[2][3] Perhaps his most important legacy is his theory of comparative advantage, which suggests that a nation should concentrate its resources solely in industries where it is mostinternationally competitive and trade with other countries to obtain products no longer produced nationally. In essence, Ricardo promoted the idea of extreme industry specialization by nations, to the point of dismantling internationally competitive and otherwise profitable industries. Ricardo took as a given the existence of a national industry policy aimed at promoting some industries to the detriment of others. For Ricardo some form of Central Economic Planning was a necessity. Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage has been challenged by, among others, Joan Robinson and Piero Sraffa, but remains the cornerstone of the argument in favour of international free trade. Comparative Advantage was the theoretical forerunner of the push towards globalization via increased international trade which is the guiding theme in the economic policy programme currently promoted by the OECD and theWorld Trade Organization, where it is assumed that increased international trade will lead to economic prosperity. The results of the implementation of this type of policy agenda are increasingly controversial. Although his influence on economics has been considerable Ricardo actually began his professional life as a broker and financial market speculator. He amassed a considerable personal fortune, largely from financial market manipulation. Once retired he bought a seat in the U.K. Parliament. He held his parliamentary seat for the last four years of his life. Ricardo died at the age of 51.

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and key Scottish Enlightenment figure.[1]

Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the "father of modern economics" and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today.[2]

Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot, John Snell. After graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures atEdinburgh, leading him to collaborate with David Hume during the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow teaching moral philosophy, and during this time he wrote and published The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In his later life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met other intellectual leaders of his day.

Smith laid the foundations of classical free market economic theory. The Wealth of Nations was a precursor to the modern academic discipline of economics. In this and other works, he expounded upon how rational self-interest and competition can lead to economic prosperity. Smith was controversial in his own day and his general approach and writing style were often satirised by Tory writers in the moralising tradition of William Hogarth and Jonathan Swift. In 2005, The Wealth of Nations was named among the 100 Best Scottish Books of all time.[3] It is said former UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher carried a copy of the book in her handbag.

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