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Classification of kidney cancer in stages:

T1 - tumor to 2.5 cm, limited to kidney

T2 - Tumor more than 2.5 cm, limited to kidney

T3 - Tumor extends into major veins or adrenal gland or surrounding renal tissue

T4 - Tumor extends beyond the fascia Herota

N1 - metastasis in one liter / node to 2 cm

N2 - Metastasis in one or in several l / nodes to 5 cm

N3 - Metastasis in l / node more than 5 cm

M0 - no metastasis

M1 - there are distant metastases

Clinic. Complaints of fever, pain, intoxication, bleeding due to the collapse of the tumor, anemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the appearance of varicocele obturation renal and inferior vena cava.

Diagnosis: pronounced symptom, which is typical of late stage - anemia, increased ESR, hematuria, symptom Shtauffera (hypoalbuminemia, hipohlobulinemiya, pidvyshennya blood levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the urine).

Plain radiography, excretory urography and retrograde pyelography, arteriovenohrafiya.

Pathognomonic signs arteriohrafichnymy hipernefromy is chaotic accumulation of contrast in the region of the kidneys, which looks like "lakes and puddles."

Differential diagnosis of tumors of the kidney is from a cyst and polycystic hydronephrosis, abscess, tuberculosis and anthrax retroperitoneal tumors and kidney.

Treatment: Radical nephrectomy is the main treatment. Appointed 5-fluorouracil, anti-estrogens (tamoxifen, zitazonium) Radiation therapy is not effective. Life is not operated patients 3 years after surgical treatment of 1 - to several years.

Nefroblastoma - Wilms' tumor - it is 30% morbidity in children, usually from 2 to 5 years. Treated it complex - surgical nephrectomy, cyto static treatment.

Malignant n uhlyny bladder is about 4% in the structure of bladder tumors.

Benign - papilloma, fibroma, uterine, leiomyoma treated surgically.

Causes of bladder cancer: chemical carcinogens: sentytychni dyes alpha - nafatalamin beta - naftalamin, benzidine in - aminodefenil. Most cancer arises from the production of aniline dyes.

Often happens bladder cancer, which appears on the background of papillomas.

Perehidnoklitynnyy cancer looks Polyanica with ulceration, squamous cell carcinoma macroscopically similar plaques or limpet.

Adenokartsinoma (colloid carcinoma, mucosal cancer is rare).

Tumors of the ureter - a rare tumor of the urinary tract, which manifest themselves hematuria and symptoms subrenalnoyi obstruction, often chronic, as slow growth. The vast majority of malignant tumors and often only represent a transitional cell carcinoma (PAC). Squamous cell carcinoma occurs only rarely in chronic inflammation and infection.

Specific risk factors - abuse of analgesics, papillary necrosis and "Balkan" nephropathy. Smoking is a risk factor for PAC all bodies covered with urothelium.

Diagnosis is radiographic methods. On excretory urography revealed filling defect and signs of urodynamics (hydronephrosis, ureterohydronephrosis) of varying degrees of severity. Retrograde ureteropiyelohrafiya confirms the stability of defect filling. In doubtful cases the diagnosis clarifies ureteropiyeloskopiya biopsy. An essential aid in the differential diagnosis renthennehatyvnoho concrement and PACs ureter can do sonography and computed tomography "thin slices "of a pre-determined" area of interest ".

The standard treatment for PAC ureter with functionally complete contralateral kidney is nefrureterektomiya because PAC is uretelialnu disease "change fields", characterized by a tendency to polihronotropizmu (multiple recurrences in time and space).

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