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95 Referring to facts, the truth

Choose the best explanation in each case.

1If you say that a person is disinterested, you mean he or she

a)has lost interest in something.

b)is not interested in something.

c)has no personal bias when making a decision.

2Evidence is

a)information that might be produced in court to support a case.

b)a statement in court which does not require any proof.

c)something that is extremely obvious to everybody.

3We would use the word effectively

a)to say that a person really did something.

b)to describe an activity that produced good results.

c)like indeed, to add emphasis to what we say.

4If you verify something, you

a)confirm or show that it is true.

b)examine it closely.

c)consider it carefully.

5Curiosity refers to

a)the quality of wanting to know about people and things.

b)the strangeness of people and things.

c)a quality of being peculiar or exotic.

6Fantasy refers to

a)dreams that can't be realized.

b)the power to make the imagined seem real.

c)creations that are quite original.

7You could use the word logical to describe, for example,

a)a just or fair request for a rise in salary.

b)a sensible investment of money.

c)a well-argued case.

8A person who is interrogated is probably someone who

a)has been arrested by the police.

b)is applying for a job.

c)is being examined by a doctor.

9A rumour refers to

a)information that is passed around which may or may not be true.

b)the reputation of a person who is known to a lot of people.

c)the qualities that make up a person's character.

282

96 A campaign against litter

 

Read this text. If you find a mistake in a line, cross it out and suggest an alternative. If

there is no mistake, put a tick

The first two have been done for you.

Our local council is conducting an action

0

to reduce the amount of litter in our streets.

0

We are all being encouraged to pick

1 ............................

any rubbish we see laying in the street

2 .............................

and fetch it to the nearest litter bin.

3 .............................

If we see anyone drop litter in the street,

4 .............................

we're supposed to tell them to collect it.

5 .............................

Council workers regularly brush the streets

6 .............................

and collect rubbish from big green bins.

7 .............................

There are large posters everywhere which say:

8 .............................

'Do a good act today! Keep our streets

9 .............................

clear! Don't be a Jitterbug!'

 

10 .............................

Of course, it isn't easy to tell people

11 ..............................

what to do. A lot of people object to be

12 .............................

told to pick up their rubbishes.

 

13 ..............................

The problem is extremely bad out of

14 ..............................

fast food restaurants. Though these restaurants kindly

15 ..............................

supply large bins, a lot of people

 

16 .............................

neglect them and leave their litter in the street.

17 ..............................

The consumption of food at these places is

18 ..............................

very great, so it is difficult to control

19 ..............................

garbage disposition. Girl guides

 

20 .............................

and boy scouts have volunteered to make an example

21 .............................

to others. If these girls and boys see

22 ............................

anyone letting something to drop

 

23 .............................

they directly pick it up and then they speak

24 .............................

very politely to the person who dropped it.

25 .............................

'I think this belongs to you,' they say, handing it back.

26 .............................

Even the biggest litterbugs feel shy of themselves.

27 .............................

They usually redden and accept the litter.

28 .............................

They also accept to dispose of it properly

29 .............................

and immediately search the nearest rubbish bin.

30 .............................

The other day I saw a young mother with her little boy.

31 .............................

The boy picked up a dirty ice-cream carton and

32 .............................

his mother said, 'That's dirty! Throw it!'

33 .............................

A boy scout who was following them said,

34 .............................

'No. Give it to me. I'll put it in a bin for you.'

35 ............................

The young mother angered. 'I can do that myself,'

36 .............................

she said and she took the carton from the scout.

37 .............................

Then she decided to give a good example to her son.

38 .............................

'We must take place in this campaign, too!' she said.

39 .............................

She thanked the scout for being so genteel

40 ............................

and he thanked her, too. There's not doubt

41 .............................

the counsel's campaign is going to be a great success.

42 .............................

 

 

283

Technical terms

abstract noun: a noun that refers to a quality

or a concept, e.g. security. active: the form of the verb where the subject

is a person or thing doing the action: John made some coffee. adjective: a word that

describes a person,

thing or event: a tall man, a big room. adverb: a word or phrase that tells us how,

when, where, etc., something happens: He walked slowly towards me. adverb of

degree: words like altogether and

enough that answer the question To what extent?: The film was quite good. adverb

of duration: a word or phrase that

refers to a period of time: since July. adverb of frequency: a word or phrase like

always, every day that answers the question How often? adverb of manner:

words often ending in -ly

like carefully that answer the question

How?

affirmative: not negative: John lives here.

AmE: American English. apostrophe: a

mark (') used to show a

contraction {haven't) or possession (Tim's). article: the words a/an, which are indefinite:

a book, an envelope; or the, which is

definite: It's on the shelf. BrE: British English. causative: forms with have or

get which

show that we 'cause' someone else to do a service for us: / had my car serviced.

clause: a group of words, often part of a

sentence, containing a subject and a verb:

While she was at college, she wrote a novel. collective noun: a noun that

refers to a

group: a flock of sheep, an audience.

colloquial: very informal language of everyday speech: loo for lavatory.

common noun: a noun that is not the name

of a particular person, place or thing: a book, clothing, courage. comparative:

adjectives or adverbs formed

with -er: bigger, faster. compound

noun: a noun with two parts:

drinking water, a car key. concrete noun: a noun that refers to people

or things that have physical existence: a girl, a desk, an army. conditional: a clause,

often introduced by if.

If you miss the bus, take a taxi. conjunction: conjunctions are 'joining words'

like and, but, since, when. consonant: any letter (b, c, d) in the alphabet

except the vowels a, e, i, o, u. continuity verb: verbs like lie, live, rain,

which naturally express continuity: / live/I'm living in London.

countable noun: a noun we use with a/an (a book) and which has a plural (books).

direct object: what comes immediately after a transitive verb: He annoys me. double

genitive: the use of 's in a phrase

with of. a friend of my father's. dynamic

verb: a verb which can be used in progressive tenses: I'm reading. -ed form:

the form of a verb or adjective that

ends in -(e)d: annoyed, surprised. empty subject: usually, the pronoun it,

which doesn't refer to something in particular: It's hot today. figurative:

referring to an abstract rather than

literal meaning: She can't stomach him. (= has a strong feeling of dislike for)

formal style: speech or writing which is careful, correct and polite. full stop: a mark

(.) which is used to end a

sentence or show an abbreviation: etc. gender: the way nouns or pronouns may be

classified to show whether they are masculine, feminine or neuter: he is

masculine; she is feminine. gerund: a noun, formed from a verb, which

ends in -ing: I'm tired of waiting. gradable: usually applied to adjectives

which can be used with very/too and can have -er/-est forms: very big; bigger.

idiom: a phrase which does not have a literal

meaning: He hit the ceiling. (= became angry) imperative: the form of a verb we

use for

commands, warnings, etc.: Stand up!

indefinite pronoun: pronouns like anyone, everyone, someone which don't refer to

anyone in particular. indirect

question: one that follows a

reporting verb like ask: He asked (me) if I

was ready. indirect speech: the act of reporting what

someone else says: The boss told me/said

he was busy. infinitive: the basic form of a verb which

may be with or without to: to go, go. informal style: speech or writing used

among friends. -ing form: any word ending in -ing, which

may be part of a verb (I'm reading.), a

noun or gerund (Reading is taught early.) or an adjective (He told me a frightening

story.). intensifier: an adverb which stengthens (or

'intensifies') another word: very slowly, I

entirely agree. intransitive: this refers to a verb not

followed by an object: My head aches.

inversion: changing round the normal word order: Seldom have we received so many

complaints.

irregular: often applied to a plural noun

(children) or verb (go - went) which doesn't follow the usual pattern. jargon:

referring to words and/or phrases

used in special or technical ways. main verb: the verb in the most important

clause in a sentence. You always ring when I'm out. modal verb: modals are verbs like

can or

may which we use for giving or receiving

advice, permission, etc. negative: the opposite of affirmative:

anything that says or means 'no'. negative adverb: adverbs like never, seldom,

rarely, hardly ever. negative imperative: the imperative with

Don't: Don't forget what I told you. negative question: a question beginning with

a negative form like Can't or Don't: Can't

you wait a moment? noun: a word that tells us what someone or

something is called (a doctor, a book, fear, water); also the name of a person (John) or

a place (London). noun modifier: the first of two nouns in a

compound noun: car key, kitchen table.

noun phrase: a combination of words that includes a noun: the man next door.

object: usually a noun or pronoun that comes after a verb: Ask a question. participle: the

present -ing form of a verb

(waiting) or the past -ed form (seated): While waiting for a bus ...; Seated in the

back of a taxi, .... passive: the form of the verb where the

action is done to the subject: Our house has been decorated. past participle: the

third part of a verb: act -

acted -acted; be - was - been. person(s): grammatical persons: 1st: I/we;

2nd: you; 3rd: he, she, it, they. plural: more than one; plural noun: cats;

plural form of verb: they have. point of

time: exact time reference in the past: yesterday, this morning, etc.

possessive adjective: my, your, his, etc. possessive case: possession shown by 's/s': a

boy's jacket; a girls' school. possessive pronoun: mine, yours, his, etc. prefix: un-,

in-, over-, etc., added to an

adjective: uninterested, overdone. preposition: words like across, at, in, used

in front of nouns, etc., to show relationships: across the road.

prepositional phrase: a phrase introduced

by a preposition: in doubt, on time. present perfect tense: have been, have done,

have eaten, etc. present tense: simple present (/ eat); present

progressive (I'm eating).

progressive: a tense which shows that an action is or was in progress: He is eating.

He was eating. pronoun: a word like he or she that can be

used in place of a noun or noun phrase. proper noun: the name of a person or place,

spelt with a capital letter: John, London.

quantifier: a word or phrase like any, some,

(a) few which describes how many things

or how much of something. questionword: How?, or a word beginning

with Wh-: When?, Why?, etc.

reflexive pronoun: words like myself, yourself, himself, herself. reflexive verb: a

verb which can be followed

by a reflexive pronoun: enjoy yourself .

regular: anything that follows the same pattern as most other words in the same

class: regular plural: boys. relative

pronoun: words that refer to people

(who, whom, that) or things (which, that).

reporting verb: a verb like say or tell (me) which introduces indirect speech.

sentence: a complete unit of meaning, which

in writing begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. short response:

a short answer e.g. to a

question: Is he here? - Yes, he is. singular: the grammatical form that

describes one person or thing: a pen.

slang: very informal language which is not used in serious speech or writing. stative:

a verb that is not normally used in

the progressive: It belongs to me. subject: usually a noun or pronoun that goes

before a verb: Joe works, I work. superlative: an adjective or adverb formed

with -est: the quickest, or with most: the most interesting. tag: a short question after

a statement: He's

gone, hasn't he? or a short 'Yes/No'

answer: Yes, he has. (that)-clause: a clause introduced by (that)

used after a reporting verb: He said (that) he would be home late. transitive: this

refers to a verb that is always

followed by an object: / like it, I enjoyed the film. uncountable noun: a noun which

we don't

normally use after a/an and which doesn't

normally have a plural: sugar. verb: a word (love) or phrase (look at) which

describes a state or an action. verb of

perception: a stative verb that refers

to the senses: see, hear, etc. vowel: a, e, i,

o, u. word order: this refers to the order of words

in a normal English sentence: subject/verb/object/manner/place/time.

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